3,719 Projects, page 1 of 744
The ability of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism to respond adequately to insulin signalling is compromised (termed 'insulin resistance', IR) under conditions of increased dietary fat availability and this is thought to be a consequence of the intracellular accumulation of lipid within skeletal muscle. IR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease and therefore an important modulator of metabolic health. As insulin signalling is also integral to skeletal muscle amino acid delivery and metabolism, it is likely that lipid-induced IR may also compromise the ability of skeletal muscle to adequately synthesise new protein in response to dietary amino acids (termed 'anabolic resistance', AR). Indeed, we have recently shown that elevating lipid availability in humans can induce skeletal muscle IR and AR in response to amino acid ingestion. However, it is not known which fatty acids are causative, or the underlying cellular mechanisms. The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms that couple the accumulation of intracellular lipid species originating from different types of dietary fatty acids to the development of both IR and AR in human skeletal muscle. The proposed work will employ an integrated approach that will combine human based investigations with skeletal muscle cell based experiments. The objectives of the human based studies are to investigate the impact of manipulating circulating lipids in both lean and overweight healthy humans via dietary interventions on both skeletal muscle IR and AR. Primary cell cultures from human skeletal muscle will be used to elucidate the functional importance of proteins identified as key targets from the human experiments to establish the specific pathways by which different lipid species affect both IR and AR.
Mathematical models for epidemic spread play an increasingly important role in understanding, predicting and controlling real-life disease outbreaks. During recent years, there has been considerable progress in the area of parameterising such models, i.e. estimating model parameters such as infection rates from data on epidemics. However, far less attention has been devoted to model assessment, i.e. determining whether or not models adequately fit the data, and determining whether or not different models would be more suitable. The proposed research seeks to systematically address model assessment for stochastic epidemic models. In particular, (i) simple situations will be analysed in detail to provide generic insights; (ii) new methods will be developed for model assessment for more complex models.
NMR spectroscopists from across the UK are working towards the establishment of a co-ordinated strategy for provision of world-class NMR infrastructure. Establishing a linked network of facilities will provide for UK-wide access to new state-of-the-art capabilities, training and expertise in NMR technologies for the physical and life sciences. Here we demonstrate how the proposed investment at the University of Nottingham will contribute to the national effort and promote regional collaborations and access to the facilities to researchers across the Midlands. We are committed to being fully integrated within the UK NMR community across academia and industry and to engage with funding agencies to establish a sustainable network and funding mechanisms, and to share best practice. NMR is a key analytical technique for studying the molecular composition, structure and properties of novel materials and real-time monitoring of processes and reactions. There are no other techniques which offer such versatility and breadth of potential applications to interdisciplinary researchers at all of the key interfaces across the physical sciences, engineering, biosciences and medicine. The current collaborative open-access framework around our high-field NMR facility embraces all of these disciplines and impacts widely in areas of public interest, for example, around food security and food nutrition; the development of new sustainable materials and processes for every day devices and for energy storage; studies of fundamental bioscience for understanding of aspects of human health; chemical biology linked to drug-discovery in areas from autism to neurodegeneration and stroke; development of novel biocatalysts linked to industrial biotechnology and our sustainable future. The Nottingham Facility is already supporting this incredible breadth of activity, and this proposed upgrade will extend the lifetime, sensitivity and capabilities to the next level, to continue to support Nottingham's, and hence the UK's, international research competitiveness. By upgrading the 800 MHz high-field NMR facility we will provide our broad user base, which reaches across the physical and life sciences, with the NMR infrastructure to address a myriad of questions, to allow researchers at Nottingham to remain competitive and at the cutting edge in key research areas, allow us to extend the breadth of our activities into new areas and draw in new collaborations, and maximise the wider impact of our research. The upgrade, and suite of new probes for different applications, will allow key research questions to be addressed that were previously out of range of our current capabilities. Significantly, the proposed upgrade accommodates new capabilities to now study solid-materials at high resolution and sensitivity where previously this was only possible on a lower-field (600 MHz instrument) of lower-sensitivity and more limited capabilities. This suite of instrumentation presents a diverse multi-functional facility for the integrated characterisation of both large and small molecules, solutions and solids, in a single facility. The requested spectrometer upgrade will: (i) ensure that the current 800 MHz magnet has the highest performance currently possible at this field strength, (ii) will open up previously inaccessible areas of research particularly in the study of solid materials, (iii) add new capacity and capabilities to the network of UK NMR facilities and provide local and regional access to researchers across the Midland HEIs and Industry, (iii) provide unprecedented versatility to support a wide range of research projects across the RCUK physical and life science priority areas, (iv) contribute to high quality publications in internationally leading journals, (v) support the international research competitiveness of Nottingham and the UK.
Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.
The aim of this research is to provide new and more nuanced knowledge to support the integration of Syrian pupils in UK schools and ensure the best possible chances for the young refugees. To that end the overarching question underpinning the study is: What are the educational experiences of Syrian refugee pupils in English schools? There are three sub-questions: i. What are the challenges and opportunities for Syrian refugee pupils in English schools? ii. How have pre-resettlement educational experiences affected these pupils' English schooling experience? iii. What are the challenges and opportunities for English schools accommodating Syrian refugee children? This will involve qualitative work with refugee pupils themselves, their family members, peers, teachers and school leaders.