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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • 15. Life on land

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Albert, Elise; Segura, Vincent; Gricourt, Justine; Bonnefoi, Julien; +2 Authors

    Water scarcity constitutes a crucial constraint for agriculture productivity. High-throughput approaches in model plant species identified hundreds of genes potentially involved in survival under drought, but few having beneficial effects on quality and yield. Nonetheless, controlled water deficit may improve fruit quality through higher concentration of flavor compounds. The underlying genetic determinants are still poorly known. In this study, we phenotyped 141 highly diverse small fruit tomato accessions for 27 traits under two contrasting watering conditions. A subset of 55 accessions exhibited increased metabolite contents and maintained yield under water deficit. Using 6100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), association mapping revealed 31, 41, and 44 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) under drought, control, and both conditions, respectively. Twenty-five additional QTLs were interactive between conditions, emphasizing the interest in accounting for QTLs by watering regime interactions in fruit quality improvement. Combining our results with the loci previously identified in a biparental progeny resulted in 11 common QTLs and contributed to a first detailed characterization of the genetic determinants of response to water deficit in tomato. Major QTLs for fruit quality traits were dissected and candidate genes were proposed using expression and polymorphism data. The outcomes provide a basis for fruit quality improvement under deficit irrigation while limiting yield losses. Highlight Tomato quality could be improved under deficit irrigation while maintaining yield. The underlying genetic architecture is polygenic and varies with water availability. Candidate genes related to primary metabolism were identified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Experimental Botany
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    License: CC BY
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2016
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: ProdInra
    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Experimental Botany
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ProdInra
      Article . 2016
      License: CC BY SA
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      Journal of Experimental Botany
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka; Aileen Carter; Donal O'Brien; Maeve Henchion; +2 Authors

    Abstract Milk and beef derived from pasture-based systems have been characterized by higher nutritional values and a lower environmental footprint than their equivalents obtained via indoor systems. However, intensification of pasture-based production can have adverse impacts on biodiversity and the environment. To date, studies on pro-environmental diversification options leading to improvement of environmental performance of pasture-based dairy and beef production have rarely been synthesized. The present study sought to review current on-farm pro-environmental measures with the potential for enhancing biodiversity status and/or reducing the environmental impacts of pasture-based agriculture. Literature on farmer attitudes toward these measures was also reviewed to identify potential obstacles and opportunities for transitioning to pro-environmental agriculture. A systematic search of published research from high-income island countries characterized by oceanic temperate climate with a high dependence on pasture-based agriculture—the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, was conducted. Thirty studies that assessed the impact of pro-environmental measures, eight ‘attitudinal’ studies of dairy and beef farmers and one study covering both aspects were identified. Inductive thematical analysis was subsequently undertaken. Environmentally sensitive management practices such as hedgerows and field margins management, mixed grazing (where two or more herbivorous animals graze the same land), rare livestock breeds, multispecies swards, organic farming and agroforestry were identified as primary themes studied under the auspices of pro-environmental diversification, while forestry, bioenergy crops and organic farming were the main themes identified within attitudinal research studies. Findings suggest that environmentally sensitive practices have varied effects on biodiversity. Mixed grazing was found to improve livestock production, while studies of organic farming reported multiple positive impacts on biodiversity and animal welfare. Effect of multispecies swards on methane emissions and urinary nitrogen extraction were found to be inconsistent. Attitudinal research suggests that the main barrier to implementing afforestation is its lack of attractiveness compared to ‘traditional’ farming and that organic farmer decisions regarding agricultural management practices might be less profit-oriented and influenced by ecological beliefs to a greater extent than decisions of conventional farmers. The results of this study confirm that pro-environmental diversification inherently encompasses multiple scientific disciplines; however, previous study designs and outcomes were found to be fragmented and narrowly focused. Considering the urgency and importance of climate and biodiversity crises, pro-environmental diversification of pasture-based dairy and beef production has rarely been holistically approached and remains understudied. The development of practical, sustainable solutions for farming based on circular economy and respect to nature and additional strategies to increase farmer and consumer environmental awareness should be prioritized by policymakers, advisory and scientific bodies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Arrow@TU Dublinarrow_drop_down
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    Arrow@TU Dublin
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Arrow@TU Dublin
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    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Arrow@TU Dublin
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY SA
      Data sources: Arrow@TU Dublin
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      Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pouteau, Robin; Rambal, S.; Ratte, J.P.; Gogé, F.; +2 Authors

