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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs; Miroslava Rajcaniova;

    This is the first paper that estimates the global land use change impact of growth of the bioenergy sector. Applying time-series analytical mechanisms to fuel, biofuel and agricultural commodity prices and production, we estimate the long-rung relationship between energy prices, bioenergy production and the global land use change. Our results suggest that rising energy prices and bioenergy production significantly contribute to the global land use change both through the direct and indirect land use change impact. Globally, the total agricultural area yearly increases by 35578.1 thousand ha due to increasing oil price, and by 12125.1 thousand ha due to increasing biofuel production, which corresponds to 0.73% and 0.25% of the total world-wide agricultural area, respectively. Soya land use change and wheat land use change have the highest elasticities both with respect to oil price and biofuel production. In contrast, non-biomass crops (grassland and rice) have negative land use change elasticities. Region-specific results suggest that South America faces the largest yearly total land use change associated with oil price increase (+10600.7 thousand ha), whereas Asia (+8918.6 thousand ha), South America (+4024.9 thousand ha) and North America (+1311.5 thousand ha) have the largest yearly total land use change associated with increase in biofuel production.

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    Applied Economics
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    Applied Economics
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Research Papers in E...arrow_drop_down
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      Applied Economics
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      Applied Economics
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bettge, Anika; Roscher, Ribana; Wenzel, Susanne;

    This paper addresses the land cover classification task for remote sensing images by deep self-taught learning. Our self-taught learning approach learns suitable feature representations of the input data using sparse representation and undercomplete dictionary learning. We propose a deep learning framework which extracts representations in multiple layers and use the output of the deepest layer as input to a classification algorithm. We evaluate our approach using a multispectral Landsat 5 TM image of a study area in the North of Novo Progresso (South America) and the Zurich Summer Data Set provided by the University of Zurich. Experiments indicate that features learned by a deep self-taught learning framework can be used for classification and improve the results compared to classification results using the original feature representation. Comment: This is a corrected version of the final paper published in the proceedings

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2017
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2017
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: Albergel, C.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; de Rosnay, Patricia; Munoz-Sabater, J.; +1 Authors

    In situ soil moisture data from 122 stations across the United States are used to evaluate the impact of a new bare ground evaporation formulation at ECMWF. In November 2010, the bare ground evaporation used in ECMWF's operational Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) was enhanced by adopting a lower stress threshold than for the vegetation, allowing a higher evaporation. It results in more realistic soil moisture values when compared to in situ data, particularly over dry areas. Use was made of the operational IFS and offline experiments for the evaluation. The latter are based on a fixed version of the IFS and make it possible to assess the impact of a single modification, while the operational analysis is based on a continuous effort to improve the analysis and modelling systems, resulting in frequent updates (a few times a year). Considering the field sites with a fraction of bare ground greater than 0.2, the root mean square difference (RMSD) of soil moisture is shown to decrease from 0.118 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> to 0.087 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> when using the new formulation in offline experiments, and from 0.110 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> to 0.088 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> in operations. It also improves correlations. Additionally, the impact of the new formulation on the terrestrial microwave emission at a global scale is investigated. Realistic and dynamically consistent fields of brightness temperature as a function of the land surface conditions are required for the assimilation of the SMOS data. Brightness temperature simulated from surface fields from two offline experiments with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling (CMEM) platform present monthly mean differences up to 7 K. Offline experiments with the new formulation present drier soil moisture, hence simulated brightness temperature with its surface fields are larger. They are also closer to SMOS remotely sensed brightness temperature.

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
    Preprint . 2012
    License: CC BY
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . Preprint
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    European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
    Other literature type . 2012
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
      Preprint . 2012
      License: CC BY
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . Preprint
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      European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
      Other literature type . 2012
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    Authors: Henry C. Bittig; Arne Körtzinger;

