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Fusion of Satellite Multispectral Images Based on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Data for the Investigation of Buried Concealed Archaeological Remains

Authors: Athos Agapiou; Vasiliki Lysandrou; Apostolos Sarris; Nikos Papadopoulos; Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis;

Fusion of Satellite Multispectral Images Based on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Data for the Investigation of Buried Concealed Archaeological Remains

Abstract

The paper investigates the superficial layers of an archaeological landscape based on the integration of various remote sensing techniques. It is well known in the literature that shallow depths may be rich in archeological remains, which generate different signal responses depending on the applied technique. In this study three main technologies are examined, namely ground-penetrating radar (GPR), ground spectroscopy, and multispectral satellite imagery. The study aims to propose a methodology to enhance optical remote sensing satellite images, intended for archaeological research, based on the integration of ground based and satellite datasets. For this task, a regression model between the ground spectroradiometer and GPR is established which is then projected to a high resolution sub-meter optical image. The overall methodology consists of nine steps. Beyond the acquirement of the in-situ measurements and their calibration (Steps 1–3), various regression models are examined for more than 70 different vegetation indices (Steps 4–5). The specific data analysis indicated that the red-edge position (REP) hyperspectral index was the most appropriate for developing a local fusion model between ground spectroscopy data and GPR datasets (Step 6), providing comparable results with the in situ GPR measurements (Step 7). Other vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), have also been examined, providing significant correlation between the two datasets (R = 0.50). The model is then projected to a high-resolution image over the area of interest (Step 8). The proposed methodology was evaluated with a series of field data collected from the Vésztő-Mágor Tell in the eastern part of Hungary. The results were compared with in situ magnetic gradiometry measurements, indicating common interpretation results. The results were also compatible with the preliminary archaeological investigations of the area (Step 9). The overall outcomes document that fusion models between various types of remote sensing datasets frequently used to support archaeological research can further expand the current capabilities and applications for the detection of buried archaeological remains.

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Cyprus
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Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Multispectral image Normalized Difference Vegetation Index law.invention law Radar Remote sensing Hyperspectral imaging Vegetation Archaeology Geography Spectroradiometer Remote sensing (archaeology) Ground-penetrating radar Cartography

Library of Congress Subject Headings: lcsh:QE1-996.5 lcsh:Geology

Keywords

fusion, GeoEye, Remote sensing archaeology, remote sensing archaeology, enhancement; fusion; ground spectroscopy; ground-penetrating radar (GPR); GeoEye; geophysics; remote sensing archaeology, Fusion, enhancement, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), geophysics, Enhancement, Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), ground spectroscopy, Geophysics, General Earth and Planetary Sciences, Earth and Related Environmental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Ground spectroscopy

12 references, page 1 of 2

J. Archaeol. Sci. 2011, 38, 1995-2002. [CrossRef] Giardino, J.M. A history of NASA remote sensing contributions to archaeology. J. Archaeol. Sci. 2011, 38, 9. Alexakis, A.; Sarris, A.; Astaras, T.; Albanakis, K. Integrated GIS, remote sensing and geomorphologic approaches for the reconstruction of the landscape habitation of Thessaly during the Neolithic period.

J. Archaeol. Sci. 2011, 38, 89-100. [CrossRef] 10. Banerjee, R.; Srivastava, K.P. Reconstruction of contested landscape: Detecting land cover transformation hosting cultural heritage sites from Central India using remote sensing. Land Use Policy 2013, 34, 193-203.

26. Aiazzi, B.; Baronti, S.; Lotti, F.; Selva, M. A comparison between global and context-adaptive pansharpening of multispectral images. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 2009, 6, 302-306. [CrossRef] 27. Garzelli, A. Pansharpening of Multispectral Images Based on Nonlocal Parameter Optimization. IEEE Trans. [OpenAIRE]

Geosci. Remote Sens. 2015, 53, 2096-2107. [CrossRef] 28. Agapiou, A.; Alexakis, D.D.; Sarris, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.G. Colour to grayscale pixels: Re-seeing grayscale archived aerial photographs and declassified satellite CORONA images based on image fusion techniques.

Archaeol. Prospect. 2016, 23, 231-241. [CrossRef] 29. Schaepman, E.M.; Ustin, L.S.; Plaza, J.A.; Painter, H.T.; Verrelst, J.; Liang, S. Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy-An assessment. Remote Sens. Environ. 2009, 113, S123-S137. [CrossRef] 30. Agapiou, A.; Alexakis, D.D.; Sarris, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.G. Evaluating the potentials of Sentinel-2 for archaeological perspective. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 2176-2194. [CrossRef] 31. Agapiou, A.; Sarris, A.; Papadopoulos, N.; Alexakis, D.D.; Hadjimitsis, D.G. 3D pseudo GPR sections based on NDVI values: Fusion of optical and active remote sensing techniques at the Vészto-Mágor tell, Hungary. In Archaeological Research in the Digital Age, Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Greek Chapter (CAA-GR), Rethymno Crete, Greece, 6-8 March 2014; Papadopoulos, C., Paliou, E., Chrysanthi, A., Kotoula, E., Sarris, A., Eds.; Institute for Mediterranean Studies-Foundation of Research and Technology (IMS-Forth): Rethymno, Greece, 2015.

32. Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.G.; Alexakis, D.D. Evaluation of broadband and narrowband vegetation indices for the identification of archaeological crop marks. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3892-3919. [CrossRef] 33. Hegedu˝ s, K. Vészto˝-Mágori-domb. In Magyarország Régészeti Topográfiája VI. Békés Megye Régészeti Topográfiája: A Szeghalmi Járás 1982 IV/1; Ecsedy, I., Kovács, L., Maráz, B., Torma, I., Eds.; Akadémiai Kiadó: Budapest, Hungary, 1982; pp. 184-185. (In Hungarian) 34. Heged u˝s, K.; Makkay, J. Vészto˝-Mágor: A Settlement of the Tisza Culture. In The Late Neolithic of the Tisza Region: A Survey of Recent Excavations and their Findings; Tálas, L., Raczky, P, Eds.; Szolnok County Museums: Budapest-Szolnok, Hungary, 1987; pp. 85-104. [OpenAIRE]

35. Makkay, J. Vészto˝-Mágor. Ásatás a szülo˝földön. Békés Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatósága, Békéscsaba. 2004.

Available online: http://mek.oszk.hu/07600/07616/07616.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2017).

36. Parkinson, W.A. Tribal boundaries: Stylistic variability and social boundary maintenance during the transition to the Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 2006, 25, 33-58. [CrossRef] 37. Juhász, I. A Csolt nemzetség monostora. In A középkori Dél-Alföld és Szer; Kollár, T., Ed.; pp. 281-304.

Available online: http://opac.regesta-imperii.de/lang_en/anzeige.php?sammelwerk=A+k%C3%B6z%C3% A9pkori+D%C3%A9l-Alf%C3%B6ld+%C3%A9s+Szer (accessed on 6 June 2017).

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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25
Top 10%
Average
Top 10%
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