    International audience; Frost risk assessment is of critical importance in tropical highlands like the Andes where human activities thrives at altitudes up to 4200 m, and night frost may occur all the year round. In these semi-arid and cold regions with sparse meteorological networks, remote sensing and topographic modeling are of potential interest for understanding how physiography influences the local climate regime. After integrating night land surface temperature from the MODIS satellite, and physiographic descriptors derived from a digital elevation model, we explored how regional and landscape-scale features influence frost occurrence in the southern altiplano of Bolivia. Based on the high correlation between night land surface temperature and minimum air temperature, frost occurrence in early-, middle- and late-summer periods were calculated from satellite observations and mapped at a 1-km resolution over a 45,000 km² area. Physiographic modeling of frost occurrence was then conducted comparing multiple regression (MR) and boosted regression trees (BRT). Physiographic predictors were latitude, elevation, distance from salt lakes, slope steepness, potential insolation, and topographic convergence. Insolation influence on night frost was tested assuming that ground surface warming in the daytime reduces frost occurrence in the next night. Depending on the time period and the calibration domain, BRT models explained 74% to 90% of frost occurrence variation, outperforming the MR method. Inverted BRT models allowed the downscaling of frost occurrence maps at 100-m resolution, illustrating local processes like cold air drainage. Minimum temperature lapse rates showed seasonal variation and mean values higher than those reported for temperate mountains. When applied at regional and subregional scales successively, BRT models revealed prominent effects of elevation, latitude and distance to salt lakes at large scales, whereas slope, topographic convergence and insolation gained influence at local scales. Our results highlight the role of daytime insolation on night frost occurrence at local scale, particularly in the early- and mid-summer periods when solar astronomic forcing is maximum. Seasonal variations and interactions in physiographic effects are also shown. Nested effects of physiographic factors across scales are discussed, as well as potential applications of physiographic modeling to downscale ecological processes in complex terrains. (résumé d'auteur)

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    Other literature type . 2011
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Other literature type . 2011
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: de-Dios-García, J.; Manso, R.; Calama Sainz, Rafael Argimiro; Fortin, M.; +1 Authors

    Studying intra-annual growth dynamics through a modelling approach has proved useful for characterizing differences in wood phenology between species and deviations from the expected tree growth due to climate change. The aim of this paper was to determine the climatic factors and the inter- and intra-specific competition traits that drive intra-annual secondary growth dynamics in three Mediterranean tree species that naturally co-exist in the Spanish Northern Plateau (Pinus pinea L., Juniperus thurifera L., and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.). For this purpose, we obtained girth increment data from band dendrometers installed on 58 trees from May 2012 to April 2015. Half of them were located in a high-density plot and half were in a low-density plot. These data were analysed through a nonlinear multifactorial model considering daily and cumulative climatic effects together with inter- and intra-specific competition indices. Our results provide evidence of a spatiotemporal niche separation between species. Compared with other species, Q. ilex subsp. ballota showed a wider thermal amplitude, a higher mean optimum temperature for growth, and a milder effect of drought on its secondary growth. Under current climate change projections, simulations based on our model predict a secondary growth reduction for P. pinea and a growth enhancement for Q. ilex subsp. ballota in these Mediterranean mixtures.

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    Authors: Picard, Nicolas; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; Rossi, Vivien;

    International audience; Improving the precision of forest biomass estimates requires prioritizing the different sources of errors. In a tropical moist forest in central Africa, the choice of the allometric equation was found to be the main source of error.Context: When estimating the forest biomass at the landscape level using forest inventory data and allometric models, there is a chain of propagation of errors including the measurement errors, the models' prediction error, the error due to the model choice, and the sampling error.Aims: This study aims at comparing the contributions of these different sources of error to the total error, to prioritize them, and improve the precision of biomass estimates.Methods: Using a 9-ha permanent sample plot in a moist forest near Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo and seven competing allometric models, we estimated the contributions of the different sources of error to the total error of the per hectare biomass estimate, for plot sizes ranging from 0.04 to 1 ha.Results: When there was no a priori on which model being the best and for 1-ha plots, the error due to the model choice was the largest source of error (76 % of the total error). Using weights to combine the predictions of the different models into a single ensemble prediction strongly reduced this error.Conclusion: Collecting training data sets on tree biomass at many sites would be needed to improve the precision of forest biomass estimates in central Africa.

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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Agritrop
    Article . 2015
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
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      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Agritrop
      Article . 2015
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Mathieu Fortin; Janine Schweier; Ferréol Berendt;

    In order to accommodate foreseen climate change in European forests, the following are recommended: (i) to increase the number of tree species and the structural diversity; (ii) to replace unsuitable species by native broadleaved tree species, and (iii) to apply close-to-nature silviculture. The state forest department of Baden-Wurttemberg (BW) currently follows the concept of Forest Development Types (FDTs). However, future climatic conditions will have an impact on these types of forest as well as timber harvesting operations. This Geographic Information System (GIS)-based analysis identified appropriate locations for main FDTs and timber harvesting and extraction methods through the use of species suitability maps, topography, and soil sensitivity data. Based on our findings, the most common FDT in the state forest of BW is expected to be coniferous-beech mixed forests with 29.0% of the total forest area, followed by beech-coniferous (20.5%) and beech-broadleaved (15.4%) mixed forests. Where access for fully mechanized systems is not possible, the main harvesting and extraction methods would be motor manual felling and cable yarding (29.1%). High proportions of large dimensioned trees will require timber extraction using forestry tractors, and these will need to be operated from tractor roads on sensitive soils (23.0%), and from skid trails on insensitive soils (18.4%).

