The use of forest roads as foundations for dam construction by beavers is a recurrent problem in the management of forest road networks. In order to limit the damage to forest roads, our goal was to calculate the probability of beaver dam installation on culverts, according to surrounding habitat parameters, which could allow for improvement in the spatial design of new roads that minimise conflicts with beavers. Comparisons of culverts with (n = 77) and without (n = 51) dams in northwestern Quebec showed that catchment surface, cumulate length of all local streams within a 2-km radius, and road embankment height had a negative effect on the probability of dam construction on culverts, while flow level and culvert diameter ratio had a positive effect. Nevertheless, predicted probabilities of dam construction on culverts generally exceeded 50%, even on sites that were less favourable to beavers. We suggest that it would be more reasonable to take their probable subsequent presence into account at the earliest steps of road conception. Installing mitigation measures such as pre-dams during road construction would probably reduce the occurrence of conflicts with beavers and thus reduce the maintenance costs of forest roads.
International audience; Isothermal remanent magnetization and insoluble dust content of ice samples from EPICA-Dome C ice core were measured to characterize the magnetic properties of atmospheric dust. Despite the larger concentration of dust aerosol during glacial stages, the magnetization of the dust fraction was found to be higher during interglacials and exhibits a larger variability. Changes in magnetic mineralogy of aerosol dust in ice from different climatic stages were also characterized using coercivity of remanence. Variations of magnetic properties of dust from glacial to interglacial stages indicate changes in dust provenance, in agreement with previous results based on geochemical analysis. However, the extremely large magnetizations of some interglacial samples also suggest that episodical eolian deposition from highly magnetic deposits occurred during interglacial periods.
Hail is a serious concern for agriculture on the Iberian Peninsula. Hailstorms affect crop yield and/or quality to a degree that depends on the crop species and the phenological time. In Europe, Spain is one of the countries that experience relatively high agricultural losses related to hailstorms. It is of high interest to study models that can support calculations of the probabilities of economic losses due to hail damage and of the tendency over time for such losses. <br><br> Some studies developed in France and the Netherdlands show that the summer mean temperature was highly correlated with a yearly hail severity index developed from hail-related parameters obtained for insurance purposes. Meanwhile, other studies in the USA point out that a highly significant correlation between both is not possible to find due to high climatic variability. <br><br> The aim of this work is to test the correlation between average minimum temperatures and hail damage intensity over the Spanish Iberian Peninsula. With this purpose, correlation analyses on both variables were performed for the 47 Spanish provinces (as individuals and single set) and for all crops and four individual crops: grapes, wheat, barley and winter grains. Suitable crop insurance data are available from 1981 until 2007 and based on this period, temperature data were obtained. <br><br> This study does not confirm the results previously obtained for France and the Netherlands that relate observed hail damage to the average minimum temperature. The reason for this difference and the nature of the cases observed are discussed.
Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-based nonspherical dust optical models are developed and applied to the Satellite Ocean Aerosol Retrieval (SOAR) algorithm as part of the Version 1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) NASA ‘Deep Blue’ aerosol data product suite. The optical models are created using Version 2 AERONET inversion data at six distinct sites influenced frequently by dust aerosols from different source regions. The same spheroid shape distribution as used in the AERONET inversion algorithm is assumed to account for the nonspherical characteristics of mineral dust, which ensures the consistency between the bulk scattering properties of the developed optical models with the AERONET-retrieved microphysical and optical properties. For the Version 1 SOAR aerosol product, the dust optical models representative for Capo Verde site are used, considering the strong influence of Saharan dust over the global ocean in terms of amount and spatial coverage. Comparisons of the VIIRS-retrieved aerosol optical properties against AERONET direct-Sun observations at three island/coastal sites suggest that the use of nonspherical dust optical models significantly improves the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent by mitigating the well-known artifact of scattering angle dependence of the variables observed when incorrectly assuming spherical dust. The resulting removal of these artifacts results in a more natural spatial pattern of AOD along the transport path of Saharan dust to the Atlantic Ocean; i.e., AOD decreases with increasing distance transported, whereas the spherical assumption leads to a strong wave pattern due to the spurious scattering angle dependence of AOD.
Abstract. This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.
