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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kritika Kothari; Srinivasulu Ale; James P. Bordovsky; Dana O. Porter; +2 Authors

    Abstract Adaptation measures are required to enhance climate change resilience of agricultural systems and reduce risks associated with climate change at both regional and global scales. The Texas High Plains is a semi-arid region that faces major challenges from climate change risks and dwindling groundwater supply from the exhaustible Ogallala Aquifer for sustaining irrigated agriculture. The overall goal of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on yield and water use of grain sorghum and identify optimum climate change adaptation strategies for three study sites in the Texas High Plains. Future climate data projected by nine Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gas emissions (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input for the DSSAT CSM-CERES-Sorghum model. The climate change adaptation strategies were designed by modifying crop genotype parameters to incorporate drought tolerance, heat tolerance, high yield potential, and long maturity traits. Irrigated and dryland grain sorghum yield and irrigation water use were projected to decrease at varying percentages at the study sites in the future. On an average (of 9 GCMs), irrigated grain sorghum yield is expected to decrease by 5–13 % and 16–27 % by mid-century (2036–2065) and late-century (2066–2095), respectively under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline (1976–2005). The irrigation water use is expected to decrease by 7–9% and 14–16 % by the mid-century and late-century, respectively. Among the adaptation strategies, an ideotype with high yield potential trait (10 % higher partitioning to the panicle, radiation use efficiency, and relative leaf size than the reference cultivar) resulted in maximum grain sorghum yield gains in the future under both irrigated (6.9 %–17.1 %) and dryland (7.5 %–17.1 %) conditions, when compared to the reference cultivar. Enhancing drought tolerance by increasing root density at different soil depths also resulted in a significantly higher irrigated grain sorghum yield than the reference cultivar. A longer maturity cultivar will likely increase irrigation water use and, therefore, is not recommended for water limited conditions.

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    European Journal of Agronomy
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ European Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Journal of Agronomy
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Garry Kuan; Young-Ho Kim;

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Transtheoretical Model constructs and physical activity in college students. A total of 562 college students in the Sains University of Malaysia participated in this study. Four Malaysian-version questionnaires were used to explore possible associations between the TTM constructs and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results indicated that stages of changes affect self-efficacy, pros, cons, and processes of change. The findings also showed significant inter-relationships among the TTM constructs. Among all the variables examined, only processes of changes affect physical activity. The findings suggest that stages of change in an individual will affect the self-efficacy level, the ability to make a positive and negative decision and perform according to their behavior. By making the correct decision and taking action accordingly, physical activity will be increased.

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    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ INTERNATIONAL JOURNA...arrow_drop_down
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      INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nicolas Anger; Benjamin W. Held; Robert A. Blanchette; Yoshitaka Ono; +2 Authors

    In the late fall of 2018, foliar rust (referred to as ironwood/hophornbeam leaf rust [IHLR]) was discovered in several counties in Florida, United States, on ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana) and hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), both members of the Betulaceae. Uredinia were observed on leaves and, in some cases, samaras of both species at numerous locations on trees of all age classes. Similar reports across the southeastern United States (Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Texas) were detected the following year, with European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) being reported as an additional host, while Ostrya virginiana var. guatemalensis in El Salvador was also discovered showing signs of uredinial infection. Field observations and analyses of morphological data obtained with light and scanning electron microscopy on IHLR and related Melampsoridium herbarium samples and combined molecular data from the ITS and LSU loci indicate that (i) IHLR across samples from the southeastern United States and El Salvador belong to the same taxon; (ii) IHLR is closely affiliated to M. asiaticum; and (iii) some taxonomic modifications might be necessary at the genus level. No alternative (gametophyte) host has been identified, and the rust is likely overwintering in the uredinial stage. This disease represents a novel leaf pathogen on these hosts in North America, and efforts are needed to monitor future disease epidemiology and impacts on these native and cultivated tree species.

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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bromley, Peter T.; Starr, James; Sims, Jared; Coffman, David;

    Drawing from forestry and wildlife research results, this publication explains the interaction of Virginia wildlife with its forests. It outlines forest management practices that support wildlife and give tips for management of specific species.