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    Forests
    Article
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    Forests; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forests
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      Forests; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Levi Van Sant;

    Abstract This article examines the post-emancipation contests over agricultural land in the South Carolina Lowcountry – the coastal region surrounding the port city of Charleston – in the context of recent theorizations of plantation geographies and the racial politics of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the aftermath of slavery, freedpeople in the Lowcountry were remarkably successful in securing control over their labor and access to land. The measure of relative autonomy that came with these gains spurred enormous anxiety for white elites, however, who realized that black control over land and labor threatened to upend the region’s racial hierarchy. I argue that plantation geographies persist through the white monopolization of land, and suggest that successfully challenging this historical trajectory depends on challenging liberal modes of improvement.

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    Geoforum
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    Geoforum
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geoforum
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      Geoforum
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Joël Aubin; Myriam D. Callier; Hélène Rey-Valette; Syndhia Mathé; +14 Authors

    AbstractEcological intensification is a new concept in agriculture that addresses the double challenge of maintaining a level of production sufficient to support needs of human populations and respecting the environment in order to conserve the natural world and human quality of life. This article adapts this concept to fish farming using agroecological principles and the ecosystem services framework. The method was developed from the study of published literature and applications at four study sites chosen for their differences in production intensity: polyculture ponds in France, integrated pig and pond polyculture in Brazil, the culture of striped catfish in Indonesia and a recirculating salmon aquaculture system in France. The study of stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services combined with environmental assessment through Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy accounting allowed development of an assessment tool that was used as a basis for co‐building evolution scenarios. From this experience, ecological intensification of aquaculture was defined as the use of ecological processes and functions to increase productivity, strengthen ecosystem services and decrease disservices. It is based on aquaecosystem and biodiversity management and the use of local and traditional knowledge. Expected consequences for farming systems consist of greater autonomy, efficiency and better integration into their surrounding territories. Ecological intensification requires territorial governance and helps improve it from a sustainable development perspective.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Agritrop
    Article . 2019
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    Reviews in Aquaculture
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Agritrop
      Article . 2019
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      Reviews in Aquaculture
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Juraj Balkovic; Rastislav Skalský; Christian Folberth; Nikolay Khabarov; +4 Authors

    AbstractEven if global warming is kept below +2°C, European agriculture will be significantly impacted. Soil degradation may amplify these impacts substantially and thus hamper crop production further. We quantify biophysical consequences and bracket uncertainty of +2°C warming on calories supply from 10 major crops and vulnerability to soil degradation in Europe using crop modeling. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model together with regional climate projections from the European branch of the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (EURO‐CORDEX) was used for this purpose. A robustly positive calorie yield change was estimated for the EU Member States except for some regions in Southern and South‐Eastern Europe. The mean impacts range from +30 Gcal ha−1 in the north, through +25 and +20 Gcal ha−1 in Western and Eastern Europe, respectively, to +10 Gcal ha−1 in the south if soil degradation and heat impacts are not accounted for. Elevated CO2 and increased temperature are the dominant drivers of the simulated yield changes in high‐input agricultural systems. The growth stimulus due to elevated CO2 may offset potentially negative yield impacts of temperature increase by +2°C in most of Europe. Soil degradation causes a calorie vulnerability ranging from 0 to 50 Gcal ha−1 due to insufficient compensation for nutrient depletion and this might undermine climate benefits in many regions, if not prevented by adaptation measures, especially in Eastern and North‐Eastern Europe. Uncertainties due to future potentials for crop intensification are about 2–50 times higher than climate change impacts.

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    IIASA PURE
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    IIASA PURE
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth's Future
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Earth's Future
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    Earth's Future
    Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IIASA PUREarrow_drop_down
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      IIASA PURE
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: IIASA PURE
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      IIASA PURE
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: IIASA PURE
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      Earth's Future
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      Earth's Future
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      Earth's Future
      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Albert, Elise; Segura, Vincent; Gricourt, Justine; Bonnefoi, Julien; +2 Authors

    Water scarcity constitutes a crucial constraint for agriculture productivity. High-throughput approaches in model plant species identified hundreds of genes potentially involved in survival under drought, but few having beneficial effects on quality and yield. Nonetheless, controlled water deficit may improve fruit quality through higher concentration of flavor compounds. The underlying genetic determinants are still poorly known. In this study, we phenotyped 141 highly diverse small fruit tomato accessions for 27 traits under two contrasting watering conditions. A subset of 55 accessions exhibited increased metabolite contents and maintained yield under water deficit. Using 6100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), association mapping revealed 31, 41, and 44 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) under drought, control, and both conditions, respectively. Twenty-five additional QTLs were interactive between conditions, emphasizing the interest in accounting for QTLs by watering regime interactions in fruit quality improvement. Combining our results with the loci previously identified in a biparental progeny resulted in 11 common QTLs and contributed to a first detailed characterization of the genetic determinants of response to water deficit in tomato. Major QTLs for fruit quality traits were dissected and candidate genes were proposed using expression and polymorphism data. The outcomes provide a basis for fruit quality improvement under deficit irrigation while limiting yield losses. Highlight Tomato quality could be improved under deficit irrigation while maintaining yield. The underlying genetic architecture is polygenic and varies with water availability. Candidate genes related to primary metabolism were identified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2016
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: ProdInra
    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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