    Abstract. Oxygen optode measurements on floats and gliders suffer from a slow time response and sensors that are or eventually run out of calibration. Based on two dual-O2 Argo floats, we show how to post-correct for the effect of the optode’s time response and give an update on optode in-situ drift stability and in-air calibration. Both floats are equipped with an unpumped Aanderaa 4330 optode and a pumped Sea-Bird SBE63 optode. Response times for the pumped SBE63 were derived after Bittig et al. (2014). Also their methods were used to correct the time response bias. Using both optodes on each float, the time response regime of the unpumped Aanderaa optode was characterized more accurately than previously possible. Response times for the pumped SBE63 are in the range of 25–40 s, while they are between 60–95 s for the unpumped 4330 optode. Our parameterization can be employed to post-correct the slow optode time response on floats and gliders. After correction, both sensors agree to within 2–3 μmol kg−1 (median difference) in the strongest gradients (120 μmol kg−1 change over 8 minutes or 20 dbar) and better elsewhere. However, time response correction is only possible if measurement times are known, i.e., provided by the platform as well as transmitted and stored with the data. The O2 in-air measurements show a significant in-situ optode drift of −0.4 % yr−1 and −0.2 % yr−1, respectively. Optode in-air measurements are systematically biased high during mid-day surfacings compared to dusk, dawn, and nighttime. While preference can be given to nighttime surfacings to avoid this in-air calibration bias, we suggest a parameterization of the daytime effect as function of the sun’s elevation to be able to use all data and to better constrain the result. Taking all effects into account, calibration factors have an uncertainty of 0.1 %. In addition, in-air calibration factors vary by 0.1–0.2 % when using different reanalysis models as reference. The overall accuracy that can be achieved following the proposed correction routines is <1 μmol kg−1.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/os-201...
    Preprint . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://www.ocean-sci.net/13/1...
    Preprint
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/os-201...
      Preprint . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://www.ocean-sci.net/13/1...
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    Authors: Ludena, Carlos E.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Preckel, Paul V.; Foster, Kenneth A.; +1 Authors

    AbstractProjections of future productivity growth rates in agriculture are an essential input for a great variety of tasks, ranging from development of an outlook for global commodity markets to the analysis of interactions between land use, deforestation, and ecological diversity. Yet solid projections for these variables have proven elusive—particularly on a global basis. This is due, in no small part, to the difficulty of measuring historical total factor productivity growth. Consequently, most productivity projections are based on partial factor productivity measures that can be quite misleading. The purpose of this work is to provide worldwide forecasts of agricultural productivity growth till the year 2040 based on the latest time series evidence on total factor productivity growth for crops, ruminants, and nonruminant livestock. The results suggest that most regions in the sample are likely to experience larger productivity gains in livestock than in crops. Within livestock, the nonruminant sector is expected to continue to be more dynamic than the ruminant sector. Given the rapid rates of productivity growth observed recently, nonruminant and crop productivity in developing countries may be converging to the productivity levels of developed countries. For ruminants, the results show that productivity levels in developing countries are likely to be diverging from those in developed countries.

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    Agricultural Economics
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Agricultural Economics
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Radiance Calmer; Greg Roberts; Jana Preissler; Solène Derrien; +1 Authors

    The importance of 3D winds (in particular updraft) in atmospheric science has motivated the adaptation of airborne wind instruments developed for manned aircraft, to the small size of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). Simultaneously, enhancements in RPAS technology have increased their contribution to many fields. In atmospheric research, lightweight RPAS (< 2.5 kg) are now able to accurately measure 3D wind vectors, even in a cloud, which provides new observing tools for understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. The European project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic Emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic Understanding) focuses on these specific interactions. Vertical wind velocity at cloud base is a key parameter for aerosol-cloud interactions. To measure the three components of wind, one RPAS is equipped with a 5-hole probe and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), synchronized on an acquisition system. The 5-hole probe is calibrated and validated on a multi-axis platform in a wind tunnel, each probe and its associated pressure sensors have specific calibration coefficients. Once mounted on a RPAS, 3D winds and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) derived from the 5-hole probe are validated with a sonic anemometer on a meteorological mast. During the BACCHUS field campaign at Mace Head (Ireland), a fleet of RPAS has been utilized to profile the atmosphere and complement ground-based and satellite observations. To study aerosol-cloud interactions, the RPAS with the 5-hole probe flew at level legs near cloud base to measure vertical wind speeds. The vertical velocity measurements from RPAS are validated with vertical velocities derived from the Mace Head Doppler cloud radar, and the results illustrate the relationships between the distributions of vertical velocity and the different cloud fields.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2017
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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    Authors: Kazuya Nishina; Akihiko Ito; Naota Hanasaki; Seiji Hayashi;