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    Authors: Peter C. Chu; Joseph M. Veneziano; Chenwu Fan; Michael J. Carron; +1 Authors

    A moving tropical cyclone is an intense localized source of surface wind stress and wind stress curl that produces a significant response in the ocean environment, especially in the ocean thermal structure, the upper ocean currents, and the sea surface elevation. Such a response has been well identified in the open‐ocean region, but not in the coastal ocean region. In this study we use the Princeton Ocean Model with 20 km horizontal resolution and 23 sigma levels conforming to a realistic bottom topography to identify the response of the South China Sea to Tropical Cyclone Ernie 1996. Results show strong similarities in the responses between open ocean and coastal regions, including near‐surface strong asymmetric response such as divergent currents with near‐inertial oscillations, significant sea surface temperature cooling, biase to the right of the storm track, sea surface depressions in the wake of the storm, and subsurface intense upwelling and cooling at the base of the mixed layer to the right of the storm track. The unique features of the SCS response to Ernie are also discussed.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: RG Robbins; HA Haantjens; JA Mabbutt; Karen Short; +3 Authors

    The Ramu–Madang survey covered an area of approximately 20,460 km2 or about three quarters of Madang Province, with altitude ranging from sea level to ~3,000 m in five physiographic categories. Field surveys were undertaken in 1956 and 1958. Unpublished reports were revised for publication in 1976. The report lists 36 land systems in six groups — mountains, hills, fans, coastal plains, flood plains and swamps. They range from 26 km2 to 2,590 km2 and a general description is provided for their geology, physical features, and population and land use, with a general assessment of potential value and use. From two to seven land units were identified for 30 land systems and single units only for the other six. The area, landforms, soil and drainage status, vegetation and land class are recorded for 108 land units. Their positions are shown on block diagrams for 24 of the 36 land systems. Individual disciplinary chapters describe: Climate — principal features and controls; general rainfall, temperature and other characteristics; and soil moisture (water balance) regimes Geomorphology — characteristics of five major regions; geomorphological history, and processes related to erosional and depositional landforms Soil Families — distribution of 11 soil groups and 74 families in the land systems groups and factors in soil formation Vegetation and Ecology — characteristics of five main types of plant community and their 20 sub-types; and the ecology of coastal, swamp, alluvial, hilly-mountainous and grassland environments Forest Resources — methods, classification and mapping of eight forest types and access categories; and frequency of key tree species in the eight main types Land Use Capability — nature and distribution of five broad categories of land use potential and their subdivisions in relation to the land systems in which they occur Map 1 — Land Systems of the Ramu–Madang area, Papua New Guinea by HA Haantjens, E Reiner, RG Robbins and JC Saunders. Scale 1:250,000. CSIRO Land Research Series No. 37, 1976. Map 2 — Forest Resources of the Ramu–Madang area, Papua New Guinea by JC Saunders. Scale 1:500,000. CSIRO Land Research Series No. 37, 1976. Editor's Note: The population of 74,000 at the time of the survey approaches 250,000 in 2011.

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    Authors: Roland Geraerts; Mark H. Overmars;

    A central problem in robotics is planning a collision-free path for a moving object in an environment with obstacles. Contemporary applications require a path planner that is fast (to ensure real-time interaction with the environment) and flexible (to avoid local hazards). In addition, paths need to be smooth and short. We propose a new framework, the corridor map method, which meets these requirements.

