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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gascuel, Chantal; Patrick, Bertuzzi; Allard, Denis; Raynal, Helene, H.;
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      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Gassin, Bernard; Bicho, Nuno F.; Bouby, Laurent; Capdevila, Ramón Buxó Y; +13 Authors

    La reconstitution des techniques agricoles préhistoriques constitue un élément fondamental pour la compréhension du processus d'expansion de l'agriculture en Méditerranée occidentale. Dans le cadre d'un projet européen rassemblant des tracéologues et des carpologues espagnols et français, nous avons, dans une première phase, étudié les méthodes de récolte des céréales pratiquées durant le Néolithique en Espagne et dans le Sud de la France, du Néolithique ancien au Néolithique moyen. L'étude des outils de récolte a permis de distinguer trois aires distinctes. Le Sud-Est de l'Espagne est caractérisé par des faucilles courbes avec des éléments insérés obliquement dans le manche. En Catalogne, Languedoc et Provence, la majorité des faucilles sont constituées de longues lames emmanchées parallèlement au manche, mais d'autres modèles existent. En Espagne cantabrique, les céréales étaient récoltées sans faucille. Nos travaux en cours explorent différents facteurs pouvant expliquer cette variabilité : conditions environnementales, types de céréales cultivées, finalités techniques et alimentaires de la culture des céréales, techniques de conservation des céréales, rôle de l'agriculture céréalière dans l'économie, dynamiques historiques de l'expansion et de l'adoption des innovations néolithiques. The restitution of prehistoric agricultural techniques is a key element to understand the diffusion of farming in Western Mediterranean. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of a European working group composed of Spanish and French use-wear analysts and archaeobotanists. Cereal harvesting methods during the Early and Middle Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula and the South of France were studied. Three major areas were distinguished. In the South-East of Spain, curved sickles with short flint elements inserted obliquely are characteristic. In Catalonia, Languedoc and Provence, most of the sickles are made with long blades inserted in parallel to the handle, but other ways of hafting the blade have been documented. In the Cantabrian Spain, cereals were harvested, in the beginning of the Neolithic, without sickle. This variability is here discussed taking into account different factors : ecology, variety of cultivated crops, aims of cereal cultivation (craft vs food), methods of cereal conservation, role of the cereal agriculture in the economy, historical dynamics of the spread of agriculture and of Neolithic innovations.

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    Book . 2020
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    Authors: Antoine, Annie; Beaudouin, Audrey; Beltrametti, Giulia; Carocci, Sandro; +12 Authors

    L’alternance des cultures et des friches est une façon ancienne de gérer l’exploitation des terres, qui fut décriée par les Modernes mais très appréciée des sociétés que l’on disait traditionnelles. Dans les campagnes de l’Europe médiévale et moderne, une grande partie des terres était ainsi cultivée un ou deux ans avant d’être laissée en pâturages ou en broussailles pendant deux, trois ou cinq ans, dix ou vingt parfois. Les recherches rassemblées dans ce volume permettent de mesurer l’importance et la variété de ces pratiques de cultures temporaires, d’en préciser les chronologies et d’en redessiner les géographies. Partout, en effet, sur les landes britanniques comme dans les forêts nordiques, dans les maquis italiens comme sur les monts galiciens, le succès de ces cycles culturaux interroge les logiques historiographiques. Loin d’apparaître comme des techniques archaïques, extensives et peu efficaces, les cultures temporaires s’y révèlent comme des adaptations complexes et parfois très récentes, qui exigeaient un lourd investissement en travail mais offraient en contrepartie des rendements spectaculaires. Elles dévoilent un monde longtemps ignoré, où les défrichements ne sont plus le geste fondateur d’une conquête définitive des terroirs, mais des pratiques courantes et répétitives où s’actualisait en permanence, à travers la distribution des usages de la terre, une grammaire élémentaire de l’appropriation du sol.

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    Book . 2020
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      Book . 2020
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    Authors: Gendreau, Francis; Horlacher, D.; Véron, J.;
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    Other literature type . 1991
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      Other literature type . 1991
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    Objectifs généraux du colloque Le colloque se propose de réfléchir sur l’articulation du développement, de la migration et du genre : Dans quelle mesure la migration induit un effet de développement (économique, empowerment, démocratie, sécurité) ? Comment expliquer la féminisation de la migration ? Comment les migrantes sont-elles affectées par les politiques migratoires ? Quel est l’apport des femmes en situation de migration au développement ? Table ronde La table ronde a pour objectifs d’...

