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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olle, Margit;

    Saabunud / Received 05.08.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.12.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 25.12.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Margit Olle e-mail: margit.olle@gmail.com Vermicomposting is described as "bioxidation and stabili zation of organic material involving the joint action of earthworms and mesophilic micro-organisms". Under appropriate conditions, worms eat agricultural waste and reduce the volume by 40 to 60%. Vermicompost produced by the activity of earthworms is rich in macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones, enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulase and chitinase and immobilized microflora. The enzymes continue to disintegrate organic matter even after they have been ejected from the worms. Reduced use of water for irrigation, reduced pest attack, reduced termite attack, reduced weed growth; faster rate of seed germination and rapid seedlings growth and development; greater numbers of fruits per plant (in vegetable crops) and greater numbers of seeds per year (in cereal crops) are only some of the beneficial effects of the vermicompost usage in agricultural production. Earthworms and vermicompost can boost horticultural production without agrochemicals. In spite of the benefits associated with vermicompost, its use is not widespread yet. This review attempts as increasing awareness of this local soil amendment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    EMU DSpace
    Thesis . 2014
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
    Doctoral thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
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      EMU DSpace
      Thesis . 2014
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
      Doctoral thesis . 2014
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Julia Poberezhets; Roman Chudak; Ihor Kupchuk; Vitalii Yaropud; +1 Authors

    Saabunud / Received 05.03.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.10.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 23.10.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Ihor Kupchuk kupchuk.igor@i.ua The aim of the research was to investigate feed nutrient digestion and slaughter indicators of broiler chickens fed a probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Four groups of one-day-old broiler chickens of the Ross-308 cross were selected by the method of analogous groups, each group contained 50 birds. Broilers were kept in group cages considering all zoohygienic requirements. The control group consumed a basic diet (BD), i.e., a complete feed. The experimental groups were additionally fed different doses of a probiotic supplement (by percentage mass of feed). The broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) compared with the control group. The application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine compared with the control. The absorption of Ca, P, Mg, and Mn increased with the probiotic supplement. The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3%. Probiotic supplement had a positive effect on the digestibility of feed nutrients, increased the absorption of amino acids and minerals in the body broiler chickens.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.2...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.2...
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrei Komarov; Nadezhda Naida; Edvin Nugis;

    Saabunud / Received 02.10.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 21.11.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 21.11.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Edvin Nugis edvin.nugis@mail.ee The aim of this paper is to present the use of mathematical model for an assessment of seed germination on the example of a genus Dracocephalum L. based on logistic function. An assessment of the quality of seeds and their species specificity was carried out. For this the method of a mathematical model of seed germination and the "Origin Pro" application package was used. The objects of research were samples of species Dracocephalum L. of different geographical origin from the collection of the I.N. Vavilov named All-Russian Crop Research Institute (VIR). Morphometric parameters of seeds of the studied species of the genus Dracocephalum L. were identified, which were divided into two groups. The first group with small seeds (2.7–3.0 mm long and 1.6–2.0 mm wide) included varieties of the species D. moldavica, and the second group – with very small seeds (2.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm wide) of D. multicaule and D. nutans. To assess the quality of seeds, we used both standard static indicators for germination, germination energy and seed vigour which are also assessed by both known the Grodzinsky bio test, and new ones based on dynamic parameters for evaluating seed germination. The dynamic model presented in the work reproduces changes in the initial phase of plant growth through the dynamics of seed germination. That is, the change in the state of a living object in motion in this model. When processing the results, a logistic function was applied that reflects the dynamics of change or accumulation of quantitative signs with the transition to new qualitative indicators. It was revealed that the shortest germination time of half of the maximum number of germinated seeds (intensity of germination) equal to 44.0 hours had the sample K-6 ('Aroma-2'). This indicates vigourous and friendly germination of the seeds of this variety. For sample K-7 ('Aroma-2'), this figure is 60 hours and, therefore, the germination rate is less than that for K-6. Similar in these parameters and the intensity of germination in the sample K-8 'Zeya' equal to 53 hours. Sample K-10 ('Arhat') was characterized by a relatively high germination rate, intensity of germination equal to 46 hours. Samples at 32 (D. nutans) and at 20 (D. multicaule) had approximately the same intensity of germination was equal to 61 and 54 hours, respectively. As a result, comparing the similarly different age characteristics of the seed material, a certain species and variety specificity in the dynamics of growth processes in the seeds of various types of snake head was revealed. The novelty of these studies was the search for new patterns and phenomena in assessing the quality of seeds and their species specificity.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agraarteadusarrow_drop_down
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    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.2...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agraarteadusarrow_drop_down
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      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.2...
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Enn, Anni; Merisalu, Eda;

