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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Caitlin Ceryes; Kathryn Heley; Danielle Edwards; Chergai Gao-Rittenberg; +3 Authors

    The donation of unharvested or unsold crops to rescue organizations has been promoted as a strat­egy to improve healthy food access for food inse­cure households while reducing production-level food loss and waste (FLW). In this study, we aimed to assess the motivations, barriers, and facili­tators for crop donation as a FLW reduction strat­egy among Maryland farmers. We interviewed 18 Maryland-based food producers (nine frequent crop donors and nine infrequent, by self-report) in 2016 – 2017, soliciting their perspectives on crop donation motivators, process feasibility, and inte­r­ventions aimed at increasing crop donation. The interviews were thematically coded. All respond­ents were aware of crop donation as an option, and most expressed interest in reducing FLW by divert­ing crop surpluses for human consumption. While financial barriers represented one aspect influenc­ing donation decisions, respondents also cited con­venience, process knowledge, and liability as key considerations. In contrast to frequent donors, many of whom considered donation a moral imperative, some infrequent donors questioned the expectation that they would donate crops without compensation. Both frequent and infrequent donors were aware of pro-donation tax incentives, and infrequent donors reported being unlikely to use them. This research demonstrates that crop donation motivations, barriers, and facilitators can be diverse. Given the existence of crop surpluses and their potential benefits as emergency food, our results suggest that multiple interventions and poli­cies may contribute to incentivizing and facilitating crop donation (or enabling the purchase of surplus crops) rather than one-size-fits-all approaches. Our findings also highlight a need to prioritize crop recovery methods that enhance growers’ financial stability.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Agricultu...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eric D, McCollum; Carina, King; Rashid, Deula; Beatiwel, Zadutsa; +8 Authors

