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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Peeters, J.P.;

    Om meer duidelijkheid te krijgen over de bruikbaarheid van verschilende organische substraten in bomengrond -in het bijzonder bij toepassing onder bestrating- werd begin 1986 een proef uitgevoerd. De belangrijkste conclusies van de eerste vijf jaar, worden in dit artikel besproken

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 1996
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 1996
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wiersum, K.F.;

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of the 1970s a new concept was introduced in forestry, i.e. social forestry. This approach focuses specificly on the forest-related needs of local communities in tropical countries, and on stimulating community involvement in the sustainable management of forest resources. It has been suggested that the development of social forestry implies a paradigmatic change in forestry. This suggestion is contested, however.The objective of this study is to contribute towards the elucidation of the question whether the emergence of the concept of social forestry has indeed brought about a paradigmatic change in forestry. A paradigm involves the total set of disciplinary commitments; this disciplinary matrix includes a basic world-view, normative perspectives and conceptual generalizations as well as ideal-typical exemplars for problem-solving. Both scientists and professionals may adhere to such normative commitments. Consequently, the suggestion of a paradigmatic change in forestry may be related either to forestry as a science or forestry as a professional institution.The study consists of four analytical steps. First a short overview of the history of forestry and of one of its major conceptual generalizations, i.e. sustainability, is given, and the nature of the disciplinary matrix of conventional forestry is identified. Next the development of social forestry is described. This forestry approach is conceptualized as involving forestry policies designed and implemented by professional foresters, and community forest management practices executed by local communities, who are not professionally-trained in forestry. It cannot be assumed that the normative perspectives of these two categories of practitioners are similar. The third step of analysis therefore consists of a comparison of the perspectives of these two categories of forestry practitioners; it shows major differences in normative perspectives. The last step of analysis focuses on how the recognition of such differences has impacted on forestry science and professional practice. It is concluded that social forestry involves major changes in both role- and rule-orientation of professional foresters. The role of professional foresters is not considered any longer as being ideal-typical forest managers, but also as being facilitators of community forestry. Consequently, several new concepts and theories concerning social coordination in forestry evolved.Forestry science became more empirically oriented by paying attention to all possible forest management conditions rather than to professionally-controlled forest management situations only. These changes in forestry science can best be considered as an evolutionary change rather than a paradigmatic one. However, the differentiation in tasks of professional foresters and the loosening of the close institutional links between forestry scientists and professional practitioners can be considered as involving a paradigmatic change in forestry as professional institution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.; Wielemaker, A.;

    High resolution, synoptic information on sediment characteristics of intertidal flats is required for coastal management, e.g., for habitat mapping and dredging studies. This study aims to derive such information from space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Estimates of the backscattering coefficient were extracted from ERS-1 SAR and ERS-2 SAR PRI imagery of four intertidal flats in the Westerschelde (southwest Netherlands). They were related to field measurements of surface roughness, moisture conditions and sediment texture. The field data were also used as input to the backscattering model IEM. The data and model predictions show that on the intertidal flats, backscattering depends mainly on vertical surface roughness, with rougher surfaces associated with more backscattering. Surface roughness, mainly determined by the ripple structure of the bed, decreased with the amount of mud in the sediment. This resulted in a significant negative correlation between backscattering and mud content, and a significant positive correlation between backscattering and median grain-size of the sediment. Sediment texture was also correlated with the volumetric moisture content of the sediment, with finer sediments being associated with higher moisture contents. However, moisture contents were generally high, and therefore the backscatter signal was not sensitive to differences in moisture content. The relationships allowed the development of regression models for the prediction of surface characteristics from SAR imagery, from which maps of, for example, mud content, have been derived. [KEYWORDS: SAR ; Surface roughness ; Mud content ; Sediment grain-size ; Mapping ; Ripple marks]

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2005
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2005
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Diederen, P.J.M.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Report . Other literature type . 1996
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Report . Other literature type . 1996
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A.B. Smit; J.J. Stoorvogel; G.A.A. Wossink;