    Article The risk of dying in a work-related accident is greatest for those employed in agricultural sector. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of work accidents (WA) incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method: The database of accidents in agriculture (2008–2017) was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate (ELI). Work accidents statistics is based on official reports of employers. Results: In total 1,683 non-fatal work accidents (NFA) was registered in the past decade, from which 1,235 (79.3%) were minor and 448 (20.7%) severe. In total 13 fatal work accidents (FA) have occurred, which accounts 0.8% of all the WAs (n = 1,696). Although the trends of minor and severe WA cases showed steady increase, the number of FA has remained low. A major part WAs (74%) was registered in farming and horticulture, with prevalence of minor accidents. A severe WA is likely to occur in forestry or very likely in fishery. The proportion of injured male and female was 51.8% and 48.2%, accordingly. In the farming and horticulture sector there were more accidents among women – of all the minor accidents (n = 1,235) 52.1% occurred to women. Of all the severe WAs (n = 448) 61.2% and all the fatal work accidents happened to male workers. About 2/3 of severe WAs caused sick leave 31–90 days and more. Conclusion: The number of WAs in Estonian agricultural sector show steady increase in the past decade. A major part of accidents is minor and mostly occurred in farming and horticulture, and more often with females. Severe and FAs more often occurred in forestry and fishery. Mostly the severe WAs cause long sick leave – a month or more. When to increase work accidents severity level by one step (from minor to severe), the sick leave is increasing significantly.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.19...
    Article . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.19...
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    Authors: Kokin, Eugen; Pennar, Madis; Palge, Veli; Jürjenson, Kuno;

    Article The aim of the study was to define the strawberry leaf surface and ambient air temperature differences in night frost conditions. The study was carried out at the commercial strawberry field in late autumn at a specific natural climatic situation, corresponding to night frost conditions. Thermal camera FLIR P660 was used for obtaining thermal images and corresponding visual colour images of the strawberry leaves. The images were taken at ten-minute interval. The ambient air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, solar radiation and wind speed data were obtained by Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station. It was estimated that the surface temperature of the specific leaf is comparatively similar at different parts of the specimen and changes noticeably with the variation of solar radiation intensity. The speed of temperature changes was also analysed. During all the measurement period, the considerable difference between the temperature of the leaf and the ambient air temperature was established, especially in absence of solar radiation. The difference of the leaf surface and ambient air temperature reached 8 °C. The study showed that in night frost conditions the plants might be endangered by low temperatures even at the air temperatures above 0 °C due to intensive energy loss by long wave radiation to the sky. It is suggested that the thermal imaging or infrared radiation measurement should be used simultaneously with air temperature measurements for more exact timing of night frost prevention measures at strawberry cultivation. http://dx.doi.org/10.15159/ar.18.010