    To investigate implementation of outpatient pulse oximetry among children with pneumonia, in Malawi.In 2011, 72 health-care providers at 18 rural health centres and 38 community health workers received training in the use of pulse oximetry to measure haemoglobin oxygen saturations. Data collected, between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014 by the trained individuals, on children aged 2-59 months with clinically diagnosed pneumonia were analysed.Of the 14 092 children included in the analysis, 13 266 (94.1%) were successfully checked by oximetry. Among the children with chest indrawing and/or danger signs, those with a measured oxygen saturation below 90% were more than twice as likely to have been referred as those with higher saturations (84.3% [385/457] vs 41.5% [871/2099];Implementation of pulse oximetry by our trainees substantially increased the referrals of Malawian children with severe hypoxaemic pneumonia. When data from oximetry were excluded, retrospective application of the guidelines published by WHO in 2014 failed to identify a considerable proportion of severely hypoxaemic children eligible only via oximetry.Étudier l'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls chez les enfants atteints de pneumonie en traitement ambulatoire au Malawi.En 2011, 72 prestataires de soins de santé de 18 centres de santé ruraux et 38 agents de santé communautaires ont été formés à l'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls pour mesurer la saturation en oxygène de l'hémoglobine. Des données collectées entre le 1er janvier 2012 et le 30 juin 2014 par les individus formés sur des enfants âgés de 2 à 59 mois atteints d'une pneumonie cliniquement diagnostiquée ont été analysées.Sur les 14 092 enfants inclus dans l'analyse, 13 266 (94,1%) ont été examinés avec succès grâce à l'oxymétrie. Parmi les enfants présentant un tirage sous-costal et/ou des signes de danger, ceux dont la saturation en oxygène mesurée était inférieure à 90% avaient plus de deux fois plus de chances d'être orientés vers un spécialiste que ceux présentant une saturation plus importante (84,3% [385/457] contre 41,5% [871/2099]; P 0,001). L'utilisation de l'oxymétrie semble avoir augmenté de 0% à 27,2% (P 0.001) le taux d'orientation vers un spécialiste dans le cas des enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère sans tirage sous-costal ni signes de danger. En l'absence d'oxymétrie, si les directives en la matière publiées par l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en 2014 avaient été appliquées, 390/568 (68,7%) enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère examinés dans les centres de santé considérés et 52/84 (61,9%) enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère examinés par des agents de santé communautaires n'auraient pas pu bénéficier d'une orientation vers un spécialiste.L'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls par les individus formés a considérablement accru l'orientation vers un spécialiste des enfants malawites atteints de pneumonie sévère et ayant développé une hypoxémie. Lorsque les données provenant de l'oxymétrie étaient exclues, l'application rétrospective des directives publiées par l'OMS en 2014 ne permettait pas d'identifier une proportion considérable d'enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère qui remplissaient les conditions requises uniquement au vu de l'oxymétrie.Investigar la implementación de la oximetría de pulso ambulatoria en niños con neumonía en Malawi.En 2011, 72 profesionales de la salud de 18 centros de salud en zonas rurales y 38 trabajadores de la salud comunitarios recibieron formación con respecto al uso de la oximetría de pulso para medir las saturaciones de oxígeno de la hemoglobina. Se analizaron los datos, que las personas formadas recopilaron entre el 1 de enero de 2012 y el 30 de junio de 2014, de niños de 2 a 59 meses de edad con un diagnóstico clínico de neumonía.De los 14 092 niños incluidos en el análisis, se realizaron las pruebas con oximetría de manera satisfactoria a 13 266 (94,1%). Entre los niños con retracción costal y/o signos de peligro, aquellos con una medida de saturación de oxígeno por debajo del 90% tenían más del doble de probabilidades de haber sido derivados que aquellos con saturaciones más elevadas (84,3% [385/457] frente al 41,5% [871/2 099];La implementación de la oximetría de pulso por las personas formadas incrementó de forma sustancial las derivaciones de los niños de Malawi con neumonía hipoxémica grave. Cuando se excluyeron los datos procedentes de la oximetría, la aplicación retrospectiva de las directrices publicadas por la OMS en 2014 no pudo identificar un porcentaje considerable de niños hipoxémicos graves que cumplían los requisitos únicamente a través de la oximetría.