    AbstractThis paper reports a methodology to define and select basic activities for spatially variable N-management, referred to as management tracks. Their main purpose is to support decision making whether or not to apply variable nitrogen fertilisation. The methodology is based on biophysical simulation of crop growth and nitrogen leaching (WAVE) in combination with economic optimisation (linear programming) and enables a normative environmental-economic evaluation of site specific N-management to be made. The partial results of a case study with an input-intensive and an input-extensive crop (ware potato and winter wheat, respectively) showed that site specific nitrogen management led to positive returns over variable costs compared to uniform N-application, conditional on the validity of the WAVE model used in simulating yield effects. The investments that could be allowed for at maximum were 6,300 Dfl and 13,500 Dfl for winter wheat and ware potato, respectively, assuming application to an area of 100 ha. A pollution tax or a tax on nitrogen designed to internalise pollution costs in agricultural production raises these maximum amounts to 7,600 and 33,700 Dfl, respectively. Practical feasibility requires site-specific nitrogen management to be integrated with time specific management since optimal N-tracks were found to be highly weather dependent. Besides, spatially variable management cannot be achieved unless good farming practices (soil testing and crop scouting) are already in place.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
    Article
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    Research@WUR; NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
      Article
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      Research@WUR; NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ties van Bommel; Edwin J. Nijssen; A.A. Alblas;

    Integrating market knowledge in the architecture of product platforms can be a challenge for firms. In this study, we draw on knowledge‐based theory to propose the importance of bilateral knowledge: a marketer's knowledge of product platforms and a platform architect's knowledge of the market opportunity for securing marketing involvement and platform success. Along with these two personal coordination mechanisms, we examine the impact of a marketing department's level of product platform knowledge as a structural coordination mechanism and account for its moderating effects on these personal mechanisms. To test our model, we conducted a survey at a multinational electronics company, with the architects of product platforms as key informants. Our results show that an architect's knowledge of market opportunities for the product platform fuels marketing's involvement and improves financial performance, as does the marketer's knowledge of product platforms, although this is entirely mediated by marketing's involvement. A marketing department's product platform knowledge has a strong, direct and moderating impact; it acts as a substitute for the individual marketer's personal knowledge, yet enhances the impact of the architect's knowledge of the market opportunity. Therefore, innovation managers are advised to foster their marketing department's understanding of product platforms.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
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    Creativity and Innovation Management
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    Creativity and Innovation Management
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021
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      Creativity and Innovation Management
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      Creativity and Innovation Management
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vandeviver, Christophe; Bernasco, W.;
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    Applied Geography
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2017
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      Applied Geography
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Aanen, D.K.; Boomsma, J.J.;

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1,2]. The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage — the extant basidiomycete genus Termitomyces — whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens.

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    Current Biology; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    Current Biology
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    Current Biology
    Article . 2006
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      Current Biology; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Biology
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      Current Biology
      Article . 2006
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Geerts, R.;
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    Report . Other literature type . 1988
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      Report . Other literature type . 1988
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jonas Hein; Alejandro Guarín; Ezra Frommé; Pieter Pauw;

    Abstract More than ten years after REDD + (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) entered the UN climate negotiations, its current state and future direction are a matter of contention. This paper analyses 162 INDCs (Intended National Determined Contributions), or climate action plans, to assess whether and how countries plan to use REDD + in their implementation the Paris Agreement. Our analysis suggests that REDD + continues to have political traction. Many tropical countries still have expectations of REDD +, and hope that public and private donors will support chronically underfunded domestic conservation programs. However, the expectations are not formulated in detail. We argue that until the questions of how to finance REDD + and how to deal with the drivers of deforestation are resolved, REDD is unlikely to move quickly from formulated INDCs plans to implementation on the ground.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2018
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    Forest Policy and Economics
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Article . 2018
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      Forest Policy and Economics
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Peeters, J.P.;

    Om meer duidelijkheid te krijgen over de bruikbaarheid van verschilende organische substraten in bomengrond -in het bijzonder bij toepassing onder bestrating- werd begin 1986 een proef uitgevoerd. De belangrijkste conclusies van de eerste vijf jaar, worden in dit artikel besproken

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 1996
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 1996
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    Authors: Wiersum, K.F.;