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    Authors: Tooming, Ene;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture Sublethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in nontargeted beneficial arthropod predators important as nartural enemies of many agricultural pests. In this ecotoxicological study, deleterious short- long-term effects of neurotoxic pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on various basic behaviours of the predatory carabid Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera, Carabidae) were quantified over a broad range of sublethal concentrations and doses in controlled laboratory conditions. It appeared that low doses of alpha-cypermethrin and thiamethoxam may cause a number of substantial short- and long-term abnormalities in many basic behaviours such as locomotor activity (LA), general motor activity (GMA), clean food consumption rate (CFCR) and behavioural thermoregulation of carabids. The observed sublethal behavioural biases may lead to deterioration of ecological fitness and population dynamics of the beetles in agricultural lands where these chemicals are applied. For the first time in predatory arthropods, it was was demonstrated that in addition to locomotion, other important behavioural endpoints such GMA, CFCR and behavioural thermoregulation may serve as sensitive, valuable and easily quantifiable ecotoxicological biomarkers mirroring different rates and aspects of toxic stress. The observed remarkable declines in CFCR and efficiency for behavioural thermoregulation of the beetles exposed to sublethal doses of alpha-cypermethrin and thiamethoxam may directly worsen performance of the carabids as natural enemies of pest insects in the insecticide treated fields. Thus, the results of this study may have importance in integrated pest management programs promoting reduced insecticide use and encouraging natural pest control mechanisms wherever possible. The results of this PhD thesis are published in three papers. Ehkki röövtoidulistel lülijalgsetel on põllumajandusmaastikel tähtis roll taimekahjurite arvukuse vähendamisel, on insektitsiidide madalate dooside kõrvalmõjusid nende käitumisele seni vähe uuritud. Käesolevas doktoritöös mõõdeti esmakordselt neurotoksilise püretroidse ja neonikotinoidse insektitsiidi lühi- ja pikaajalisi mõjusid röövtoidulise süsi-ketasjooksiku (Platynus assimilis, Coleoptera: Carabidae) erinevatele põhikäitumistele. Mardikaid töödeldi preparaatide Fastac 50EC® (toimeaine alfa-tsüpermetriin) ja Actara 25WG® (toimeaine tiametoksaam) erinevate subletaalsete kontsentratsioonide ja doosidega kontrollitud laboritingimustes. Katsed näitasid, et jooksiklased on töös testitud insektitsiidide suhtes ülimalt tundlikud. Isegi väga madalad doosid põhjustasid mitmeid olulisi lühi- ja pikaajalisi negatiivseid kõrvalekaldeid mardikate põhikäitumistes. Täheldati märkimisväärset langust mardikate puhta toidu tarbimismääras ning käitumusliku termoregulatsiooni võimes, mis põllumajandusmaastikel võivad otseselt halvendada nende kasulike putukate ökoloogilist kohasust, populatsiooni dünaamikat ja biotõrje efektiivsust. Esmakordselt demonstreeriti, et putukate põhikäitumised nagu üldmotoorne aktiivsus, käitumuslik termoregulatsioon ja puhta toidu tarbimismäär on tundlikud, väärtuslikud ja kergesti mõõdetavad ökotoksikoloogilised biomarkerid, mis lisaks lokomotsioonile aitavad hinnata röövtoiduliste jooksiklaste toksilise stressi erinevaid tasemeid ja aspekte. Saadud tulemusi tuleks kindlasti arvestada integreeritud taimekaitse programmide väljatöötamisel, mis soodustavad kultuurtaimede töötlemist insektitsiidide vähendatud doosidega ja taimekahjurite looduslike vaenlaste maksimaalset ärakasutamist, kus iganes võimalik. Antud doktoritöö tulemused avaldati kolmes teadusartiklis. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Plant Health

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    https://doi.org/10.15159/emu.2...
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      Thesis . 2017
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      Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Are, Mihkel; Kaart, Tanel; Selge, Are; Astover, Alar; +1 Authors

    Soil water-stable aggregate (WSA) stability is one of the most important indicators of soil health, because it influences chemical, biological and other physical properties. At the same time, WSA formation, stabilization and degradation are also some of the most complex processes that occur in the soil, making them difficult to fully understand. In particular, there is a lack of research on WSA stability in the Baltic region. To gain a better understanding how aggregation occurs in Estonian pedo-climatic conditions, this study was conducted in 2014– 2015 in a sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol (LV-st) (WRB, 2014). Potato and barley plots were analysed in a three-year crop rotation (potato → spring wheat → barley) with straw removal. The nitrogen (N) fertilization treatments were 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 yr-1 N, both without and with 40 Mg ha-1 fermented cattle farmyard manure (FYM) application prior to potato planting in the previous autumn. WSA stability was determined by Eijkelkamp’s wet sieving apparatus from air-dried soil samples of less than 2 mm in diameter. The study revealed a negative correlation (r = −0.16) between increased N rates and WSA stability, regardless of FYM applications. Although soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased with additional N fertilization rates, the reduction in soil acidity (pHKCl) levels caused by N fertilization, most likely repealed the positive SOC content effect on WSA stability. In general, compared with sole N fertilization, FYM application had a positive effect on WSA stability. However, even though WSA stability did not always increase with FYM applications, it still had a positive effect on bulk density, SOC content and soil acidity levels. Further research is needed in Estonia due to the complexities involved in the soil aggregation process. This study was supported by the H2020 project iSQAPER-635750.