الاستقصاء بشأن تنفيذ عمليات قياس التأكسج في العيادات الخارجية للأطفال المصابين بالالتهاب الرئوي في ملاوي.حصل 72 من مقدمي خدمات الرعاية الصحية في 18 مركزًا طبيًا ريفيًا و38 عاملاً في مجال الخدمات الصحية المجتمعية في عام 2011 على تدريبات متعلقة باستخدام تقنية قياس التأكسج بهدف قياس نسب تشبع الأكسجين والهيموجلوبين. وتم تحليل البيانات المجمعة في الفترة بين 1 كانون الثاني/يناير 2012 و 30 حزيران/يونيو 2014 بواسطة الأفراد المدرّبين، وهذه البيانات خاصة بالأطفال البالغ أعمارهم ما بين 2 إلى 59 شهرًا والمصابين بمرض الالتهاب الرئوي الذي تم تشخيصه داخل العيادات.من بين 14092 طفلاً شملهم التحليل، كان 13266 طفلاً منهم (بنسبة ‏94.1‏%) قد تم فحصه بنجاح بواسطة تقنية قياس التأكسج. ومن بين الأطفال الذين يعانون من بروز القفص الصدري أثناء التنفس و/أو علامات الخطر، كان أولئك الذين لديهم نسبة تشبع الأكسجين أقل من 90‏% لديهم أرجحية مضاعفة لإحالتهم للعلاج باعتبارهم من الأطفال الذين لديهم نسبة تشبع أعلى (84.3‏% [385/457] مقابل ‏41.5‏% [871/2099[؛إن تنفيذ عملية قياس التأكسج بواسطة المتدربين لدينا أدى بشكل كبير إلى زيادة حالات الإحالة للعلاج بالنسبة للأطفال المصابين بالالتهاب الرئوي الحاد في ملاوي. وعندما تم استبعاد بيانات قياس التأكسج، فشل التطبيق بأثر رجعي للمبادئ التوجيهية الصادرة من منظمة الصحة العالمية في عام 2014 في تحديد نسبة كبيرة من الأطفال المصابين بخلل الجهاز التنفسي الحاد والذين كانوا مؤهلين للعلاج نتيجة استخدام تقنية قياس التأكسج فقط.旨在调查马拉维肺炎患儿门诊脉搏血氧饱和度检测的实施情况。.2011 年,18 个农村医疗中心的 72 位医疗护理人员和 38 位社区医疗工作者接受了培训,学习使用脉搏血氧饱和度检测法测量血氧饱和度。 我们分析了受训人员于 2012 年 1 月 1 日到 2014 年 6 月 30 日期间采集的年龄在 2-59 个月、临床诊断为肺炎的儿童的数据。.在我们分析的 14 092 位儿童中,13 266 (94.1%) 位已经成功接受血氧饱和度检测。 在出现胸部凹陷和/或危险症状的儿童中,测量的血氧饱和度低于 90% 的儿童转诊的可能性是饱和度更高儿童的两倍以上(分别为 84.3% [385/457] 和 41.5% [871/2099];受训人员对脉搏血氧饱和度检测的实施大幅度提高了马拉维重度低氧性肺炎患儿的转诊率。 但是如果不采用血氧饱和度检测中的数据,而是追溯式采纳 WHO 2014 年发布的指南,则相当大比例的仅通过血氧饱和度检测才能确诊的重度低氧血症儿童无法得到确诊。.Изучить амбулаторное применение пульсоксиметрии у больных пневмонией детей в Малави.В течение 2011 года 72 врача из 18 сельских больниц и 38 местных медицинских работников были обучены использованию пульсоксиметрии для измерения насыщенности гемоглобина кислородом. Были проанализированы данные, собранные обученными лицами на протяжении периода с 1 января 2012 года по 30 июня 2014 года у детей в возрасте от 2 до 59 месяцев, которым был поставлен диагноз «пневмония».Из 14 092 детей, включенных в анализ, у 13 266 (94,1%) удалось успешно провести пульсоксиметрию. Дети со впалой грудью и (или) опасными симптомами, у которых измеренная насыщенность кислородом была менее 90%, более чем в два раза чаще направлялись в больницу, чем дети с высокой оксигенацией (84,3% (385 из 457 детей) против 41,5% (871 ребенок из 2099), р 0,001). Доступность оксиметрии привела к повышению уровня направления в больницу для детей с серьезной гипоксемией без впалой груди или опасных симптомов с 0 до 27,2% (p 0,001). В отсутствие оксиметрии и при использовании соответствующих рекомендаций Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ), опубликованных в 2014 году, 390 из 568 детей (68,7%) с серьезной гипоксемией в центрах проведения исследования и 52 из 84 детей (61,9%) с серьезной гипоксемией, которых осматривали местные медицинские работники, не были бы направлены в больницу ввиду отсутствия показаний.Внедрение пульсоксиметрии нашими стажерами значительно повысило частоту направления в больницу малавийских детей с серьезной гипоксемией пневмонийного происхождения. При исключении из анамнеза данных пульсоксиметрии ретроспективное применение рекомендаций ВОЗ от 2014 года не позволяло выявить значительное количество детей с серьезной гипоксемией, необходимость госпитализации которых оказалось возможным определить только с помощью оксиметрии.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Johanna Riha; Alex Karabarinde; Gerald Ssenyomo; Steven Allender; +5 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

