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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Camille Abadie; Fabienne Maignan; Marine Remaud; Kukka-Maaria Kohonen; +8 Authors

    Gross primary production (GPP) by boreal forests is highly sensitive to environmental changes. However, GPP simulated by land surface models (LSMs) remains highly uncertain due to the lack of direct photosynthesis observations at large scales. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a promising proxy to improve the representation of GPP in LSMs. Because COS is absorbed by vegetation following the same diffusion pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis and not emitted back to the atmosphere, incorporating a mechanistic representation of vegetation COS uptake in LSMs allows using COS observations to refine GPP representation. Here, we perform ecosystem COS flux and GPP data assimilations to constrain the COS- and GPP-related parameters in the ORCHIDEE LSM for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (BorENF). Assimilating ecosystem COS fluxes at Hyytiälä forest increases the simulated net ecosystem COS uptake by 14%. This increase largely results from changes in the internal conductance to COS, highlighting the need to improve the representation of COS internal diffusion and consumption. Moreover, joint assimilation of ecosystem COS flux and GPP at Hyytiälä improves the simulated latent heat flux, contrary to the GPP-only data assimilation, which fails to do so. Finally, we scaled this assimilation framework up to the boreal region and find that the joint assimilation of COS at Hyytiälä and GPP fluxes at 10 BorENF sites increases the modeled vegetation COS uptake up to 18%, but not GPP. Therefore, this study encourages the use of COS flux observations to inform GPP and latent heat flux representations in LSMs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 128 (7) ISSN:2169-8961 ISSN:0148-0227 ISSN:2169-8953

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kristen K. Beck; Michael-Shawn Fletcher; Patricia Gadd; Henk Heijnis; +3 Authors

    AbstractCritical transitions in ecosystem states are often sudden and unpredictable. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to identify measurable early warning signals (EWS) for these important events. Aquatic ecosystems provide an opportunity to observe critical transitions due to their high sensitivity and rapid response times. Using palaeoecological techniques, we can measure properties of time series data to determine if critical transitions are preceded by any measurable ecosystem metrics, that is, identify EWS. Using a suite of palaeoenvironmental data spanning the last 2,400 years (diatoms, pollen, geochemistry, and charcoal influx), we assess whether a critical transition in diatom community structure was preceded by measurable EWS. Lake Vera, in the temperate rain forest of western Tasmania, Australia, has a diatom community dominated by Discostella stelligera and undergoes an abrupt compositional shift at ca. 820 cal yr BP that is concomitant with increased fire disturbance of the local vegetation. This shift is manifest as a transition from less oligotrophic acidic diatom flora (Achnanthidium minutissimum, Brachysira styriaca, and Fragilaria capucina) to more oligotrophic acidic taxa (Frustulia elongatissima, Eunotia diodon, and Gomphonema multiforme). We observe a marked increase in compositional variance and rate‐of‐change prior to this critical transition, revealing these metrics are useful EWS in this system. Interestingly, vegetation remains complacent to fire disturbance until after the shift in the diatom community. Disturbance taxa invade and the vegetation system experiences an increase in both compositional variance and rate‐of‐change. These trends imply an approaching critical transition in the vegetation and the probable collapse of the local rain forest system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sara Martínez-Alonso; Merritt N. Deeter; Helen M. Worden; John C. Gille; +11 Authors

    AbstractProducts from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are regularly validated using in situ airborne measurements. However, few of these measurements reach into the upper troposphere, thus hindering MOPITT validation in that region. Here we evaluate upper tropospheric (~500 hPa to the tropopause) MOPITT CO profiles by comparing them to satellite Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE‐FTS) retrievals and to measurements from the High‐performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole to Pole Observations (HIPPO) Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometer (QCLS). Direct comparison of colocated v5 MOPITT thermal infrared‐only retrievals, v3.0 ACE‐FTS retrievals, and HIPPO‐QCLS measurements shows a slight positive MOPITT CO bias within its 10% accuracy requirement with respect to the other two data sets. Direct comparison of colocated ACE‐FTS and HIPPO‐QCLS measurements results in a small number of samples due to the large disparity in sampling pattern and density of these data sets. Thus, two additional indirect techniques for comparison of noncoincident data sets have been applied: tracer‐tracer (CO‐O3) correlation analysis and analysis of profiles in tropopause coordinates. These techniques suggest a negative bias of ACE‐FTS with respect to HIPPO‐QCLS; this could be caused by differences in resolution (horizontal, vertical) or by deficiencies in the ACE‐FTS CO retrievals below ~20 km of altitude, among others. We also investigate the temporal stability of MOPITT and ACE‐FTS data, which provide unique global CO records and are thus important in climate analysis. Our results indicate that the relative bias between the two data sets has remained generally stable during the 2004–2010 period.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cyriac S. Mvolo; Ahmed Koubaa; Jean Beaulieu; Alain Cloutier;