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    Žemdirbystė
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    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Szabó, I.; Hushki, M.; Bártfai, Z.; Lágymányosi, A.; +1 Authors

    Article Enhancing productivity and cost reduction are two main targets for any production operation. In the agricultural field; It is the role of researchers to come out with reliable models and make it available to be used in m odern farming management organizations as well as to the rural farmers. When it comes to the Human Machine Interface it is essential to assess the system in term of the Human Cantered Design aspects. This research is focusing on the developing simple model s for the operator’s focusing scheme as a human behaviour inside an off - road vehicle cabin based on the operator’s focusing scheme measuring along working hours using proven and up to date technologies. The results of this research provide the decision mak ers with reliable inputs using proven methodology regarding the change of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours in two agricultural operations “windrowing and cultivating”. Both operations are requiring continuous physical involvement of the opera tor for checking the attached tool and steering of the vehicle in the planned track, which is directly related to the accumulated passive fatigue as a main contributor of resulted data.

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    Authors: Matějka, P.; Kadeřábek, J.; Shapoval, V.;

    Article The purpose of this longitudinal project is to verify the dynamic properties of the Real Time Kinematic receivers (‘RTK’). For this purpose, a verification method using Measurement Robotic Arm (‘MRA’) described in this paper has been developed. This device can be moved along a circular trajectory in a horizontal surface. Using the methodology described in this paper, the absolute position of the MRA trolley in absolute time can be defined with absolute accuracy and can serve as a reference for the verification of RTK receivers positioning. Its movement, including its breaking, can be controlled via a PC app and various sensor properties can be monitored. The position of the trolley is determined by the encoder. A Hall sensor indicates the absolute start position of one full turn. The absolute time marks of the measurement and the time synchronization of the microprocessor based on Pulse Per Second (‘PPS’) were obtained from the standard GNNS receiver. This study provides information about a proposal solution of the MRA reference system in terms of the frame construction description, the design of electronic equipment and the design of a software solution for processing and logging of messages. This paper also presents the results of three tests performed to verify the functionality and reliability of the MRA system: PPS time accuracy verification, the quantity and correctness of sent messages according to the arm instantaneous speed, and a real RTK verification test. The MRA also can be used to verify the dynamic properties of other localization devices.

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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olle, Margit;