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    Article . 2014
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    PLoS Medicine
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS Medicine
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      PLoS Medicine
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS Medicine
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: McMahon, Shannon; Chase, Rachel; Winch, Peter; Chebet, Joy; +4 Authors

    Quantitative Tool. (PDF 219Â kb)

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    Authors: Stella Koutros; Sonja I Berndt; Kathryn Hughes Barry; Gabriella Andreotti; +7 Authors

    Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1) SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44–8.15) (P-interaction = 0.003). Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41) (P-interaction = 0.006). In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Andrea Wolf; Björn Bauer; Erin L. Abner; Tal Ashkenazy-Frolinger; +1 Authors

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background--scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3-5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11-13 month-old)-to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Authors: Ashley B. Gripper;

    Gardens and farms provide individuals and communities with access to affordable, nutritious, and culturally significant foods. There is a rich body of literature unpacking the connections between Black urban growing and agency, freedom, resistance, and care. However, spirituality remains one aspect of health and wellbeing that has not been studied extensively in relation to agriculture. The main goal of this study was to conduct focus groups with Philly-based growers to understand the self-determined impacts of urban agriculture on health, agency, and wellbeing. The secondary goal of this work was to determine if these impacts differ by race. I apply a collective agency and community resilience theoretical framework to this study. This framework offers a model to understand agriculture as a way for communities to become self-determined, self-reliant, and self-sustained. For this study exploring the impacts of urban agriculture on health, there were three eligibility criteria. Participants had to be at least 18 years old, identify as Black or White, and have grown food in a garden or farm in Philadelphia. I hosted six race-specific focus groups at Bartram’s Garden in Southwest Philadelphia. The audio recordings were transcribed, and the full transcripts were coded using open and axial coding methods and a “key concepts” framework. We also employed several methods of triangulation to help ensure the credibility and validity of the findings. Four major themes emerged from the data: growing as a demonstration of agency and power, growing as a facilitator of body–mind wellness, community care and relationship-building, and deepened spiritual connection and interdependence. There were both similarities and differences in the impacts of urban agriculture by race. Across the six focus groups, people talked about concepts related to community care and relationship-building as being major benefits of growing food. In both groups, people also brought up significant issues and barriers around land security. Mentions of spirituality appeared more frequently and more emphatically in the Black focus groups. Black focus groups were more likely to discuss the collective impacts of agriculture, while White participants were more likely to discuss the impacts on themselves as individuals. The findings of this focus group study point to some key domains through which agriculture impacts the health of farmers and growers in Philadelphia.

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    Authors: Luque,John; Maupin,Jonathan; Ferris,Daron; Guevara Condorhuaman,Wendy;

    John S Luque,1 Jonathan N Maupin,2 Daron G Ferris,3,4 Wendy S Guevara Condorhuaman4 1Department of Public Health Sciences, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 2School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; 4CerviCusco, Cusco, Peru Background: Peru is characterized by high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. The country also experiences significant gaps in quality cervical cancer screening coverage for the population.Objective: This descriptive mixed methods study conducted in Cusco, Peru, aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of medical staff, health care workers, and patients toward a cervical cancer screening program that included both clinic-based and community outreach services conducted by a nongovernmental organization clinic (CerviCusco). The study also explored patient knowledge and attitudes around cervical cancer and about the human papillomavirus (HPV) to inform patient education efforts.Methods: The study employed structured interviews with key informants (n=16) primarily from CerviCusco, which provides cervical cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment services, and surveys with a sample of patients (n=30) receiving services at the clinic and at screening campaigns.Results: The majority of key informant medical staff participants felt that the general public had a very negative view of government health services. One theme running throughout the interviews was the perception that the general population lacked a culture of preventive health care and would wait until symptoms were severe before seeking treatment. Regarding services that were received by patients at CerviCusco, the participants responded that the prices were reasonable and more affordable than some private clinics. Patients attending the rural health campaigns liked that the services were free and of good quality.Conclusion: CerviCusco has demonstrated its capacity to provide screening outreach campaigns to populations who had not previously had access to liquid-based cytology services. The finding that patients had generally low levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine prompted the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate educational and promotional materials to improve the educational component of the periodic campaigns conducted primarily in rural areas of Andean Peru. Keywords: Pap test, rapid assessment, global health, screening programs, outreach, South America

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Patient Preference and Adherence
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Patient Preference and Adherence
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      Patient Preference and Adherence
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Patient Preference and Adherence
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    Authors: Yan, Zhang; Juan, He; Lei-Jie, Jia; Ting-Lu, Yuan; +4 Authors

    Author Summary Gibberella stalk rot of maize is an economically important crop disease caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (previously also called Gibberella zeae). Stalk rots develop in the main stem of mature maize plants. Detailed anatomical studies of the complete infection process in maize stalk have not previously been reported at the cellular level. Using a fluorescently-tagged strain of F. graminearum, we observed that the fungus initially grows between live maize cells (intercellular growth) and only later penetrates host cells, also killing nearby plant cells. Using laser microdissection, we selectively retrieved fungal biomass from infected maize stalks and obtained high-resolution gene expression profiles for the fungal-enriched samples at 0, 12, 18, 36, 48, 72, 108, 132 and 144 hours after inoculation (hai). Many of the gene expression patterns are consistent with microscopically observed fungal growth at the corresponding stage of infection. For example, enzymes with the potential to break pectin primary chains are most highly expressed at 12–36 hai when F. graminearum is observed to grow, for the most part, intercellularly, for which breakdown of pectin, a major intercellular component, is required. We propose a previously unreported strategy for the successful colonization of maize stalk by F. graminearum that involves the enzyme betaine lipid synthase 1: the pathogen produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids which allows it to maintain an aggressive intercellular advance in the phosphorus depleted environment of the maize apoplast before it kills nearby plant cells and releases their cellular nutrients. The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen’s growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36–48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum’s ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS Pathogens
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS Pathogens
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; +1 Authors