    Abstract. Currently, available historical global N fertilizer map as an input data to global biogeochemical model is still limited and existing maps were not considered NH4+ and NO3− in the fertilizer application rates. This paper provides a method for constructing a new historical global nitrogen fertilizer application map (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) for the period 1961–2010 based on country-specific information from Food and Agriculture Organization statistics (FAOSTAT) and various global datasets. This new map incorporates the fraction of NH4+ (and NO3−) in N fertilizer inputs by utilizing fertilizer species information in FAOSTAT, in which species can be categorized as NH4+- and/or NO3−-forming N fertilizers. During data processing, we applied a statistical data imputation method for the missing data (19 % of national N fertilizer consumption) in FAOSTAT. The multiple imputation method enabled us to fill gaps in the time-series data using plausible values using covariates information (year, population, GDP, and crop area). After the imputation, we downscaled the national consumption data to a gridded cropland map. Also, we applied the multiple imputation method to the available chemical fertilizer species consumption, allowing for the estimation of the NH4+ ∕ NO3− ratio in national fertilizer consumption. In this study, the synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2000 showed a general consistency with the existing N fertilizer map (Potter et al., 2010) in relation to the ranges of N fertilizer inputs. Globally, the estimated N fertilizer inputs based on the sum of filled data increased from 15 to 110 Tg-N during 1961–2010. On the other hand, the global NO3− input started to decline after the late 1980s and the fraction of NO3− in global N fertilizer decreased consistently from 35 to 13 % over a 50-year period. NH4+-forming fertilizers are dominant in most countries; however, the NH4+ ∕ NO3− ratio in N fertilizer inputs shows clear differences temporally and geographically. This new map can be utilized as input data to global model studies and bring new insights for the assessment of historical terrestrial N cycling changes. Datasets available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.861203.

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
    Preprint . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    Authors: Sylvain Dessy; Jacques Ewoudou; Isabelle Ouellet;

    We explain the persistence of low performances in African agriculture by analyzing the determinants of farmers' decisions to modernize their farming practices. Owing to sociocultural factors specific to Sub-Saharan Africa, farmers' decisions on farming practices are strategic complements. We demonstrate that the modernization game these farmers play admits two pure-strategy, Pareto-ranked, symmetric Nash-equilibria. The equilibrium where all farmers choose to modernize their farming methods is preferred to the one where all of them choose to stick to a traditional method. We argue that scarcity and economic opportunities put forward by neo-Boserupian theories of induced-innovation as determinants of the onset of agricultural innovations are, in the context of African countries, only necessary, but not sufficient to generate modernization of farming methods. Deliberate action to enhance adoption of agricultural innovations must therefore take the African's sociocultural context into consideration, or risk failure.

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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
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    Authors: Frederick N. Numbisi; Frieke Van Coillie; Robert De Wulf;

    Delineating the cropping area of cocoa agroforests is a major challenge in quantifying the contribution of land use expansion to tropical deforestation. Discriminating cocoa agroforests from tropical transition forests using multispectral optical images is difficult due to the similarity of the spectral characteristics of their canopies. Moreover, the frequent cloud cover in the tropics greatly impedes optical sensors. This study evaluated the potential of multiseason Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to discriminate cocoa agroforests from transition forests in a heterogeneous landscape in central Cameroon. We used an ensemble classifier, Random Forest (RF), to average the SAR image texture features of a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) across seasons. We then compared the classification performance with results from RapidEye optical data. Moreover, we assessed the performance of GLCM texture feature extraction at four different grey levels of quantization: 32 bits, 8 bits, 6 bits, and 4 bits. The classification&rsquo s overall accuracy (OA) from texture-based maps outperformed that from an optical image. The highest OA (88.8%) was recorded at the 6 bits grey level. This quantization level, in comparison to the initial 32 bits in the SAR images, reduced the class prediction error by 2.9%. The texture-based classification achieved an acceptable accuracy and revealed that cocoa agroforests have considerably fragmented the remnant transition forest patches. The Shannon entropy (H) or uncertainty provided a reliable validation of the class predictions and enabled inferences about discriminating inherently heterogeneous vegetation categories.

