The size distribution of wheat-grain starch granules has an impact on the yield of fine flour. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of conventional (mineral fertilizers, pesticides) and organic farming treatments (cover crops, composted cattle manure) on (i) the size distribution of starch granules, (ii) the level of the first break whole and fine flour yield. The grain samples of winter wheat cv Fredis were taken from a long-term field crop rotation experiment established in 2008 at the Estonian University of Life Sciences in Tartu County (58° 0.001) on the grain starch granule size distribution. The proportion of starch granules with a smaller diameter (C-type granules) was higher in years with a longer grain filling period. The size distribution of starch granules was not influenced by farming system. The increased proportion of C-type granules increased the fine flour yield significantly. Fertilisation with organic manure and twice with mineral nitrogen increased significantly the mean diameter value of different starch granules. E) on Stagnic Luvisol soil. The weather conditions during the grain filling period of winter wheat had a strong impact (p < N, 26° 40&prime 22&prime
Grapevine leaves are a major by-product of viticulture practices derived from the leaf-removal from the fruit cluster zone in all vine growing regions. These leaves can be a valuable source of antioxidants to be used in pharmaceuticals or other health-related products. In this study, the leaves of grapevine cultivars were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph-diode array detector () for the total polyphenols (TPC) and resveratrol affected by cultivar, leaf-removal time and viticultural practice. The effect of cultivar varied yearly, European grapevine cv. &lsquo grown under the polytunnel had decreased TPC in leaves. In conclusion, cultivar selection, viticultural practice and leaf-removal time contribute significantly to the accumulation of total polyphenols and resveratrol. Results of this study will contribute to better utilization of biomass produced in the vineyards, help to decrease the negative environmental impacts, and provide an overview on various factors affecting the biochemical constituents, especially in leaves. 1) were higher in leaves of interspecific hybrid cvs. &lsquo had increased TPC and resveratrol in comparison to &lsquo 1) and resveratrol (1.061 mg 100 g&minus during full fruit ripeness. Cv. &lsquo in 2018. TPC (1213&ndash Hasansky Sladky&rsquo 1841 mg 100 g&minus in 2017, but &lsquo Boskoop&rsquo s Glory&rsquo Solaris&rsquo Regent&rsquo Rondo&rsquo Zilga&rsquo and &lsquo , &lsquo
and water-stable aggregates (WSA). The functional groups of the plant residues and the soil were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a double exponential model was used to estimate the decomposition rates. The results show that the decomposition rate of fresh organic materials was correlated with the soil functional groups and the C/N ratio. Oilseed rape and rye, with lower C/N ratios than wheat straw residues, had faster decomposition rates and higher CO2 and N2O emissions than wheat straw. The CO2 and N2O flush at the start of the experiment corresponded to a decrease of soil aggregate stability (from Day 3 to Day 10 for CO2 and from Day 19 to Day 28 for N2O emissions), which was linked to higher decomposition rates of the labile fraction. The lower decomposition rates contributed to higher remaining C (carbon) and higher soil aggregate stability. The results also show that changes in the soil functional groups due to crop residue incorporation did not significantly influence aggregate stability. Soil moisture (SM) negatively influenced the aggregate stability and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all treatments (oilseed rape, rye, wheat straw, and control). Irrespective of the water addition procedure, rye and wheat straw residues had a positive effect on water-stable aggregates more frequently than oilseed rape during the incubation period. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of decomposition processes after the incorporation of fresh crop residues from cover crops. A future field study investigating the influence of incorporation rates of different crop residues on soil aggregate stability would be of great interest. The decomposition of fresh crop residues added to soil for agricultural purposes is complex. This is due to different factors that influence the decomposition process. In field conditions, the incorporation of crop residues into soil does not always have a positive effect on aggregate stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the decomposition effects of residues from two different cover crops (Brassica napus var. oleifera and Secale cereale) and one main crop (wheat straw) on soil aggregate stability. A 105-day incubation experiment was conducted in which crop residues were mixed with sandy loam soil at a rate of 6 g C kg&minus 1 of soil. During the incubation, there were five water additions. The decomposition effects of organic matter on soil conditions during incubation were evaluated by determining the soil functional groups carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC)
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