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status. Resumen: VIH e infeccion de transmisión sexual (ITS) son preocupantes en las poblaciones Mayas de Guatemala, en donde la migración para tener un trabajo en plantaciones agrícolas es común. Este estudio fue realizado para determinar si la migración del hombre está asociada con infecciones de transmisión sexual hacia su pareja primaria. En un análisis multi-variable de los datos de una encuesta mas grande sobre salud sexual, los odds de reportar síntomas de ITS era dos veces más grande en mujeres que tienen parejas primarias masculinas que migran (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71) comparado a las mujeres que sus parejas no migran. Mujeres de los grupos lingüísticos Mam y Kaqchikel reportaron mas síntomas de ITS despues de ajustar la migracion como un factor de riesgo. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

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    AIDS and Behavior
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    AIDS and Behavior
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      AIDS and Behavior
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    Authors: Caitlin Ceryes; Kathryn Heley; Danielle Edwards; Chergai Gao-Rittenberg; +3 Authors

    The donation of unharvested or unsold crops to rescue organizations has been promoted as a strat­egy to improve healthy food access for food inse­cure households while reducing production-level food loss and waste (FLW). In this study, we aimed to assess the motivations, barriers, and facili­tators for crop donation as a FLW reduction strat­egy among Maryland farmers. We interviewed 18 Maryland-based food producers (nine frequent crop donors and nine infrequent, by self-report) in 2016 – 2017, soliciting their perspectives on crop donation motivators, process feasibility, and inte­r­ventions aimed at increasing crop donation. The interviews were thematically coded. All respond­ents were aware of crop donation as an option, and most expressed interest in reducing FLW by divert­ing crop surpluses for human consumption. While financial barriers represented one aspect influenc­ing donation decisions, respondents also cited con­venience, process knowledge, and liability as key considerations. In contrast to frequent donors, many of whom considered donation a moral imperative, some infrequent donors questioned the expectation that they would donate crops without compensation. Both frequent and infrequent donors were aware of pro-donation tax incentives, and infrequent donors reported being unlikely to use them. This research demonstrates that crop donation motivations, barriers, and facilitators can be diverse. Given the existence of crop surpluses and their potential benefits as emergency food, our results suggest that multiple interventions and poli­cies may contribute to incentivizing and facilitating crop donation (or enabling the purchase of surplus crops) rather than one-size-fits-all approaches. Our findings also highlight a need to prioritize crop recovery methods that enhance growers’ financial stability.

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    Authors: Eric D, McCollum; Carina, King; Rashid, Deula; Beatiwel, Zadutsa; +8 Authors