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    Authors: Wiersum, K.F.;

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of the 1970s a new concept was introduced in forestry, i.e. social forestry. This approach focuses specificly on the forest-related needs of local communities in tropical countries, and on stimulating community involvement in the sustainable management of forest resources. It has been suggested that the development of social forestry implies a paradigmatic change in forestry. This suggestion is contested, however.The objective of this study is to contribute towards the elucidation of the question whether the emergence of the concept of social forestry has indeed brought about a paradigmatic change in forestry. A paradigm involves the total set of disciplinary commitments; this disciplinary matrix includes a basic world-view, normative perspectives and conceptual generalizations as well as ideal-typical exemplars for problem-solving. Both scientists and professionals may adhere to such normative commitments. Consequently, the suggestion of a paradigmatic change in forestry may be related either to forestry as a science or forestry as a professional institution.The study consists of four analytical steps. First a short overview of the history of forestry and of one of its major conceptual generalizations, i.e. sustainability, is given, and the nature of the disciplinary matrix of conventional forestry is identified. Next the development of social forestry is described. This forestry approach is conceptualized as involving forestry policies designed and implemented by professional foresters, and community forest management practices executed by local communities, who are not professionally-trained in forestry. It cannot be assumed that the normative perspectives of these two categories of practitioners are similar. The third step of analysis therefore consists of a comparison of the perspectives of these two categories of forestry practitioners; it shows major differences in normative perspectives. The last step of analysis focuses on how the recognition of such differences has impacted on forestry science and professional practice. It is concluded that social forestry involves major changes in both role- and rule-orientation of professional foresters. The role of professional foresters is not considered any longer as being ideal-typical forest managers, but also as being facilitators of community forestry. Consequently, several new concepts and theories concerning social coordination in forestry evolved.Forestry science became more empirically oriented by paying attention to all possible forest management conditions rather than to professionally-controlled forest management situations only. These changes in forestry science can best be considered as an evolutionary change rather than a paradigmatic one. However, the differentiation in tasks of professional foresters and the loosening of the close institutional links between forestry scientists and professional practitioners can be considered as involving a paradigmatic change in forestry as professional institution.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 1999
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    Authors: Zhujun J. Gu; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Jilu Feng; Sen Cao;

    This study analyzed the predictability of leaf area index (LAI) to the variation of vegetation type, observation angle, and vegetation index (VI). The analysis was conducted by using the R 2 of the LAI-VI models between in situ measured LAIs and VIs derived from CHRIS/PROBA data. The results show that the discrepancy of vegetation type mostly influences the LAI-VI models. The predictability of LAI to the variation of both vegetation type and index demonstrates the differences of oblique/vertical and backward/forward observa- tions, and backward series are greater than the forward. The predictabilities of LAI to the varia- tion of observation angle are greatest for the soil-adjusted VIs and least for the traditional ratio-based indices. Multivariable linear modeling with all VIs from all five angles yields accept- able accuracy except for the sparse shrub. The backward less-oblique observation (�36 deg )i s the only angle chosen in the modeling for grass, shrub, and broad leafforest, while the nadir view performs best for forests with coniferous trees. These results provide a reference to multiangular LAI estimation for different vegetation communities. VIs accounting for angular soil effects require further investigation in the future. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. (DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.096085)

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    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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    Authors: Tingting Shi; Sizheng Chen; Na Yan; Hao Min;
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    IEICE Electronics Express
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      IEICE Electronics Express
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kritika Kothari; Srinivasulu Ale; James P. Bordovsky; Dana O. Porter; +2 Authors

    Abstract Adaptation measures are required to enhance climate change resilience of agricultural systems and reduce risks associated with climate change at both regional and global scales. The Texas High Plains is a semi-arid region that faces major challenges from climate change risks and dwindling groundwater supply from the exhaustible Ogallala Aquifer for sustaining irrigated agriculture. The overall goal of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on yield and water use of grain sorghum and identify optimum climate change adaptation strategies for three study sites in the Texas High Plains. Future climate data projected by nine Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gas emissions (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input for the DSSAT CSM-CERES-Sorghum model. The climate change adaptation strategies were designed by modifying crop genotype parameters to incorporate drought tolerance, heat tolerance, high yield potential, and long maturity traits. Irrigated and dryland grain sorghum yield and irrigation water use were projected to decrease at varying percentages at the study sites in the future. On an average (of 9 GCMs), irrigated grain sorghum yield is expected to decrease by 5–13 % and 16–27 % by mid-century (2036–2065) and late-century (2066–2095), respectively under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline (1976–2005). The irrigation water use is expected to decrease by 7–9% and 14–16 % by the mid-century and late-century, respectively. Among the adaptation strategies, an ideotype with high yield potential trait (10 % higher partitioning to the panicle, radiation use efficiency, and relative leaf size than the reference cultivar) resulted in maximum grain sorghum yield gains in the future under both irrigated (6.9 %–17.1 %) and dryland (7.5 %–17.1 %) conditions, when compared to the reference cultivar. Enhancing drought tolerance by increasing root density at different soil depths also resulted in a significantly higher irrigated grain sorghum yield than the reference cultivar. A longer maturity cultivar will likely increase irrigation water use and, therefore, is not recommended for water limited conditions.