    So far, few studies have considered the impacts of seed sources transfer on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) wood quality, although wood quality attributes (WQA) in general and the differences between juvenile and mature wood in particular will determine suitability of the produced wood for end-uses. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of selecting superior jack pine provenances based on selected WQA. Twenty-two provenances of jack pine were planted in 1964 in Petawawa Research Forest, ON, Canada, as part of a provenance test. The plantation location offers conditions close to optimum for jack pine growth. Transition ages at breast height, determined with tracheids length, were computed with a piecewise model. Measurements at age 42 from seed were subjected to analyses of variance. Radial variations from pith to bark, as well as trends with seed sources origin of the selected WQA were also considered. A ranking was made based on a selection index built with four WQA. The provenances matured between 8 and 14 years, corresponding to 17%&ndash 48% of juvenile wood proportion. Significant differences among provenances were observed for ring width, ring density, tracheid length, and diameter at breast height but not for tracheid diameter, tree height, transition age, and juvenile wood proportion. None of the provenances ranked the best with all the selected WQA, but it was possible to find provenances exhibiting both high growth rate and good wood quality. A surprising result of this study was that tracheid diameter initially enlarged for 8 years, before declining toward the bark. It is possible to select provenances for a higher growth rate and for good physical (i.e., related to wood density) and anatomical (i.e., related to tracheid dimensions) wood quality attributes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Forests
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    Forests
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forests
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      Forests
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aljohani, Renad; Samarasinghe, Himeshi; Ashu, Tabi; Xu, Jianping;

    AbstractYeasts are unicellular fungi; they are found in a diverse range of natural habitats, including soil, aquatic environments, the surface of plants, and the skin and mucosal surfaces of animal hosts. A variety of yeasts have been found in the soil environment. However, most studies of soil yeasts have come from developed countries, and there is a dearth of research on soil yeasts in Africa. In this study, we analyzed 493 soil samples from nine geographical locations in Cameroon for yeasts, using a culture - based method. A total of 110 yeast isolates were obtained. Based on their sequences at the fungal barcode locus, the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, the 110 yeast isolates were putatively identified as belonging to 16 yeast species, including 15 Ascomycetes and one Basidiomycete. Differences in yeast species distribution were observed among the analyzed geographic regions. PCR fingerprinting analyses identified a large number of genotypes among strains within each of the obtained yeast species. Significantly, there was little evidence of geographic clustering among yeast strains from any of the yeast species. Our results suggest that Cameroon contains significant yeast diversity and that gene flow is common among local and regional soil yeast populations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Shankar, Bhairavi;

    Hypervelocity collisions of asteroids onto planetary bodies have catastrophic effects on the target rocks through the process of shock metamorphism. The resulting features, impact craters, are circular depressions with a sharp rim surrounded by an ejecta blanket of variably shocked rocks. With increasing impact energy, the inner crater cavity can preserve complex morphologies including terraced walls, central uplifts, and melted rocks. The lack of erosion due to the absence of water or an atmosphere makes the Moon the perfect target to study impact crater processes, in particular the distribution of highly shocked materials within impact craters of different sizes. This study focuses on the characterization and distribution of highly shocked impact melt deposits using multispectral satellite datasets around three complex craters on the farside of the Moon. The study sites have varying morphologies of central uplifts on the crater floor: 1) the 81 km Olcott crater has a cluster of peak hills; 2) Kovalevskaya crater is a 113 km diameter complex crater with a central peak; and 3) Schrodinger basin has a central peak ring. Models propose that the collapse of crater walls and central uplifts during the final stages of crater formation determine where much of the melt rich rocks are eventually emplaced. The results of this study indicate that for increasing crater sizes, the volume of melt-rich rocks generated also increases – at rates greater than model estimates. Impact melt deposits are emplaced beyond the crater rims at each of the sites and preserve a range of morphologies, including melt veneers, melt sheet, and ponded deposits. The regional and local topography, together with crater modification processes greatly affect where the impact melts are finally emplaced. The compositional analyses of the farside crust, using multispectral reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-VIS-NIR range, indicates that there is increasing evidence of highly mafic compositions (i.e., rocks rich in high-Ca pyroxene, olivine, spinel) intercalated within the original crustal highlands (rocks rich in plagioclase feldspar, and low-Ca pyroxenes) on the lunar farside, proving that the lunar farside is a far more geologically complicated terrain than originally assumed.