    To investigate implementation of outpatient pulse oximetry among children with pneumonia, in Malawi.In 2011, 72 health-care providers at 18 rural health centres and 38 community health workers received training in the use of pulse oximetry to measure haemoglobin oxygen saturations. Data collected, between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014 by the trained individuals, on children aged 2-59 months with clinically diagnosed pneumonia were analysed.Of the 14 092 children included in the analysis, 13 266 (94.1%) were successfully checked by oximetry. Among the children with chest indrawing and/or danger signs, those with a measured oxygen saturation below 90% were more than twice as likely to have been referred as those with higher saturations (84.3% [385/457] vs 41.5% [871/2099];Implementation of pulse oximetry by our trainees substantially increased the referrals of Malawian children with severe hypoxaemic pneumonia. When data from oximetry were excluded, retrospective application of the guidelines published by WHO in 2014 failed to identify a considerable proportion of severely hypoxaemic children eligible only via oximetry.Étudier l'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls chez les enfants atteints de pneumonie en traitement ambulatoire au Malawi.En 2011, 72 prestataires de soins de santé de 18 centres de santé ruraux et 38 agents de santé communautaires ont été formés à l'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls pour mesurer la saturation en oxygène de l'hémoglobine. Des données collectées entre le 1er janvier 2012 et le 30 juin 2014 par les individus formés sur des enfants âgés de 2 à 59 mois atteints d'une pneumonie cliniquement diagnostiquée ont été analysées.Sur les 14 092 enfants inclus dans l'analyse, 13 266 (94,1%) ont été examinés avec succès grâce à l'oxymétrie. Parmi les enfants présentant un tirage sous-costal et/ou des signes de danger, ceux dont la saturation en oxygène mesurée était inférieure à 90% avaient plus de deux fois plus de chances d'être orientés vers un spécialiste que ceux présentant une saturation plus importante (84,3% [385/457] contre 41,5% [871/2099]; P 0,001). L'utilisation de l'oxymétrie semble avoir augmenté de 0% à 27,2% (P 0.001) le taux d'orientation vers un spécialiste dans le cas des enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère sans tirage sous-costal ni signes de danger. En l'absence d'oxymétrie, si les directives en la matière publiées par l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en 2014 avaient été appliquées, 390/568 (68,7%) enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère examinés dans les centres de santé considérés et 52/84 (61,9%) enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère examinés par des agents de santé communautaires n'auraient pas pu bénéficier d'une orientation vers un spécialiste.L'utilisation de l'oxymétrie de pouls par les individus formés a considérablement accru l'orientation vers un spécialiste des enfants malawites atteints de pneumonie sévère et ayant développé une hypoxémie. Lorsque les données provenant de l'oxymétrie étaient exclues, l'application rétrospective des directives publiées par l'OMS en 2014 ne permettait pas d'identifier une proportion considérable d'enfants souffrant d'hypoxémie sévère qui remplissaient les conditions requises uniquement au vu de l'oxymétrie.Investigar la implementación de la oximetría de pulso ambulatoria en niños con neumonía en Malawi.En 2011, 72 profesionales de la salud de 18 centros de salud en zonas rurales y 38 trabajadores de la salud comunitarios recibieron formación con respecto al uso de la oximetría de pulso para medir las saturaciones de oxígeno de la hemoglobina. Se analizaron los datos, que las personas formadas recopilaron entre el 1 de enero de 2012 y el 30 de junio de 2014, de niños de 2 a 59 meses de edad con un diagnóstico clínico de neumonía.De los 14 092 niños incluidos en el análisis, se realizaron las pruebas con oximetría de manera satisfactoria a 13 266 (94,1%). Entre los niños con retracción costal y/o signos de peligro, aquellos con una medida de saturación de oxígeno por debajo del 90% tenían más del doble de probabilidades de haber sido derivados que aquellos con saturaciones más elevadas (84,3% [385/457] frente al 41,5% [871/2 099];La implementación de la oximetría de pulso por las personas formadas incrementó de forma sustancial las derivaciones de los niños de Malawi con neumonía hipoxémica grave. Cuando se excluyeron los datos procedentes de la oximetría, la aplicación retrospectiva de las directrices publicadas por la OMS en 2014 no pudo identificar un porcentaje considerable de niños hipoxémicos graves que cumplían los requisitos únicamente a través de la oximetría.