    Saabunud / Received 05.08.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.12.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 25.12.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Margit Olle e-mail: margit.olle@gmail.com Vermicomposting is described as "bioxidation and stabili zation of organic material involving the joint action of earthworms and mesophilic micro-organisms". Under appropriate conditions, worms eat agricultural waste and reduce the volume by 40 to 60%. Vermicompost produced by the activity of earthworms is rich in macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones, enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulase and chitinase and immobilized microflora. The enzymes continue to disintegrate organic matter even after they have been ejected from the worms. Reduced use of water for irrigation, reduced pest attack, reduced termite attack, reduced weed growth; faster rate of seed germination and rapid seedlings growth and development; greater numbers of fruits per plant (in vegetable crops) and greater numbers of seeds per year (in cereal crops) are only some of the beneficial effects of the vermicompost usage in agricultural production. Earthworms and vermicompost can boost horticultural production without agrochemicals. In spite of the benefits associated with vermicompost, its use is not widespread yet. This review attempts as increasing awareness of this local soil amendment.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2019
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    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.1...
    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laarmann, Diana;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry Doktoritöö käsitleb metsaökosüsteemide taastamist Eestis, hõlmates nii kaevandamisega rikutud alade taasmetsastamist kui ka loodusmetsade struktuurikomponentide tekitamist madala loodusväärtusega aladele ning aladele, kus loodusliku taastumise protsess on aeglane. Intensiivne metsade majandamine on põhjustanud metsade struktuuri ja liigilise koosseisu lihtsustumist ning muutnud looduslike häiringute dünaamikat. Metsi oskuslikult majandades saab vähendada majandamisvõtete negatiivset mõju elurikkusele ja säilitada metsaökosüsteemide looduslikke funktsioone. Samuti tuleks eelkõige kaitsealustes metsades jälgida ja taastada metsade looduslikku funktsionaalsust. Ökoloogilise taastamise eesmärk on kiirendada muudetud, rikutud või hävitatud ökosüsteemides loodusliku taastumise protsesse. Doktoritöös käsitletakse ja analüüsitakse metsade taastamise erinevaid aspekte ja komponente ning otsesteks eesmärkideks on: a) uurida puistute looduslikkuse indikaatoreid ning hinnata puistute looduslikkust, b) määrata puistus üksikpuu suremist mõjutavad faktorid, c) analüüsida looduslikkuse taastamise võtete mõju puistu dünaamikale ja elurikkusele, d) analüüsida kaevandamisjärgsel taasmetsastamisel tekkinud ökosüsteemi. Püstitatud eesmärkide täitmiseks viidi läbi välitööd kokku 640 püsiproovitükil. Doktoritöös leiti, et surnud puidu kogus, surnud puude ruumiline paiknemine puistus, samuti suremise kiirus ja põhjused on tihedas seoses puistu looduslikkusega. Surnud puidu maht looduslikus seisundis ja majandatud metsas erinevad üksteisest oluliselt. Puude suremise hindamine võimaldab paremini aru saada metsaökosüsteemi struktuurist ja seal toimivatest protsessidest. Puu ellujäämine sõltub puu suhtelisest suurusest puistus ning puude suremise põhjused erinevat tüüpi puistutes on erinevad. Suremise põhjuste mitmekesisus on suurem looduslikus seisundis puistutes ning samuti on surnud puude paiknemine sellises puistus rohkem hajutatud. Töös väljatöötatud indeksid pakuvad võimalusi paremini hinnata puistu looduslikkust ja seejuures eristada puistus toimunud hiljutisi häiringuid. Looduslikkuse taastamise võtted olid läbi viidud ühetaolistes keskealistes okaspuupuistutes, kus peale taastamisvõtete tegemist puistustruktuur mitmekesistus, näiteks surnud puidu maht suurenes lagupuidu tekitamise võtte korral kuni 67 m3 ha-1. Loodusliku uuenduse arvukus oli kõrgeim pindalalt suuremas häilus ning ülepõletatud häilu korral. Taastamisvõtted avaldasid erinevatele liigirühmadele erinevat mõju: rohttaimede mitmekesisus suurenes enim ülepõletatud häilu korral, sammalde mitmekesisus lagupuidu tekitamise korral, samblike mitmekesisus suurenes enim häilu tekitamisel, ülepõletatud häilu korral mitmekesisus aga vähenes. Kontrollaladest eristus kõige rohkem rohttaimede, sammalde ja samblike puhul häilu ülepõletamise võte. Mardikaliste suurenenud arvukus ja liigiline mitmekesisus on puistu valgustingimuste muutuse ning elupaikade lisandumise otsene tulemus. Võrreldes ühe taastamisvõtte rakendamisega suurendab erinevate taastamisvõtete üheaegne kasutamine puistu heterogeensust ja tänu sellele suureneb ka elurikkus. Kaevandamisjärgse taasmetsastamise eesmärk on taastada ökosüsteemide kaevandamiseelne olukord. Üldjuhul on võimatu taastada minevikus olnud seisundit, sest kaevandamisega on kasvupinnast täielikult muudetud ning tihtipeale areneb seal välja hoopis uudne ökosüsteem. Taastamisedukuse hindamine põhineb mullanäitajate dünaamika, liigilise mitmekesisuse, taimkatte struktuuri ja ökoloogiliste protsesside uurimisel. Endise kaevandamisala mullad erinesid tüüpilistest metsamuldadest ja seetõttu on seal taimestiku arenguks tekkinud teistsugused tingimused. Samuti erinesid sealsed taimekooslused tüüpilistest metsas esinevatest kooslustest. Puistu takseernäitajad olid sarnaseimad sinilille kasvukohatüübi puistute takseernäitajatega. Ala looduslikule arengule jätmine võib taastamisel olla oluline alternatiiv metsaistutamisele, eriti juhul, kui rikutud ala on väike ja ümbritsetud loodusliku taimkattega ning kui alale pole määratud soovitavat eesmärki ning