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Catastrophic torrential floods in Peru. stage

Authors: Durand Castro, David;

Catastrophic torrential floods in Peru. stage

Abstract

Dentro de la extraordinaria variedad de paisajes de la geografía peruana, se presentan áreas bajo condiciones climáticas caracterizadas por una notable estacionalidad de lluvias, propias de regiones denominadas semiáridas, en donde encontramos una estación seca centrada en invierno, seguida de una estación lluviosa de verano. Esta distribución del régimen pluviométrico seco en invierno determina una fuerte limitación para el desarrollo de la vida vegetal principalmente, la cual se reduce en el extremo deficitario de agua a una vegetación xerofítica propia de la regiones secas, mientras que en las zonas esteparias donde la cobertura vegetal protectora es escasa a nula, el terreno está más expuesto a las acciones de la erosión pluvial y el de la escorrentía superficial que es el origen de los procesos que generan los fenómenos torrenciales, llocllas o llapanas. Bajo estas condiciones climáticas, a los que hay que agregar las acciones humanas que favorecen la acción erosiva pluvial y el de la arroyada, como el sobrepastoreo, la quema de pastos, las prácticas agronómicas inadecuadas, etc., las cuales incrementan la eficacia de la acción pluvial y luego los de la arroyada, movilizando abundante material suelto y fino primero y posteriormente materiales más gruesos respectivamente. Se observa una eficacia notable de la puesta en carga de materiales especialmente durante los primeros aguaceros de la estación lluviosa. Una acción antrópica digna de mención se está dando en las zonas de bosque tropical del flanco oriental y la faja subandina, en donde la deforestación está generando casos de flujos torrenciales catastróficos como el ocurrido hace solo algunas semanas en la región de San Martín.

Within the extraordinary variety of landscapes of the Peruvian geography, there are areas under climatic conditions characterized by a marked seasonality of rainfall, typical of regions called semiarid, where we found a dry season centered on winter, followed by a summer rainy season. This distribution of the dry pattern rainfall in winter, determines a strong constraint on the development of plant life mainly, which is reduced in the water extreme deficit to a xerophytic vegetation typical of dry regions, while in areas where the coverage steppe protective vegetation is scarce to null, the field is more exposed to the actions of the rain erosion and surface runoff that is the origin of the processes that generate the phenomena torrential, llocllas or llapanas. Under these climatic conditions, to which must be added the human actions that favor the erosive action of rain and the “arroyada” as overgrazing, pasture burning, inappropriate agricultural practices, etc.. Which increase the effectiveness of the action of rain and then the arroyada, mobilizing abundant and fine loose material first and then thicker materials respectively. There is a remarkably effective commissioning cargo of materials especially during the first rains of the wet season. A remarkable anthropic action is taking place in tropical forest areas of the eastern flank and wide sub-andina belt, where deforestation are causing catastrophic torrential flow cases like the one just a few weeks ago in the region of San Martín.

Keywords

Flujos torrenciales, Torrential flows, llocllas o llapanas., llapanas or llocllas.

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    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average