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    European Journal of Agronomy
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Journal of Agronomy
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    Authors: Garry Kuan; Young-Ho Kim;

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Transtheoretical Model constructs and physical activity in college students. A total of 562 college students in the Sains University of Malaysia participated in this study. Four Malaysian-version questionnaires were used to explore possible associations between the TTM constructs and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results indicated that stages of changes affect self-efficacy, pros, cons, and processes of change. The findings also showed significant inter-relationships among the TTM constructs. Among all the variables examined, only processes of changes affect physical activity. The findings suggest that stages of change in an individual will affect the self-efficacy level, the ability to make a positive and negative decision and perform according to their behavior. By making the correct decision and taking action accordingly, physical activity will be increased.

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    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nicolas Anger; Benjamin W. Held; Robert A. Blanchette; Yoshitaka Ono; +2 Authors

    In the late fall of 2018, foliar rust (referred to as ironwood/hophornbeam leaf rust [IHLR]) was discovered in several counties in Florida, United States, on ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana) and hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), both members of the Betulaceae. Uredinia were observed on leaves and, in some cases, samaras of both species at numerous locations on trees of all age classes. Similar reports across the southeastern United States (Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Texas) were detected the following year, with European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) being reported as an additional host, while Ostrya virginiana var. guatemalensis in El Salvador was also discovered showing signs of uredinial infection. Field observations and analyses of morphological data obtained with light and scanning electron microscopy on IHLR and related Melampsoridium herbarium samples and combined molecular data from the ITS and LSU loci indicate that (i) IHLR across samples from the southeastern United States and El Salvador belong to the same taxon; (ii) IHLR is closely affiliated to M. asiaticum; and (iii) some taxonomic modifications might be necessary at the genus level. No alternative (gametophyte) host has been identified, and the rust is likely overwintering in the uredinial stage. This disease represents a novel leaf pathogen on these hosts in North America, and efforts are needed to monitor future disease epidemiology and impacts on these native and cultivated tree species.

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    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
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    Authors: Bromley, Peter T.; Starr, James; Sims, Jared; Coffman, David;

    Drawing from forestry and wildlife research results, this publication explains the interaction of Virginia wildlife with its forests. It outlines forest management practices that support wildlife and give tips for management of specific species.

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    Authors: Peter C. Chu; Joseph M. Veneziano; Chenwu Fan; Michael J. Carron; +1 Authors

    A moving tropical cyclone is an intense localized source of surface wind stress and wind stress curl that produces a significant response in the ocean environment, especially in the ocean thermal structure, the upper ocean currents, and the sea surface elevation. Such a response has been well identified in the open‐ocean region, but not in the coastal ocean region. In this study we use the Princeton Ocean Model with 20 km horizontal resolution and 23 sigma levels conforming to a realistic bottom topography to identify the response of the South China Sea to Tropical Cyclone Ernie 1996. Results show strong similarities in the responses between open ocean and coastal regions, including near‐surface strong asymmetric response such as divergent currents with near‐inertial oscillations, significant sea surface temperature cooling, biase to the right of the storm track, sea surface depressions in the wake of the storm, and subsurface intense upwelling and cooling at the base of the mixed layer to the right of the storm track. The unique features of the SCS response to Ernie are also discussed.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down