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Master thesis . 2023
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The effect of fertilisation and crop on the nitrogen cycle based on microbial analysis and N2O emissions

Authors: Kuusemets, Laura;

The effect of fertilisation and crop on the nitrogen cycle based on microbial analysis and N2O emissions

Abstract

Master`s Thesis Environmental Governance and Adaptation to Climate Change Curriculum Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for crop growth production. The input of N in the form of fertilisers increases crop yield. On the other hand, agricultural nitrogen inputs can cause N leaching and the loss of N to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate whether and how different crop species and fertilisation norms affect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil microbiome using the closed chamber method and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. The study was done in the IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) experimental field. The crop species studied were barley, sorghum, and wheat. The fertiliser treatment is constituted of mineral N fertilisation and mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment. Three N fertiliser treatment norms were used: 0, 80 and 160 kg ha−1 . Samples were collected over seven months, from April 2022 to October 2022. qPCR was used to measure the abundance of bacterial and archaeal specific16S rRNA, nitrification (bacterial, archaeal and COMAMMOX amoA genes), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZI and nosZII genes) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; nrfA gene) marker genes from the soil samples. The results of this study indicate that different fertilisation rates influence N2O emissions and the highest N2O emissions are emitted from the highest N fertiliser treatment (160 kg ha−1). Crop species did not have a significant effect on N2O emissions. Sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment had slightly higher average N2O emissions compared to sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation without manure. The microbial analysis showed nitrification was the primary process resulting in N2O emissions. Lämmastik (N) on kriitilise tähtsusega toitaine taimekasvatuses. Lämmastiku lisamine väetisena tõstab põllukultuuride saagikust. Teisalt, lämmastiku lisamine võib kaasa tuua lämmastiku leostumise ja lämmastiku kaod atmosfääri, panustades globaalsesse kliima soojenemisse. Käesoleva uurimustöö põhieesmärk oli hinnata, kas ja kuidas erinevad põllukultuurid ja väetusnromid mõjutavad dilämmastikoksiidi (N2O) vooge ja mulla mikrobioomi kasutades staatilise pimekambri meetodit ja kvantitatiivset polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR). Uurimistöö tehti IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) katsepõllul. Uuritud põllukultuurid olid oder, sorgo ja nisu. Väetistöötlus koosnes väetamisest mineraalse lämmastikuga ja tahesõnnikuga kombineeritud mineraalväetamisest. Katses kasutati kolme erinevat mineraalväetise normi: 0, 80 ja 160 kg ha−1 N. Proove koguti seitsme kuu vältel aprillist oktoobrini aastal 2022. Mullaproovidest määrati bakterite ja arhede 16S rRNA, nitrifikatsiooni (bakterite, arhede ja COMAMMOX amoA geenid), denitrifikatsiooni (nirK, nirS, nosZI ja nosZII) ja dissimilatoorse nitraadi reduktsioon ammooniumiks (DNRA; nrfA geen) markergeenide arvukus reaal-aja polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR) meetodil. Töö tulemustest järeldus, et erinevad väetise normed mõjutasid N2O emissioonide kontsentratsiooni ja suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid suurima väetisenormiga lappidelt (160 kg ha−1). Põllukultuurid ei omanud statistiliselt olulist mõju N2O emissioonidele. Mineraalse lämmastiku ja sõnniku kooskasutamisel sorgo lapil olid keskmised N2O vood veidi suuremad võrreldes sorgo lappidega, kus kasutati vaid mineraalset lämmastikväetist. Mikrobioloogilised analüüsid näitasid, et suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid nitrifikatsiooni protsessist.

Country
Estonia
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Keywords

nitrous oxide emission, sustainable development, master thesis, microbiology, nitrogen cycle, magistritööd, resources conservation, natural resources, water resources, sustainability, agriculture, Green University (thesis is related to EMÜ Green University iniciative's aims)

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
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