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    Book . 2016
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    Authors: Agarwal, Bina;

    Le champ des sciences sociales est dominé par deux regards opposés sur la réaction des pauvres et des assujettis face à l’oppression. Selon une idée ancienne, qui prévaut toujours, les opprimés ont une perception fausse de leurs intérêts économiques réels, adhèrent à l’idéologie de l’oppresseur et deviennent ainsi complices de leur propre oppression. Pour que le changement s’opère, il est alors indispensable d’élever le degré de conscience de tout un peuple pour qu’il comprenne son oppression et connaisse ses vrais intérêts économiques. Une idée alternative et plus récente affirme que les opprimés ne sont pas des victimes passives qui acceptent sans réserve les arguments idéologiques avancés par les privilégiés ; ils ont au contraire développé de nombreuses formes déguisées et subtiles de résistance à l’oppression. On trouve des variantes de ces deux visions, sous des formes moins polarisées, dans les réflexions actuelles des sciences sociales sur l’Asie…

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    Book . 2018
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      Book . 2018
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    Authors: Molle, François;

    La région Moyen-Orient/Afrique du Nord connait une surexploitation préoccupante de ses ressources en eau, à la fois superficielles et souterraines. L'article revient tout d'abord sur les causes de cette surexploitation et le rôle des différents acteurs dans ce processus. Il fait ensuite le lien entre les dynamiques du secteur de l'eau, le développement d'une agriculture capitaliste, et l'évolution des politiques agraires, et analyse plus en détail la priorité donnée aux cultures à haute valeur ajoutée ainsi que les politiques dites de modernisation. Une brève rétrospective historique sur le cas du Maroc permet quelques réflexions sur les impacts possibles de ces politiques. (Résumé d'auteur)

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    Authors: Zeneidi, Djemila,;

    National audience

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    Authors: Dejoux, Claude;
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    Authors: Gascuel, Chantal; Patrick, Bertuzzi; Allard, Denis; Raynal, Helene, H.;
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    Authors: Sylla, Tidiane;