also present obstacles to achieving the final mapping result in the fusion of LiDAR data and high-resolution images. In order to resolve these issues, we propose an improved impervious surface-mapping method incorporating both LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery with different acquisition times that consider real landscape changes and observation differences. In the proposed method, multi-sensor change detection by supervised multivariate alteration detection (MAD) is employed to identify the changed areas and mis-registered areas. The no-data areas in the LiDAR data and the shadow areas in the high-resolution image are extracted via independent classification based on the corresponding single-sensor data. Finally, an object-based post-classification fusion is proposed that takes advantage of both independent classification results while using single-sensor data and the joint classification result using stacked multi-sensor data. The impervious surface map is subsequently obtained by combining the landscape classes in the accurate classification map. Experiments covering the study site in Buffalo, NY, USA demonstrate that our method can accurately detect landscape changes and unambiguously improve the performance of impervious surface mapping. s high cost of acquisition, it is difficult to obtain LiDAR data that was acquired at the same time as the high-resolution imagery in order to conduct impervious surface mapping by multi-sensor remote sensing data. Consequently, the occurrence of real landscape changes between multi-sensor remote sensing data sets with different acquisition times results in misclassification errors in impervious surface mapping. This issue has generally been neglected in previous works. Furthermore, observation differences that were generated from multi-sensor data&mdash Impervious surface mapping incorporating high-resolution remote sensing imagery has continued to attract increasing interest, as it can provide detailed information about urban structure and distribution. Previous studies have suggested that the combination of LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping yields better performance than the use of high-resolution imagery alone. However, due to LiDAR data&rsquo including the problems of misregistration, missing data in LiDAR data, and shadow in high-resolution images&mdash
Abstract. In airborne laser bathymetry knowledge of exact water level heights is a precondition for applying run-time and refraction correction of the raw laser beam travel path in the medium water. However, due to specular reflection especially at very smooth water surfaces often no echoes from the water surface itself are recorded (drop outs). In this paper, we first discuss the feasibility of reconstructing the water surface from redundant observations of the water bottom in theory. Furthermore, we provide a first practical approach for solving this problem, suitable for static and locally planar water surfaces. It minimizes the bottom surface deviations of point clouds from individual flight strips after refraction correction. Both theoretical estimations and practical results confirm the potential of the presented method to reconstruct water level heights in dm precision. Achieving good results requires enough morphological details in the scene and that the water bottom topography is captured from different directions.
The roots linking the above-ground organs and soil are key components for estimating net primary productivity and carbon sequestration of forests. The patterns and drivers of root biomass in forest have not been examined well at the regional scale, especially for the widely distributed forest ecosystems in southwestern China. We attempted to determine the spatial patterns of root biomass (RB, Mg/ha), annual increment root biomass (AIRB, Mg/ha/year), ratio of root and above-ground (RRA), and the relative contributions of abiotic and biotic factors that drive the variation of root biomass. Forest biomass and multiple factors (climate, soil, forest types, and stand characteristics) of 318 plots in this region (790,000 km2) were analyzed in this research. The AB (the mean values for forest aboveground biomass per ha, Mg/ha), RB, AIRB, and RRA were 126 Mg/ha, 28 Mg/ha, 0.69 Mg/ha and 0.22, respectively. AB, RB, AIRB, and RRA varied across all the plots and forest types. Both RB and AIRB showed significant spatial patterns of distribution, while RRA did not show any spatial patterns of distribution. Up to 28.4% of variation in total of RB, AIRB, and RRA can be attributed to the climate, soil, and stand characteristics. The explained or contribution rates of climate, soil, and stand characteristics for variation of whole forest root biomass were 6.7%, 16.9%, and 10.9%, respectively. Path analysis in structural equation model (SEM) indicated the direct influence of stand age on RB. AIRB was greater than that of the other factors. Climate, soil and stand characteristics in different forest types could explain 9.7%&ndash 99.4% of variations in RB, AIRB, and RRA, respectively, which suggests that the multiple factors may be important in explaining the variations in forest root biomass. The results of the analysis of root biomass per ha, annual increment of root biomass per ha, and ratio of root and above-ground in the seven forest types categorized by climate, soil, and stand characteristics may be used for accurately determining C sequestration by the forest root and estimating forest biomass in this region. 96.4%, and 36.7%&ndash 96.1%, 15.4%&ndash
International audience; The limited availability of soil information has been recognized as a main limiting factor in digital soil mapping (DSM) studies. It is therefore important to optimize the joint use of the three sources of soil data that can be used as inputs of DSM models, namely spatial sets of measured sites, soil maps and soil sensing products.In this paper, we propose to combine these three inputs, through a cokriging with a categorical external drift (CKCED). This new interpolation technique was applied for mapping seven soil properties over a 24.6 km2 area located in the vineyard plain of Languedoc (Southern France), using an hyperspectral imagery product as example of a soil sensing data. Cross-validation results of CKCED were compared with those of five spatial and non-spatial techniques using one of these inputs or a combination of two of them.The results obtained in the La Peyne Catchment showed i) the utility of soil map and hyperspectral imagery products as auxiliary data for improving soil property predictions ii) the greater added-value of the latter against the former in most situations and iii) the feasibility and the interest of CKCED in a limited number of soil properties and data configurations. Testing CKCED in case study with soil maps of better quality and soil sensing techniques covering more area and depths should be necessary to better evaluate the benefits of this new technique.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
In the United States, fuel reduction treatments are a standard land management tool to restore the structure and composition of forests that have been degraded by past management. Although treatments can have multiple purposes, their principal objective is to create landscape conditions where wildland fire can be safely managed to help achieve long-term land management goals. One critique is that fuel treatment benefits are unlikely to transpire due to the low probability that treated areas will be burned by a subsequent fire within a treatment’s lifespan, but little quantitative information exists to corroborate this argument. We summarized the frequency, extent, and geographic variation of fire and fuel treatment interactions on federal lands within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We also assessed how the encounters between fuel treatments and fires varied with treatment size, treatment age, and number of times treated. Overall, 6.8% of treatment units evaluated were encountered by a subsequent fire during the study period, though this rate varied among ecoregions across the CONUS. Larger treatment units were more likely to be encountered by a fire, and treatment units were most frequently burned within one year of the most recent treatment, the latter of which is likely because of ongoing maintenance of existing treatments. Our results highlight the need to identify and prioritize additional opportunities to reduce fuel loading and fire risk on the millions of hectares of federal lands in the CONUS that are in need of restoration.
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