الاستقصاء بشأن تنفيذ عمليات قياس التأكسج في العيادات الخارجية للأطفال المصابين بالالتهاب الرئوي في ملاوي.حصل 72 من مقدمي خدمات الرعاية الصحية في 18 مركزًا طبيًا ريفيًا و38 عاملاً في مجال الخدمات الصحية المجتمعية في عام 2011 على تدريبات متعلقة باستخدام تقنية قياس التأكسج بهدف قياس نسب تشبع الأكسجين والهيموجلوبين. وتم تحليل البيانات المجمعة في الفترة بين 1 كانون الثاني/يناير 2012 و 30 حزيران/يونيو 2014 بواسطة الأفراد المدرّبين، وهذه البيانات خاصة بالأطفال البالغ أعمارهم ما بين 2 إلى 59 شهرًا والمصابين بمرض الالتهاب الرئوي الذي تم تشخيصه داخل العيادات.من بين 14092 طفلاً شملهم التحليل، كان 13266 طفلاً منهم (بنسبة ‏94.1‏%) قد تم فحصه بنجاح بواسطة تقنية قياس التأكسج. ومن بين الأطفال الذين يعانون من بروز القفص الصدري أثناء التنفس و/أو علامات الخطر، كان أولئك الذين لديهم نسبة تشبع الأكسجين أقل من 90‏% لديهم أرجحية مضاعفة لإحالتهم للعلاج باعتبارهم من الأطفال الذين لديهم نسبة تشبع أعلى (84.3‏% [385/457] مقابل ‏41.5‏% [871/2099[؛إن تنفيذ عملية قياس التأكسج بواسطة المتدربين لدينا أدى بشكل كبير إلى زيادة حالات الإحالة للعلاج بالنسبة للأطفال المصابين بالالتهاب الرئوي الحاد في ملاوي. وعندما تم استبعاد بيانات قياس التأكسج، فشل التطبيق بأثر رجعي للمبادئ التوجيهية الصادرة من منظمة الصحة العالمية في عام 2014 في تحديد نسبة كبيرة من الأطفال المصابين بخلل الجهاز التنفسي الحاد والذين كانوا مؤهلين للعلاج نتيجة استخدام تقنية قياس التأكسج فقط.旨在调查马拉维肺炎患儿门诊脉搏血氧饱和度检测的实施情况。.2011 年,18 个农村医疗中心的 72 位医疗护理人员和 38 位社区医疗工作者接受了培训,学习使用脉搏血氧饱和度检测法测量血氧饱和度。 我们分析了受训人员于 2012 年 1 月 1 日到 2014 年 6 月 30 日期间采集的年龄在 2-59 个月、临床诊断为肺炎的儿童的数据。.在我们分析的 14 092 位儿童中,13 266 (94.1%) 位已经成功接受血氧饱和度检测。 在出现胸部凹陷和/或危险症状的儿童中,测量的血氧饱和度低于 90% 的儿童转诊的可能性是饱和度更高儿童的两倍以上(分别为 84.3% [385/457] 和 41.5% [871/2099];受训人员对脉搏血氧饱和度检测的实施大幅度提高了马拉维重度低氧性肺炎患儿的转诊率。 但是如果不采用血氧饱和度检测中的数据,而是追溯式采纳 WHO 2014 年发布的指南,则相当大比例的仅通过血氧饱和度检测才能确诊的重度低氧血症儿童无法得到确诊。.Изучить амбулаторное применение пульсоксиметрии у больных пневмонией детей в Малави.В течение 2011 года 72 врача из 18 сельских больниц и 38 местных медицинских работников были обучены использованию пульсоксиметрии для измерения насыщенности гемоглобина кислородом. Были проанализированы данные, собранные обученными лицами на протяжении периода с 1 января 2012 года по 30 июня 2014 года у детей в возрасте от 2 до 59 месяцев, которым был поставлен диагноз «пневмония».Из 14 092 детей, включенных в анализ, у 13 266 (94,1%) удалось успешно провести пульсоксиметрию. Дети со впалой грудью и (или) опасными симптомами, у которых измеренная насыщенность кислородом была менее 90%, более чем в два раза чаще направлялись в больницу, чем дети с высокой оксигенацией (84,3% (385 из 457 детей) против 41,5% (871 ребенок из 2099), р 0,001). Доступность оксиметрии привела к повышению уровня направления в больницу для детей с серьезной гипоксемией без впалой груди или опасных симптомов с 0 до 27,2% (p 0,001). В отсутствие оксиметрии и при использовании соответствующих рекомендаций Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ), опубликованных в 2014 году, 390 из 568 детей (68,7%) с серьезной гипоксемией в центрах проведения исследования и 52 из 84 детей (61,9%) с серьезной гипоксемией, которых осматривали местные медицинские работники, не были бы направлены в больницу ввиду отсутствия показаний.Внедрение пульсоксиметрии нашими стажерами значительно повысило частоту направления в больницу малавийских детей с серьезной гипоксемией пневмонийного происхождения. При исключении из анамнеза данных пульсоксиметрии ретроспективное применение рекомендаций ВОЗ от 2014 года не позволяло выявить значительное количество детей с серьезной гипоксемией, необходимость госпитализации которых оказалось возможным определить только с помощью оксиметрии.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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