    Aujourd’hui, les nombreuses applications de l’Internet des Objets (IoT : Internet of Things) peuvent significativement améliorer la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs. Grâce à ces applications, il est possible de commander à distance les différents appareils de la maison, surveiller les signes vitaux d’un patient et alerter automatiquement son médecin en cas de problème. Cependant, les problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée empêchent les utilisateurs de faire pleinement confiance à ces applications, ce qui peut avoir pour effet de ralentir l’adoption globale de ces technologies et leur large déploiement. Pour résoudre ces problèmes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée, plusieurs solutions ont été proposées. Cependant, plusieurs défis restent encore à relever pour permettre une large adoption de ces applications. L’approche centrée sur l’utilisateur semble être très pertinente pour relever un grand nombre de ces défis. Pour offrir une sécurité et une protection de la vie privée centrées sur l’utilisateur et permettre la prise en charge de nombreuses applications IoT, les travaux de cette thèse proposent d’adapter la mise en œuvre des mécanismes de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Dans un premier temps, cette thèse présente l’architecture CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service). Cette architecture de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT est basée sur l’approche ‘as a service’. Elle garantit l’adaptation dynamique et personnalisée des services de sécurité et de protection de la vie privée en fonction du contexte de l’utilisateur. Grâce à la conception ‘as a service’, cette architecture se caractérise par une grande flexibilité qui lui permet de prendre en charge de nombreuses applications IoT. Dans un second temps, cette thèse présente un système permettant de gérer la sécurité et la fiabilité de l’architecture CASPaaS elle-même. Ce système, appelé SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management) gère la sécurité des données contextuelles échangées au sein de l’architecture CASPaaS ainsi que la confiance des sources de données. Ceci permet de pallier un grand nombre d’attaques pouvant conduire au disfonctionnement de notre architecture CASPaaS. Dans un troisième temps, cette thèse présente un nouveau système de gestion décentralisée des autorisations sensibles au contexte pour l’IoT. Ce système, basé également sur l’approche ‘as a service’, offre à l’utilisateur une gestion dynamique, décentralisée et simple des autorisations. Dans un dernier temps, cette thèse s’intéresse au déploiement du service CASPaaS au plus proche des utilisateurs en se basant sur une infrastructure de type Edge Computing. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle stratégie de placement dynamique de ce service. Cette stratégie fait appel à des techniques de l’intelligence artificielle afin de garantir un placement efficace tout en optimisant les différentes performances (réseau, service, capacités des nœuds Edge, processus de placement lui-même, etc.). Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications can significantly improve the daily life of users. Thanks to these applications, it is possible to control the various devices in the home remotely, monitor a patient's vital signs, and automatically alert his doctor when problems occur. However, security and privacy issues hinder the users to trust fully these applications, what may have as effect to slow down the overall adoption of these technologies and their widespread deployment. Several solutions have been proposed to address these security and privacy issues. Despite this, several challenges still need to be overcome to enable the global adoption of this type of application. The user-centric approach seems to be very relevant to address a large number of these challenges. To provide user-centric security and privacy protection and to enable the numerous IoT applications support, this thesis proposes to adapt the implementation of security and privacy protection mechanisms based on the user context and enable support for many IoT applications. First, this thesis presents the CASPaaS (Context-Aware Security and Privacy as a Service) architecture. This context-aware security and privacy architecture for IoT is based on the 'as a service' approach. It ensures the dynamic, personalized adaptation of security and privacy services based on the user's context. Thanks to the 'as a service' design, this architecture is characterized by high flexibility that will make it able to support multiple IoT applications. In a second step, this thesis presents a system to manage the security and reliability of the CASPaaS architecture itself. This system, called SETUCOM (SEcure and TrUstworthy COntext Management), addresses the security of the contextual data exchanged within the CASPaaS architecture and the trustworthiness of these data sources. This allows mitigating a large number of attacks that can lead to the malfunctioning of our CASPaaS architecture. In a third step, this thesis presents a new decentralized context-aware authorization management system for the IoT. This system, also based on the 'as a service' approach, offers the user dynamic, decentralized, and simple authorization management. Finally, this thesis focuses on deploying the CASPaaS service closer to the users based on an Edge Computing infrastructure. In this context, we propose a new dynamic placement strategy for this service. This strategy uses artificial intelligence techniques to ensure an efficient placement while optimizing the different performances (network, service, nodes capacities, placement process, etc.).

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    Authors: Gassin, Bernard; Bicho, Nuno F.; Bouby, Laurent; Capdevila, Ramón Buxó Y; +13 Authors

    La reconstitution des techniques agricoles préhistoriques constitue un élément fondamental pour la compréhension du processus d'expansion de l'agriculture en Méditerranée occidentale. Dans le cadre d'un projet européen rassemblant des tracéologues et des carpologues espagnols et français, nous avons, dans une première phase, étudié les méthodes de récolte des céréales pratiquées durant le Néolithique en Espagne et dans le Sud de la France, du Néolithique ancien au Néolithique moyen. L'étude des outils de récolte a permis de distinguer trois aires distinctes. Le Sud-Est de l'Espagne est caractérisé par des faucilles courbes avec des éléments insérés obliquement dans le manche. En Catalogne, Languedoc et Provence, la majorité des faucilles sont constituées de longues lames emmanchées parallèlement au manche, mais d'autres modèles existent. En Espagne cantabrique, les céréales étaient récoltées sans faucille. Nos travaux en cours explorent différents facteurs pouvant expliquer cette variabilité : conditions environnementales, types de céréales cultivées, finalités techniques et alimentaires de la culture des céréales, techniques de conservation des céréales, rôle de l'agriculture céréalière dans l'économie, dynamiques historiques de l'expansion et de l'adoption des innovations néolithiques. The restitution of prehistoric agricultural techniques is a key element to understand the diffusion of farming in Western Mediterranean. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of a European working group composed of Spanish and French use-wear analysts and archaeobotanists. Cereal harvesting methods during the Early and Middle Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula and the South of France were studied. Three major areas were distinguished. In the South-East of Spain, curved sickles with short flint elements inserted obliquely are characteristic. In Catalonia, Languedoc and Provence, most of the sickles are made with long blades inserted in parallel to the handle, but other ways of hafting the blade have been documented. In the Cantabrian Spain, cereals were harvested, in the beginning of the Neolithic, without sickle. This variability is here discussed taking into account different factors : ecology, variety of cultivated crops, aims of cereal cultivation (craft vs food), methods of cereal conservation, role of the cereal agriculture in the economy, historical dynamics of the spread of agriculture and of Neolithic innovations.

