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Routing metric to extend the lifetime of low-power and lossy networks

Authors: Pereira, Hermano;

Routing metric to extend the lifetime of low-power and lossy networks

Abstract

Conselho Nacional do Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) As Redes de Baixa Potência e com Perdas (LLNs, do inglês Low-power and Lossy Networks) ganharam destaque na comunidade científica devido ao paradigma tecnológico da Internet das Coisas (IoT, do inglês Internet of Things). A Força-Tarefa de Engenharia da Internet (IETF, do inglês Internet Engineering Task Force) que dedica esforços em propor novos padrões para a Internet, se refere às LLNs como redes que se integram à Internet, ou seja, que constituem a IoT. O encaminhamento e a entrega de pacotes em LLNs representam um desafio em termos de confiabilidade e eficiência energética. Para tanto, um protocolo de roteamento foi projetado pela IETF: o Protocolo de Roteamento para Redes de Baixa Potência e com Perdas (RPL, do inglês Routing Protocol for LLNs). Visando estabelecer caminhos estáveis sobre enlaces com perdas, o RPL considera os custos obtidos de métricas para a tomada de decisão de roteamento.Dentre as quais, a Contagem de Transmissão Esperada (ETX, do inglês Expected Transmission Count) é a métrica mais empregada, em razão da confiabilidade. Porém, os nós intermediários (em que se formam os gargalos) ainda são prejudicados devido a rápida exaustão das baterias, motivando, assim, uma investigação mais aprofundada em eficiência de roteamento. Nesses termos, buscou-se neste trabalho aumentar o tempo de operação desses nós, partindo da hipótese de que o consumo estimado de energia da interface de rede, convertido para custo de métrica, poderia estender o tempo de vida das LLNs e aumentar a entrega de pacotes. Esses objetivos foram alcançados com diversos experimentos realizados em diferentes cenários simulados, que findaram em uma nova métrica de roteamento. Para tanto, este documento apresenta a Potência Média da Interface de Rede (NIAP, do inglês Network Interface Average Power), uma alternativa promissora à métrica ETX, que contribui para o balanceamento de carga, prolonga o tempo de operação dos nós intermediários e aumenta a taxa de entrega de pacotes em LLNs. Low-power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) have gained prominence in the scientific community due to the technological paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) which dedicates efforts to propose new standards for the Internet, refers to LLNs as networks that integrate with the Internet, i.e., IoT. The routing and packet delivery in LLNs represent a challenge in terms of reliability and energy efficiency. Thus, a routing protocol was designed by the IETF: the RPL (Routing Protocol for LLNs). To establish stable paths across lossy links, RPL considers the costs obtained from metrics for routing decision making. Among these, ETX (Expected Transmission Count) is the most widely used, due to reliability. However, intermediate nodes (where bottlenecks arise) are still harmed due to the rapid exhaustion, thus prompting routing efficiency further investigation. In these terms, this work sought to increase the operation time of these nodes, based on the hypothesis that the estimated energy consumption of the network interface, converted to metric cost, could extend the lifetime of LLNs and increase the packet delivery. These objectives were achieved with several experiments performed in different simulated scenarios, which ended in a new routing metric. Therefore, this document presents the NIAP (Network Interface Average Power), a promising alternative to the ETX metric, which contributes to load balancing, extends the operation time of intermediate nodes, and increases the packet delivery ratio in LLNs.

Keywords

Roteadores (Redes de computadores), Internet of things, Packet switching (Data transmission), Engenharia Elétrica, :CIENCIAS EXATAS E DA TERRA::CIENCIA DA COMPUTACAO::SISTEMAS DE COMPUTACAO::TELEINFORMATICA [CNPQ], Reliability (Engineering), Confiabilidade (Engenharia), Routers (Computer network), Computer simulation, Wireless communication systems, Energy consumption, Energia - Consumo, Sistemas de comunicação sem fio, Internet das coisas, Comutação por pacotes (Transmissão de dados), Simulação (Computadores)

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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