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    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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      ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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    Authors: Rebeca Mozun; Cristina Ardura-Garcia; Carmen C.M. de Jong; Myrofora Goutaki; +5 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundSmoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. We assessed smoking behaviour in 6-17-year-olds. In 13-17-year-olds, we studied risk factors for smoking and compared the frequency of respiratory problems between those who smoked and those who did not.MethodsWe used data from LuftiBus in the school, a school-based survey of the respiratory health of children carried out 2013-2016 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants were asked about cigarette, shisha, and electronic smoking device (ESD) smoking, and respiratory symptoms and diseases. We studied the association between smoking and risk factors using logistic regression.ResultsWe included 3488 schoolchildren with data on active smoking. Five percent of the 6-12-year-olds (90 of 1905) had smoked occasionally (<once/week). Among 13-17-year-olds (N=1583), 563 (36%) had smoked occasionally of whom 414 smoked ESDs, 409 shishas, and 276 cigarettes. Among 54 (3%) 13-17-year-olds who smoked frequently (≥once/week), 41 (76%) smoked cigarettes, and 22% of 15-17-year-olds (104/477) had smoked all three products. Smoking was more common in adolescents who were male, lived in rural areas, and whose mother (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 - 2.3) or father (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 – 1.9) smoked. Respiratory symptoms in the past year such as rhinitis, dyspnoea, and wheeze were more common in adolescents who smoked frequently or occasionally than in never smokers.ConclusionSmoking of shishas and ESDs is popular among Swiss adolescents and often combined with smoking cigarettes. Structural smoking prevention strategies should include all forms of smoking including shishas and ESDs.

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Authors: Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs; Miroslava Rajcaniova;

    This is the first paper that estimates the global land use change impact of growth of the bioenergy sector. Applying time-series analytical mechanisms to fuel, biofuel and agricultural commodity prices and production, we estimate the long-rung relationship between energy prices, bioenergy production and the global land use change. Our results suggest that rising energy prices and bioenergy production significantly contribute to the global land use change both through the direct and indirect land use change impact. Globally, the total agricultural area yearly increases by 35578.1 thousand ha due to increasing oil price, and by 12125.1 thousand ha due to increasing biofuel production, which corresponds to 0.73% and 0.25% of the total world-wide agricultural area, respectively. Soya land use change and wheat land use change have the highest elasticities both with respect to oil price and biofuel production. In contrast, non-biomass crops (grassland and rice) have negative land use change elasticities. Region-specific results suggest that South America faces the largest yearly total land use change associated with oil price increase (+10600.7 thousand ha), whereas Asia (+8918.6 thousand ha), South America (+4024.9 thousand ha) and North America (+1311.5 thousand ha) have the largest yearly total land use change associated with increase in biofuel production.

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    Applied Economics
    Article
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    Applied Economics
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Applied Economics
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      Applied Economics
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Bettge, Anika; Roscher, Ribana; Wenzel, Susanne;

    This paper addresses the land cover classification task for remote sensing images by deep self-taught learning. Our self-taught learning approach learns suitable feature representations of the input data using sparse representation and undercomplete dictionary learning. We propose a deep learning framework which extracts representations in multiple layers and use the output of the deepest layer as input to a classification algorithm. We evaluate our approach using a multispectral Landsat 5 TM image of a study area in the North of Novo Progresso (South America) and the Zurich Summer Data Set provided by the University of Zurich. Experiments indicate that features learned by a deep self-taught learning framework can be used for classification and improve the results compared to classification results using the original feature representation. Comment: This is a corrected version of the final paper published in the proceedings

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2017
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2017
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: Albergel, C.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; de Rosnay, Patricia; Munoz-Sabater, J.; +1 Authors

    In situ soil moisture data from 122 stations across the United States are used to evaluate the impact of a new bare ground evaporation formulation at ECMWF. In November 2010, the bare ground evaporation used in ECMWF's operational Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) was enhanced by adopting a lower stress threshold than for the vegetation, allowing a higher evaporation. It results in more realistic soil moisture values when compared to in situ data, particularly over dry areas. Use was made of the operational IFS and offline experiments for the evaluation. The latter are based on a fixed version of the IFS and make it possible to assess the impact of a single modification, while the operational analysis is based on a continuous effort to improve the analysis and modelling systems, resulting in frequent updates (a few times a year). Considering the field sites with a fraction of bare ground greater than 0.2, the root mean square difference (RMSD) of soil moisture is shown to decrease from 0.118 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> to 0.087 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> when using the new formulation in offline experiments, and from 0.110 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> to 0.088 m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>−3</sup> in operations. It also improves correlations. Additionally, the impact of the new formulation on the terrestrial microwave emission at a global scale is investigated. Realistic and dynamically consistent fields of brightness temperature as a function of the land surface conditions are required for the assimilation of the SMOS data. Brightness temperature simulated from surface fields from two offline experiments with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling (CMEM) platform present monthly mean differences up to 7 K. Offline experiments with the new formulation present drier soil moisture, hence simulated brightness temperature with its surface fields are larger. They are also closer to SMOS remotely sensed brightness temperature.

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
    Preprint . 2012
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
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    European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
    Other literature type . 2012
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
      Preprint . 2012
      License: CC BY
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
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      European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
      Other literature type . 2012
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