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    Authors: Antoine, Annie; Beaudouin, Audrey; Beltrametti, Giulia; Carocci, Sandro; +12 Authors

    L’alternance des cultures et des friches est une façon ancienne de gérer l’exploitation des terres, qui fut décriée par les Modernes mais très appréciée des sociétés que l’on disait traditionnelles. Dans les campagnes de l’Europe médiévale et moderne, une grande partie des terres était ainsi cultivée un ou deux ans avant d’être laissée en pâturages ou en broussailles pendant deux, trois ou cinq ans, dix ou vingt parfois. Les recherches rassemblées dans ce volume permettent de mesurer l’importance et la variété de ces pratiques de cultures temporaires, d’en préciser les chronologies et d’en redessiner les géographies. Partout, en effet, sur les landes britanniques comme dans les forêts nordiques, dans les maquis italiens comme sur les monts galiciens, le succès de ces cycles culturaux interroge les logiques historiographiques. Loin d’apparaître comme des techniques archaïques, extensives et peu efficaces, les cultures temporaires s’y révèlent comme des adaptations complexes et parfois très récentes, qui exigeaient un lourd investissement en travail mais offraient en contrepartie des rendements spectaculaires. Elles dévoilent un monde longtemps ignoré, où les défrichements ne sont plus le geste fondateur d’une conquête définitive des terroirs, mais des pratiques courantes et répétitives où s’actualisait en permanence, à travers la distribution des usages de la terre, une grammaire élémentaire de l’appropriation du sol.

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    Authors: Gendreau, Francis; Horlacher, D.; Véron, J.;
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    Objectifs généraux du colloque Le colloque se propose de réfléchir sur l’articulation du développement, de la migration et du genre : Dans quelle mesure la migration induit un effet de développement (économique, empowerment, démocratie, sécurité) ? Comment expliquer la féminisation de la migration ? Comment les migrantes sont-elles affectées par les politiques migratoires ? Quel est l’apport des femmes en situation de migration au développement ? Table ronde La table ronde a pour objectifs d’...

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    Book . 2016
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    Authors: Agarwal, Bina;

    Le champ des sciences sociales est dominé par deux regards opposés sur la réaction des pauvres et des assujettis face à l’oppression. Selon une idée ancienne, qui prévaut toujours, les opprimés ont une perception fausse de leurs intérêts économiques réels, adhèrent à l’idéologie de l’oppresseur et deviennent ainsi complices de leur propre oppression. Pour que le changement s’opère, il est alors indispensable d’élever le degré de conscience de tout un peuple pour qu’il comprenne son oppression et connaisse ses vrais intérêts économiques. Une idée alternative et plus récente affirme que les opprimés ne sont pas des victimes passives qui acceptent sans réserve les arguments idéologiques avancés par les privilégiés ; ils ont au contraire développé de nombreuses formes déguisées et subtiles de résistance à l’oppression. On trouve des variantes de ces deux visions, sous des formes moins polarisées, dans les réflexions actuelles des sciences sociales sur l’Asie…

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    Book . 2018
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      Book . 2018
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    Authors: Molle, François;

    La région Moyen-Orient/Afrique du Nord connait une surexploitation préoccupante de ses ressources en eau, à la fois superficielles et souterraines. L'article revient tout d'abord sur les causes de cette surexploitation et le rôle des différents acteurs dans ce processus. Il fait ensuite le lien entre les dynamiques du secteur de l'eau, le développement d'une agriculture capitaliste, et l'évolution des politiques agraires, et analyse plus en détail la priorité donnée aux cultures à haute valeur ajoutée ainsi que les politiques dites de modernisation. Une brève rétrospective historique sur le cas du Maroc permet quelques réflexions sur les impacts possibles de ces politiques. (Résumé d'auteur)

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2010
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Zeneidi, Djemila,;

    National audience

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Conference object . 2015
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    Authors: Dejoux, Claude;
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 1988
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 1988