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    Authors: Piotr Tompalski; Joanne C. White; Nicholas C. Coops; Michael A. Wulder; +4 Authors

    Abstract Quality information on forest resources is fundamental for sustainable forest management. Manual aerial photointerpretation is used as a cost-effective source of data for forest inventories; however, the process of photointerpretation is inherently subjective and is often undertaken by multiple photointerpreters for a given forest management area. In contrast, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data enable characterization of forest structure in a systematic fashion with quantifiable levels of accuracy and precision that often exceed required targets and standards. However, the gains associated with the use of new technologies for forest inventory are difficult to measure because the quality of existing photointepreted inventories have rarely been quantified. Using ALS data as reference, the objective of this study was to quantify the precision of photointerpreted estimates of forest stand height and canopy cover (CC). We examined forest inventories from three study sites in three different forest regions of Canada. Each of the study sites was located within a different provincial jurisdiction with unique photointerpretation standards and forest ecosystems. Stand-level estimates of forest height and cover were compared to reference estimates generated from the ALS data. Overall, our results indicated that precision was greater for photointerpreted estimates of height, with a relative standard deviation ranging from 22 per cent to 29 per cent among our three sites, compared to estimates for CC, with precision ranging from 28 per cent to 59 per cent. While the relationship between photointerpreted estimates of height and ALS estimates of height were generally linear and consistent for all study sites, relationships for CC were non-linear. We found that precision for both stand height and cover varied by dominant species, inventory stand structure, age, and ALS canopy complexity, and that in the majority of cases, the differences between the photointerpreted estimate and the ALS estimate were statistically significant. It is also noted that the variability in photointerpretation precision as a function of the aforementioned factors was not consistent among our three study sites, indicating that site-specific forest conditions and photointerpretation procedures influence the precision of photointerpreted estimates. The influence of local forest conditions and interpretation procedures are therefore important considerations when seeking to quantify the potential relative gains in precision, which may be afforded by technologies such as ALS for forest inventory programs. Moreover, approaches to improve consistency in photointerpreted estimates of cover would be useful for operational inventory programs.

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    Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forestry An International Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Auriel M. V. Fournier; Amanda Shave; Jason Fischer; Joe Siegrist; +7 Authors
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    Journal of Field Ornithology
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    Journal of Field Ornithology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Field Ornithology
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      Journal of Field Ornithology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lukas R. Jarron; Nicholas C. Coops; William H. MacKenzie; Pamela Dykstra;

    AbstractCoarse woody debris (CWD) is a meaningful contributor to forest carbon cycles, wildlife habitat, and biodiversity and can influence wildfire behavior. Using airborne laser scanning (ALS), we map CWD across a range of natural forest stand types in north-central British Columbia, Canada, providing forest managers with spatially detailed information on the presence and volume of ground-level woody biomass. We describe a novel methodology that isolates CWD returns from large diameter logs (>30cm) using a refined grounding algorithm, a mixture of height and pulse-based filters and linear pattern recognition, to transform ALS returns into measurable, vectorized shapes. We then assess the accuracy of CWD detection at the individual log level and predict CWD volume at the plot level. We detected 64% of CWD logs and 79% of CWD volume within our plots. Increased elevation of CWD significantly aided detection (P = 0.04), whereas advanced stages of decay hindered detection (P = 0.04). ALS-predicted CWD volume totals were compared against field-measured CWD and displayed a strong correlation (R = 0.81), allowing us to expand the methodology to map CWD over a larger region. The expanded CWD volume map compared ALS volume predictions between stands and suggests greater volume in stands with older and more heterogeneous stand structure.