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of the 1970s a new concept was introduced in forestry, i.e. social forestry. This approach focuses specificly on the forest-related needs of local communities in tropical countries, and on stimulating community involvement in the sustainable management of forest resources. It has been suggested that the development of social forestry implies a paradigmatic change in forestry. This suggestion is contested, however.The objective of this study is to contribute towards the elucidation of the question whether the emergence of the concept of social forestry has indeed brought about a paradigmatic change in forestry. A paradigm involves the total set of disciplinary commitments; this disciplinary matrix includes a basic world-view, normative perspectives and conceptual generalizations as well as ideal-typical exemplars for problem-solving. Both scientists and professionals may adhere to such normative commitments. Consequently, the suggestion of a paradigmatic change in forestry may be related either to forestry as a science or forestry as a professional institution.The study consists of four analytical steps. First a short overview of the history of forestry and of one of its major conceptual generalizations, i.e. sustainability, is given, and the nature of the disciplinary matrix of conventional forestry is identified. Next the development of social forestry is described. This forestry approach is conceptualized as involving forestry policies designed and implemented by professional foresters, and community forest management practices executed by local communities, who are not professionally-trained in forestry. It cannot be assumed that the normative perspectives of these two categories of practitioners are similar. The third step of analysis therefore consists of a comparison of the perspectives of these two categories of forestry practitioners; it shows major differences in normative perspectives. The last step of analysis focuses on how the recognition of such differences has impacted on forestry science and professional practice. It is concluded that social forestry involves major changes in both role- and rule-orientation of professional foresters. The role of professional foresters is not considered any longer as being ideal-typical forest managers, but also as being facilitators of community forestry. Consequently, several new concepts and theories concerning social coordination in forestry evolved.Forestry science became more empirically oriented by paying attention to all possible forest management conditions rather than to professionally-controlled forest management situations only. These changes in forestry science can best be considered as an evolutionary change rather than a paradigmatic one. However, the differentiation in tasks of professional foresters and the loosening of the close institutional links between forestry scientists and professional practitioners can be considered as involving a paradigmatic change in forestry as professional institution.

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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.; Wielemaker, A.;

    High resolution, synoptic information on sediment characteristics of intertidal flats is required for coastal management, e.g., for habitat mapping and dredging studies. This study aims to derive such information from space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Estimates of the backscattering coefficient were extracted from ERS-1 SAR and ERS-2 SAR PRI imagery of four intertidal flats in the Westerschelde (southwest Netherlands). They were related to field measurements of surface roughness, moisture conditions and sediment texture. The field data were also used as input to the backscattering model IEM. The data and model predictions show that on the intertidal flats, backscattering depends mainly on vertical surface roughness, with rougher surfaces associated with more backscattering. Surface roughness, mainly determined by the ripple structure of the bed, decreased with the amount of mud in the sediment. This resulted in a significant negative correlation between backscattering and mud content, and a significant positive correlation between backscattering and median grain-size of the sediment. Sediment texture was also correlated with the volumetric moisture content of the sediment, with finer sediments being associated with higher moisture contents. However, moisture contents were generally high, and therefore the backscatter signal was not sensitive to differences in moisture content. The relationships allowed the development of regression models for the prediction of surface characteristics from SAR imagery, from which maps of, for example, mud content, have been derived. [KEYWORDS: SAR ; Surface roughness ; Mud content ; Sediment grain-size ; Mapping ; Ripple marks]

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2005
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2005
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Diederen, P.J.M.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    Report . Other literature type . 1996
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      Report . Other literature type . 1996
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    Authors: A.B. Smit; J.J. Stoorvogel; G.A.A. Wossink;

    AbstractThis paper reports a methodology to define and select basic activities for spatially variable N-management, referred to as management tracks. Their main purpose is to support decision making whether or not to apply variable nitrogen fertilisation. The methodology is based on biophysical simulation of crop growth and nitrogen leaching (WAVE) in combination with economic optimisation (linear programming) and enables a normative environmental-economic evaluation of site specific N-management to be made. The partial results of a case study with an input-intensive and an input-extensive crop (ware potato and winter wheat, respectively) showed that site specific nitrogen management led to positive returns over variable costs compared to uniform N-application, conditional on the validity of the WAVE model used in simulating yield effects. The investments that could be allowed for at maximum were 6,300 Dfl and 13,500 Dfl for winter wheat and ware potato, respectively, assuming application to an area of 100 ha. A pollution tax or a tax on nitrogen designed to internalise pollution costs in agricultural production raises these maximum amounts to 7,600 and 33,700 Dfl, respectively. Practical feasibility requires site-specific nitrogen management to be integrated with time specific management since optimal N-tracks were found to be highly weather dependent. Besides, spatially variable management cannot be achieved unless good farming practices (soil testing and crop scouting) are already in place.

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    NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
    Article
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Research@WUR; NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
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      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Research@WUR; NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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