taastumise tähtaega. This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables managers to reduce the negative impacts of timber harvest on biodiversity and thereafter maintain ecological functions. Restoration is activity which can improve conservation efforts in protected areas in order to enhance quality and quantity, to improve connectivity between fragmented areas and create buffer zones between protected and managed forest areas. The objective of ecological restoration is to re-create a self-supporting ecosystem which existed previously and is resilient to contingent damage and to maintain the system in a desirable state or moving away from an undesirable state. The aims of the thesis are: a) to develop naturalness and structural indicators in forest ecosystems; b) to analyze the effects of restoration treatments for biodiversity and stand development in managed forest ecosystems; c) to analyze the success of reclamation on post-mining restoration site; d) to determine factors influencing tree survival/mortality in forest stands. This thesis based on 640 permanent sample plots all over Estonia. Based on the results of this thesis, deadwood quantity and spatial distribution as well as tree mortality rate and causes are reliable indicators of forest naturalness. Deadwood mingling index and diversity index of mortality reasons as new proposed variables improve the assessment of forest naturalness and clarify the effects of recent disturbances. Tree mortality in a stand is caused by specific agents or by the complex effect of several mortality agents and it is different in semi-natural and managed forest. Determining the cause for a tree death is often difficult; therefore it is sensible to use a process-based multiple-reason method for determining the factors of mortality for a single tree. Survival probability of a tree is dependent on the specific mortality agent and relative size of the tree in a stand. Restoration pre-treatment stands are often homogeneous even-aged monocultures on fertile sites; rehabilitation treatments (gap cuttings, overburning and addition of deadwood) increase their structural heterogeneity and promote differentiation of microclimatic conditions and therefore species richness and abundance increase after treatments. In a gap treatment, the ratio between the gap diameter and the surrounding stand height determines the light availability inside the gap; the larger this ratio is, the greater likelihood of seedling recruitment and successful establishment of light demanding species. Species groups respond differently to treatments: understory vegetation diversity increases in gaps with burning, lichen diversity in gaps without burning, and bryophyte diversity with the addition of dead wood. Increased beetle abundance and greater species diversity is a direct effect of changed light conditions inside the canopy. Gaps with overburning have the greatest recruitment of tree seedlings. Multiple treatments create stand heterogeneity and can increase biodiversity more than one homogenous application of a single treatment. It is not possible to restore historical or natural ecosystems on reclaimed mined areas by simple afforestation. Soil formation and properties and the vegetation on reclaimed sites is different from soils and vegetation on common forest sites, hence this leads to development of novel ecosystems. Spontaneous succession should be considered in forest restoration as an alternative to afforestation practice, especially if reclamation sites are small, surrounded by natural vegetation, and there is no specific production goal or time limit for restoration.

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    Thesis . 2014
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    Doctoral thesis . 2014
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      Thesis . 2014
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      Doctoral thesis . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Julia Poberezhets; Roman Chudak; Ihor Kupchuk; Vitalii Yaropud; +1 Authors

    Saabunud / Received 05.03.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 23.10.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 23.10.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Ihor Kupchuk kupchuk.igor@i.ua The aim of the research was to investigate feed nutrient digestion and slaughter indicators of broiler chickens fed a probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Four groups of one-day-old broiler chickens of the Ross-308 cross were selected by the method of analogous groups, each group contained 50 birds. Broilers were kept in group cages considering all zoohygienic requirements. The control group consumed a basic diet (BD), i.e., a complete feed. The experimental groups were additionally fed different doses of a probiotic supplement (by percentage mass of feed). The broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) compared with the control group. The application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine compared with the control. The absorption of Ca, P, Mg, and Mn increased with the probiotic supplement. The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3%. Probiotic supplement had a positive effect on the digestibility of feed nutrients, increased the absorption of amino acids and minerals in the body broiler chickens.

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    Article . 2021
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    Agraarteadus
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/jas.2...
    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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      Agraarteadus
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Andrei Komarov; Nadezhda Naida; Edvin Nugis;