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    Forest Science
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forest Science
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    Authors: Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent;

    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

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    Applied Optics
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    Other literature type . 2012
    Applied Optics
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    Authors: Camille Abadie; Fabienne Maignan; Marine Remaud; Kukka-Maaria Kohonen; +8 Authors

    Gross primary production (GPP) by boreal forests is highly sensitive to environmental changes. However, GPP simulated by land surface models (LSMs) remains highly uncertain due to the lack of direct photosynthesis observations at large scales. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a promising proxy to improve the representation of GPP in LSMs. Because COS is absorbed by vegetation following the same diffusion pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis and not emitted back to the atmosphere, incorporating a mechanistic representation of vegetation COS uptake in LSMs allows using COS observations to refine GPP representation. Here, we perform ecosystem COS flux and GPP data assimilations to constrain the COS- and GPP-related parameters in the ORCHIDEE LSM for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (BorENF). Assimilating ecosystem COS fluxes at Hyytiälä forest increases the simulated net ecosystem COS uptake by 14%. This increase largely results from changes in the internal conductance to COS, highlighting the need to improve the representation of COS internal diffusion and consumption. Moreover, joint assimilation of ecosystem COS flux and GPP at Hyytiälä improves the simulated latent heat flux, contrary to the GPP-only data assimilation, which fails to do so. Finally, we scaled this assimilation framework up to the boreal region and find that the joint assimilation of COS at Hyytiälä and GPP fluxes at 10 BorENF sites increases the modeled vegetation COS uptake up to 18%, but not GPP. Therefore, this study encourages the use of COS flux observations to inform GPP and latent heat flux representations in LSMs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 128 (7) ISSN:2169-8961 ISSN:0148-0227 ISSN:2169-8953

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    Article . 2023
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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2023
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kristen K. Beck; Michael-Shawn Fletcher; Patricia Gadd; Henk Heijnis; +3 Authors

    AbstractCritical transitions in ecosystem states are often sudden and unpredictable. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to identify measurable early warning signals (EWS) for these important events. Aquatic ecosystems provide an opportunity to observe critical transitions due to their high sensitivity and rapid response times. Using palaeoecological techniques, we can measure properties of time series data to determine if critical transitions are preceded by any measurable ecosystem metrics, that is, identify EWS. Using a suite of palaeoenvironmental data spanning the last 2,400 years (diatoms, pollen, geochemistry, and charcoal influx), we assess whether a critical transition in diatom community structure was preceded by measurable EWS. Lake Vera, in the temperate rain forest of western Tasmania, Australia, has a diatom community dominated by Discostella stelligera and undergoes an abrupt compositional shift at ca. 820 cal yr BP that is concomitant with increased fire disturbance of the local vegetation. This shift is manifest as a transition from less oligotrophic acidic diatom flora (Achnanthidium minutissimum, Brachysira styriaca, and Fragilaria capucina) to more oligotrophic acidic taxa (Frustulia elongatissima, Eunotia diodon, and Gomphonema multiforme). We observe a marked increase in compositional variance and rate‐of‐change prior to this critical transition, revealing these metrics are useful EWS in this system. Interestingly, vegetation remains complacent to fire disturbance until after the shift in the diatom community. Disturbance taxa invade and the vegetation system experiences an increase in both compositional variance and rate‐of‐change. These trends imply an approaching critical transition in the vegetation and the probable collapse of the local rain forest system.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Sara Martínez-Alonso; Merritt N. Deeter; Helen M. Worden; John C. Gille; +11 Authors

    AbstractProducts from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are regularly validated using in situ airborne measurements. However, few of these measurements reach into the upper troposphere, thus hindering MOPITT validation in that region. Here we evaluate upper tropospheric (~500 hPa to the tropopause) MOPITT CO profiles by comparing them to satellite Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE‐FTS) retrievals and to measurements from the High‐performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole to Pole Observations (HIPPO) Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometer (QCLS). Direct comparison of colocated v5 MOPITT thermal infrared‐only retrievals, v3.0 ACE‐FTS retrievals, and HIPPO‐QCLS measurements shows a slight positive MOPITT CO bias within its 10% accuracy requirement with respect to the other two data sets. Direct comparison of colocated ACE‐FTS and HIPPO‐QCLS measurements results in a small number of samples due to the large disparity in sampling pattern and density of these data sets. Thus, two additional indirect techniques for comparison of noncoincident data sets have been applied: tracer‐tracer (CO‐O3) correlation analysis and analysis of profiles in tropopause coordinates. These techniques suggest a negative bias of ACE‐FTS with respect to HIPPO‐QCLS; this could be caused by differences in resolution (horizontal, vertical) or by deficiencies in the ACE‐FTS CO retrievals below ~20 km of altitude, among others. We also investigate the temporal stability of MOPITT and ACE‐FTS data, which provide unique global CO records and are thus important in climate analysis. Our results indicate that the relative bias between the two data sets has remained generally stable during the 2004–2010 period.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao