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17 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Open Access
  • 04 agricultural and veterinary sciences
  • 0105 earth and related environmental sciences
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kokin, Eugen; Pennar, Madis; Palge, Veli; Jürjenson, Kuno;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article The aim of the study was to define the strawberry leaf surface and ambient air temperature differences in night frost conditions. The study was carried out at the commercial strawberry field in late autumn at a specific natural climatic situation, corresponding to night frost conditions. Thermal camera FLIR P660 was used for obtaining thermal images and corresponding visual colour images of the strawberry leaves. The images were taken at ten-minute interval. The ambient air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, solar radiation and wind speed data were obtained by Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station. It was estimated that the surface temperature of the specific leaf is comparatively similar at different parts of the specimen and changes noticeably with the variation of solar radiation intensity. The speed of temperature changes was also analysed. During all the measurement period, the considerable difference between the temperature of the leaf and the ambient air temperature was established, especially in absence of solar radiation. The difference of the leaf surface and ambient air temperature reached 8 °C. The study showed that in night frost conditions the plants might be endangered by low temperatures even at the air temperatures above 0 °C due to intensive energy loss by long wave radiation to the sky. It is suggested that the thermal imaging or infrared radiation measurement should be used simultaneously with air temperature measurements for more exact timing of night frost prevention measures at strawberry cultivation. http://dx.doi.org/10.15159/ar.18.010

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mihkel Are; Tanel Kaart; Are Selge; Alar Astover; Endla Reintam;
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | iSQAPER (635750)

    Soil water-stable aggregate (WSA) stability is one of the most important indicators of soil health, because it influences chemical, biological and other physical properties. At the same time, WSA formation, stabilization and degradation are also some of the most complex processes that occur in the soil, making them difficult to fully understand. In particular, there is a lack of research on WSA stability in the Baltic region. To gain a better understanding how aggregation occurs in Estonian pedo-climatic conditions, this study was conducted in 2014– 2015 in a sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol (LV-st) (WRB, 2014). Potato and barley plots were analysed in a three-year crop rotation (potato → spring wheat → barley) with straw removal. The nitrogen (N) fertilization treatments were 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 yr-1 N, both without and with 40 Mg ha-1 fermented cattle farmyard manure (FYM) application prior to potato planting in the previous autumn. WSA stability was determined by Eijkelkamp’s wet sieving apparatus from air-dried soil samples of less than 2 mm in diameter. The study revealed a negative correlation (r = −0.16) between increased N rates and WSA stability, regardless of FYM applications. Although soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased with additional N fertilization rates, the reduction in soil acidity (pHKCl) levels caused by N fertilization, most likely repealed the positive SOC content effect on WSA stability. In general, compared with sole N fertilization, FYM application had a positive effect on WSA stability. However, even though WSA stability did not always increase with FYM applications, it still had a positive effect on bulk density, SOC content and soil acidity levels. Further research is needed in Estonia due to the complexities involved in the soil aggregation process. This study was supported by the H2020 project iSQAPER-635750.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arshadi, A.; Karami, E.; Sartip, A.; Zare, M.; Rezabakhsh, P.;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article The selection of stable and superior genotypes, with the aim of improving grain yield in breeding programs, requires the evaluation of genotypes under different environments. In this study, the yields of 10 barley genotypes were evaluated in eight different environments using a graphical method (GGE biplot). These experiments were conducted from 2011 to 2015. There were irrigated and rain-fed conditions, as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that the two components of PC1 and PC2 explained 62.9% and 14.9% of the total variation observed in the yield, respectively. Genotypes with a positive value for PC1 (i.e., PC1 > 0) had the adaptable and the highest performance, whereas genotypes with a negative value for the first component (i.e., PC1 < 0) were non-adaptable and had the lowest performance. Likewise, among the genotypes, some had their second component scores near zero, and they exhibited the greatest stability compared to other genotypes. Specifically, genotype 3 had the highest grain yield and stability, while genotypes 2 and 8 showed relatively high yields.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    I. Keres; Maarika Alaru; Liina Talgre; Anne Luik; Viacheslav Eremeev; Andres Sats; Ivi Jõudu; Anu Riisalu; Evelin Loit;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | VALORTECH (810630)

    The size distribution of wheat-grain starch granules has an impact on the yield of fine flour. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of conventional (mineral fertilizers, pesticides) and organic farming treatments (cover crops, composted cattle manure) on (i) the size distribution of starch granules, (ii) the level of the first break whole and fine flour yield. The grain samples of winter wheat cv Fredis were taken from a long-term field crop rotation experiment established in 2008 at the Estonian University of Life Sciences in Tartu County (58° 0.001) on the grain starch granule size distribution. The proportion of starch granules with a smaller diameter (C-type granules) was higher in years with a longer grain filling period. The size distribution of starch granules was not influenced by farming system. The increased proportion of C-type granules increased the fine flour yield significantly. Fertilisation with organic manure and twice with mineral nitrogen increased significantly the mean diameter value of different starch granules. E) on Stagnic Luvisol soil. The weather conditions during the grain filling period of winter wheat had a strong impact (p < N, 26° 40&prime 22&prime

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mihkel Are; Karin Kauer; Tanel Kaart; Are Selge; Alar Astover; Endla Reintam;
    Publisher: Pleiades Publishing Ltd
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | iSQAPER (635750)

    Soil formation on the human time scale is immensely time consuming, although it can be significantly accelerated through the effects of vegetation. The content of water-stable aggregates (WSAs) is a useful indicator for determining both the soil development level and the soil quality. However, in severely degraded soils, especially in the Baltic pedoclimatic region, the effects of vegetation on the aggregate stability have been poorly studied. Therefore, to obtain more knowledge about the impact of vegetation on WSA, and thereby knowing how to improve it, this study was conducted on a long-term soil formation experiment in Estonia near Tartu. In 1964, the initial soil from an area of 20 × 8 m down to 100 cm depth was replaced with a sandy loam calcareous glacial till. The experiment started on April 26, 1965, when plants were sown on the plot. The topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were analyzed in 1966, 2000, 2007, and 2014. The study indicated that perennial grasses (meadow fescue and common meadow-grass) fertilized with P40K75, compared to N150P40K75, decreased the WSA content, as well at the accumulation rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the total nitrogen content (Ntot). The hybrid alfalfa treatment resulted in the significantly highest SOC and Ntot accumulation, but not in the overall highest WSA content. Under barley, manure positively affected the WSA and SOC, though many other physical properties were not improved. Compared to the initial till under bare fallow, the SOC and Ntot contents were significantly higher under grown crops, but the WSA content remained the same. In addition, regardless of the grown crops, the WSA of larger (0.25–2 mm) aggregates was substantially higher than that of smaller (0.25–1 mm) aggregates. Also, as the relationship between WSA and SOC in the study was linear, the soil was far from C saturation and still in development. Overall, it can be concluded that the cultivation of perennial grasses and hybrid alfalfa on the severely eroded soil is the most rational option to improve the water stability of aggregates and increase the SOC and Ntot contents. However, because of the complexity of the aggregation process, further research is still needed. This study was supported by the Horizon 2020 project iSQAPER (project number 635750) and by the Estonian Research Council grant (PSG147).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Heydarian, A.; Tohidi Moghadam, H.R.; Donath, T.W.; Sohrabi, M.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article In many regions of the world soils are contaminated with heavy metals and therefore restricted in their use. For instance, the absorption of nickel (Ni) in the tissue of plants increase the plant’s metabolism and cause physiological disorders or even death. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are known to enhance the tolerance of host plants to abiotic and biotic stress. Thus, we investigated the potential of the arbuscular m ycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices to mitigate deleterious effects of Ni in wheat. The experiment was conducted using four levels of Ni (0, 60, 120 and 180 mg per kg of soil) and two levels of mycorrhizal fungi application (with and without Glomus intrar adices ). Nickel stress significantly decreased seed number per spike, thousand - seed weight, seed yield per plant, concentration of chlorophyll a and b. At the same time, we found increased catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and dityrosine (DT) treatments. Mycorrhizal fungi application attenuated Ni effects, i.e. fungal presence increased seed number per spike, thousand - seed weight, chlorophyll a and b. Furthermore mycorrhizal fungi application reduce CAT enzyme activity and DT. In general, our results sugge st that mycorrhizal fungi application reduces harmful effects of Ni stress in wheat.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Samadzadeh Ghale Joughi, E.; Majidi Hervan, E.; Shirani Rad, A.H.; Noormohamadi, Gh.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. Hence, in a 2-year factorial split plot experiment, the effects of different sowing date (optimum (October 17) and late (October 27)), vermicompost (0 and 20 ton ha-1 ) and genotypes (BAL104, DIE710.08, BAL102, FJL330, FJL290 and Okapi) on the fatty acid composition of rapeseed were evaluated. Rapeseed genotypes and the combination of sowing date and vermicompost application were randomized to sub and main-plots, respectively. The present results revealed that yield, oil percentage and fatty acids composition is affected by sowing dates along with genotypes. However, the unsaturated fatty acid, eicosanoic acid was not affected by interaction sowing date and genotype. Vermicomposting increased the yield, oil percentage, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids and decrease erucic unsaturated fatty acid. The FJL290 and BAL102 genotypes produced the highest values of grain yield (5,853 and 5,763 kg ha−1, respectively), oil percentage (43.98% and 43.85%, respectively), linoleic % acid (20.51 and 20.37% respectively), oleic % acid (65.23 and 64.93% respectively) and linolenic % acid (7.20 and 7.09% respectively) in comparison to the other genotypes, when they were sown at the optimum sowing date. The FJL290 and BAL102 also accelerated their growth period at the late sowing date. Consequently, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids had the highest direct and indirect effect influence on grain oil percentage indicating their importance as selection criteria to improve yield and oil quality of rapeseed. Concluding the combination of sowing date, vermicompost and FJL290 and BAL102 lines may be the most favourable cropping strategy for rapeseed production in Iran.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leoni Mack; Hans Estrup Andersen; Meryem Beklioglu; Tuba Bucak; Raoul-Marie Couture; Fabien Cremona; M. Teresa Ferreira; Mike Hutchins; Ute Mischke; Eugenio Molina-Navarro; +3 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, Estonia

    There are infinite possible future scenarios reflecting the impacts of anthropogenic multiple stress on our planet. These impacts include changes in climate and land cover, to which aquatic ecosystems are especially vulnerable. To assess plausible developments of the future state of European surface waters, we considered two climate sce- narios and three storylines describing land use, management and anthropogenic development (‘Consensus’, ‘Techno’ and ‘Fragmented’, which in terms of environmental protection represent best-, intermediate- and worst-case, respectively). Three lake and four river basins were selected, representing a spectrum of European conditions through a range of different human impacts and climatic, geographical and biological characteristics. Using process-based and empirical models, freshwater total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentrations were projected for 2030 and 2060. Under current conditions, the water bodies mostly fail good ecological status. In future predictions for the Techno and Fragmented World, concentrations further increased, while concentrations generally declined for the Consensus World. Furthermore, impacts were more severe for rivers than for lakes. Main pressures identified were nutrient inputs from agriculture, land use change, inade- quately managed water abstractions and climate change effects. While the basins in the Continental and Atlantic regions were primarily affected by land use changes, in the Mediterranean/Anatolian the main driver was climate change. The Boreal basins showed combined impacts of land use and climate change and clearly reflected the climate-induced future trend of agricultural activities shifting northward. The storylines showed positive effects on ecological status by classical mitigation measures in the Consensus World (e.g. riparian shading), technical im- provements in the Techno World (e.g. increasing wastewater treatment efficiency) and agricultural extensification in the Fragmented World. Results emphasize the need for implementing targeted measures to re- duce anthropogenic impacts and the importance of having differing levels of ambition for improving the future status of water bodies depending on the societal future to be expected. This study was funded by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic eco- systems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Cli- mate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu). We thank Jan Lemm (University of Duisburg-Essen) for his support in GIS and all contributors to the individual case studies that this synthe- sis is based on. This study was funded by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic eco- systems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Cli- mate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu). We thank Jan Lemm (University of Duisburg-Essen) for his support in GIS and all contributors to the individual case studies that this synthe- sis is based on.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yezekyan, T.; Marinello, F.; Armentano, G.; Sartori, L.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article Management of agricultural operations is currently rapidly changing caused by increased attention to the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable intensification. Enhancement of productivity and efficiency of agricultural machinery are the leadi ng factors in sustainable agriculture. The complete application and exploitation of engineering advances require the revision of traditional agricultural machinery management process. The definition of the farm fleet (tractors and implements), as well as m achinery planning and management, must consider different parameters, including not only the cost of the machines but also their dimensions, weight, working width, needed power, etc. All of this information related to an agricultural machine is eventually influencing the impact on productivity, on the return on the investmen t, and also on the environment. The present work is aimed at identifying the most relevant parameters which are influencing costs and performances of sprayers, including tank volume, max imum flow, needed power, weight and price. The different parameters are analysed in a correlation matrix, in order to allow identification of dependencies a nd to extract reference models. The study is based on linear and multiple linear regression analysis carried out on technical specifications of about 700 models of sprayers. Relevant correlations were highlighted between price and weight, between weight and tank capacity and in some cases between power and weight . Following such correlations , models have been proposed, which can be implemented in order to support the decision making phases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kroulik, M.; Hula, J.; Brant, V.;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article Together with the requirement for higher productivity the average performance and the weight of agricultural machines are increasing. Agricultural land is increasingly exposed to pressures caused by agricultural machinery. The heavy agricultural machinery passes across a field are frequently associated with technogenic soil compaction. Soil compaction is one of the main problems of modern agriculture. From the previous measuring of the traffic intensity it was found 86.13 % of the total field area was run - o ver with a machine at least once a year, when using conventional tillage and 63.75 % of the total field area was run - over when using direct seeding technology, with dependence on the working width of the machines. Field passes are inevitable in present agri culture. As a result of the increase of total machines weight, it is necessary to optimize the traffic lines trajectories and limit the entries of the machines in the field. At present, the choice of traffic lines direction is based primarily on the experi ence of drivers or the practice of farmers. There are a number of influences that affect the machine work efficiency. Monitoring of the tractor, on an irregular 8 fields showed the following results. Eight - meter working width tiller or seeder brought short ening of total length of turns at headlands with the change in trajectory azimuth. For purposes of measuring the monitored tractors were equipped with monitoring units ITineris. An overview of the chosen directions of the trajectories and the lengths of wo rking and non - working passes was obtained. Based on the shape of the plot, the trajectory of the lines was also modelled. Suitable traffic lines directions in terms of the ratio of work and non - work passes were searched. Based on records of real trajectori es, the ratio of working and non - working path ranged between 6.3 and 15.2%. It was obvious from the results that the shortening of non - working passes and turns in comparison with the originally chosen trajectory directions was achieved by optimization. Thi s was especially valid for complex shapes of fields. Trajectory optimization leads to a reduction of total le n g th of path in all cases. The reduction in total length of path ranged from 69.7 m to 1 , 004.8 m. Changing the length of the working path ranged fr om 10.9 m to 264.9 m with the change in azimuth. The extension was observed in three cases. The highest part on the change of the overall length of the path presented nonworking rides.

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Include:
The following results are related to Rural Digital Europe. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
17 Research products, page 1 of 2
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kokin, Eugen; Pennar, Madis; Palge, Veli; Jürjenson, Kuno;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article The aim of the study was to define the strawberry leaf surface and ambient air temperature differences in night frost conditions. The study was carried out at the commercial strawberry field in late autumn at a specific natural climatic situation, corresponding to night frost conditions. Thermal camera FLIR P660 was used for obtaining thermal images and corresponding visual colour images of the strawberry leaves. The images were taken at ten-minute interval. The ambient air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, solar radiation and wind speed data were obtained by Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station. It was estimated that the surface temperature of the specific leaf is comparatively similar at different parts of the specimen and changes noticeably with the variation of solar radiation intensity. The speed of temperature changes was also analysed. During all the measurement period, the considerable difference between the temperature of the leaf and the ambient air temperature was established, especially in absence of solar radiation. The difference of the leaf surface and ambient air temperature reached 8 °C. The study showed that in night frost conditions the plants might be endangered by low temperatures even at the air temperatures above 0 °C due to intensive energy loss by long wave radiation to the sky. It is suggested that the thermal imaging or infrared radiation measurement should be used simultaneously with air temperature measurements for more exact timing of night frost prevention measures at strawberry cultivation. http://dx.doi.org/10.15159/ar.18.010

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mihkel Are; Tanel Kaart; Are Selge; Alar Astover; Endla Reintam;
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | iSQAPER (635750)

    Soil water-stable aggregate (WSA) stability is one of the most important indicators of soil health, because it influences chemical, biological and other physical properties. At the same time, WSA formation, stabilization and degradation are also some of the most complex processes that occur in the soil, making them difficult to fully understand. In particular, there is a lack of research on WSA stability in the Baltic region. To gain a better understanding how aggregation occurs in Estonian pedo-climatic conditions, this study was conducted in 2014– 2015 in a sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol (LV-st) (WRB, 2014). Potato and barley plots were analysed in a three-year crop rotation (potato → spring wheat → barley) with straw removal. The nitrogen (N) fertilization treatments were 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 yr-1 N, both without and with 40 Mg ha-1 fermented cattle farmyard manure (FYM) application prior to potato planting in the previous autumn. WSA stability was determined by Eijkelkamp’s wet sieving apparatus from air-dried soil samples of less than 2 mm in diameter. The study revealed a negative correlation (r = −0.16) between increased N rates and WSA stability, regardless of FYM applications. Although soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased with additional N fertilization rates, the reduction in soil acidity (pHKCl) levels caused by N fertilization, most likely repealed the positive SOC content effect on WSA stability. In general, compared with sole N fertilization, FYM application had a positive effect on WSA stability. However, even though WSA stability did not always increase with FYM applications, it still had a positive effect on bulk density, SOC content and soil acidity levels. Further research is needed in Estonia due to the complexities involved in the soil aggregation process. This study was supported by the H2020 project iSQAPER-635750.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arshadi, A.; Karami, E.; Sartip, A.; Zare, M.; Rezabakhsh, P.;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article The selection of stable and superior genotypes, with the aim of improving grain yield in breeding programs, requires the evaluation of genotypes under different environments. In this study, the yields of 10 barley genotypes were evaluated in eight different environments using a graphical method (GGE biplot). These experiments were conducted from 2011 to 2015. There were irrigated and rain-fed conditions, as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that the two components of PC1 and PC2 explained 62.9% and 14.9% of the total variation observed in the yield, respectively. Genotypes with a positive value for PC1 (i.e., PC1 > 0) had the adaptable and the highest performance, whereas genotypes with a negative value for the first component (i.e., PC1 < 0) were non-adaptable and had the lowest performance. Likewise, among the genotypes, some had their second component scores near zero, and they exhibited the greatest stability compared to other genotypes. Specifically, genotype 3 had the highest grain yield and stability, while genotypes 2 and 8 showed relatively high yields.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    I. Keres; Maarika Alaru; Liina Talgre; Anne Luik; Viacheslav Eremeev; Andres Sats; Ivi Jõudu; Anu Riisalu; Evelin Loit;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | VALORTECH (810630)

    The size distribution of wheat-grain starch granules has an impact on the yield of fine flour. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of conventional (mineral fertilizers, pesticides) and organic farming treatments (cover crops, composted cattle manure) on (i) the size distribution of starch granules, (ii) the level of the first break whole and fine flour yield. The grain samples of winter wheat cv Fredis were taken from a long-term field crop rotation experiment established in 2008 at the Estonian University of Life Sciences in Tartu County (58° 0.001) on the grain starch granule size distribution. The proportion of starch granules with a smaller diameter (C-type granules) was higher in years with a longer grain filling period. The size distribution of starch granules was not influenced by farming system. The increased proportion of C-type granules increased the fine flour yield significantly. Fertilisation with organic manure and twice with mineral nitrogen increased significantly the mean diameter value of different starch granules. E) on Stagnic Luvisol soil. The weather conditions during the grain filling period of winter wheat had a strong impact (p < N, 26° 40&prime 22&prime

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mihkel Are; Karin Kauer; Tanel Kaart; Are Selge; Alar Astover; Endla Reintam;
    Publisher: Pleiades Publishing Ltd
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | iSQAPER (635750)

    Soil formation on the human time scale is immensely time consuming, although it can be significantly accelerated through the effects of vegetation. The content of water-stable aggregates (WSAs) is a useful indicator for determining both the soil development level and the soil quality. However, in severely degraded soils, especially in the Baltic pedoclimatic region, the effects of vegetation on the aggregate stability have been poorly studied. Therefore, to obtain more knowledge about the impact of vegetation on WSA, and thereby knowing how to improve it, this study was conducted on a long-term soil formation experiment in Estonia near Tartu. In 1964, the initial soil from an area of 20 × 8 m down to 100 cm depth was replaced with a sandy loam calcareous glacial till. The experiment started on April 26, 1965, when plants were sown on the plot. The topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were analyzed in 1966, 2000, 2007, and 2014. The study indicated that perennial grasses (meadow fescue and common meadow-grass) fertilized with P40K75, compared to N150P40K75, decreased the WSA content, as well at the accumulation rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the total nitrogen content (Ntot). The hybrid alfalfa treatment resulted in the significantly highest SOC and Ntot accumulation, but not in the overall highest WSA content. Under barley, manure positively affected the WSA and SOC, though many other physical properties were not improved. Compared to the initial till under bare fallow, the SOC and Ntot contents were significantly higher under grown crops, but the WSA content remained the same. In addition, regardless of the grown crops, the WSA of larger (0.25–2 mm) aggregates was substantially higher than that of smaller (0.25–1 mm) aggregates. Also, as the relationship between WSA and SOC in the study was linear, the soil was far from C saturation and still in development. Overall, it can be concluded that the cultivation of perennial grasses and hybrid alfalfa on the severely eroded soil is the most rational option to improve the water stability of aggregates and increase the SOC and Ntot contents. However, because of the complexity of the aggregation process, further research is still needed. This study was supported by the Horizon 2020 project iSQAPER (project number 635750) and by the Estonian Research Council grant (PSG147).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Heydarian, A.; Tohidi Moghadam, H.R.; Donath, T.W.; Sohrabi, M.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article In many regions of the world soils are contaminated with heavy metals and therefore restricted in their use. For instance, the absorption of nickel (Ni) in the tissue of plants increase the plant’s metabolism and cause physiological disorders or even death. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are known to enhance the tolerance of host plants to abiotic and biotic stress. Thus, we investigated the potential of the arbuscular m ycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices to mitigate deleterious effects of Ni in wheat. The experiment was conducted using four levels of Ni (0, 60, 120 and 180 mg per kg of soil) and two levels of mycorrhizal fungi application (with and without Glomus intrar adices ). Nickel stress significantly decreased seed number per spike, thousand - seed weight, seed yield per plant, concentration of chlorophyll a and b. At the same time, we found increased catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and dityrosine (DT) treatments. Mycorrhizal fungi application attenuated Ni effects, i.e. fungal presence increased seed number per spike, thousand - seed weight, chlorophyll a and b. Furthermore mycorrhizal fungi application reduce CAT enzyme activity and DT. In general, our results sugge st that mycorrhizal fungi application reduces harmful effects of Ni stress in wheat.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Samadzadeh Ghale Joughi, E.; Majidi Hervan, E.; Shirani Rad, A.H.; Noormohamadi, Gh.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. Hence, in a 2-year factorial split plot experiment, the effects of different sowing date (optimum (October 17) and late (October 27)), vermicompost (0 and 20 ton ha-1 ) and genotypes (BAL104, DIE710.08, BAL102, FJL330, FJL290 and Okapi) on the fatty acid composition of rapeseed were evaluated. Rapeseed genotypes and the combination of sowing date and vermicompost application were randomized to sub and main-plots, respectively. The present results revealed that yield, oil percentage and fatty acids composition is affected by sowing dates along with genotypes. However, the unsaturated fatty acid, eicosanoic acid was not affected by interaction sowing date and genotype. Vermicomposting increased the yield, oil percentage, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids and decrease erucic unsaturated fatty acid. The FJL290 and BAL102 genotypes produced the highest values of grain yield (5,853 and 5,763 kg ha−1, respectively), oil percentage (43.98% and 43.85%, respectively), linoleic % acid (20.51 and 20.37% respectively), oleic % acid (65.23 and 64.93% respectively) and linolenic % acid (7.20 and 7.09% respectively) in comparison to the other genotypes, when they were sown at the optimum sowing date. The FJL290 and BAL102 also accelerated their growth period at the late sowing date. Consequently, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids had the highest direct and indirect effect influence on grain oil percentage indicating their importance as selection criteria to improve yield and oil quality of rapeseed. Concluding the combination of sowing date, vermicompost and FJL290 and BAL102 lines may be the most favourable cropping strategy for rapeseed production in Iran.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leoni Mack; Hans Estrup Andersen; Meryem Beklioglu; Tuba Bucak; Raoul-Marie Couture; Fabien Cremona; M. Teresa Ferreira; Mike Hutchins; Ute Mischke; Eugenio Molina-Navarro; +3 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, Estonia

    There are infinite possible future scenarios reflecting the impacts of anthropogenic multiple stress on our planet. These impacts include changes in climate and land cover, to which aquatic ecosystems are especially vulnerable. To assess plausible developments of the future state of European surface waters, we considered two climate sce- narios and three storylines describing land use, management and anthropogenic development (‘Consensus’, ‘Techno’ and ‘Fragmented’, which in terms of environmental protection represent best-, intermediate- and worst-case, respectively). Three lake and four river basins were selected, representing a spectrum of European conditions through a range of different human impacts and climatic, geographical and biological characteristics. Using process-based and empirical models, freshwater total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentrations were projected for 2030 and 2060. Under current conditions, the water bodies mostly fail good ecological status. In future predictions for the Techno and Fragmented World, concentrations further increased, while concentrations generally declined for the Consensus World. Furthermore, impacts were more severe for rivers than for lakes. Main pressures identified were nutrient inputs from agriculture, land use change, inade- quately managed water abstractions and climate change effects. While the basins in the Continental and Atlantic regions were primarily affected by land use changes, in the Mediterranean/Anatolian the main driver was climate change. The Boreal basins showed combined impacts of land use and climate change and clearly reflected the climate-induced future trend of agricultural activities shifting northward. The storylines showed positive effects on ecological status by classical mitigation measures in the Consensus World (e.g. riparian shading), technical im- provements in the Techno World (e.g. increasing wastewater treatment efficiency) and agricultural extensification in the Fragmented World. Results emphasize the need for implementing targeted measures to re- duce anthropogenic impacts and the importance of having differing levels of ambition for improving the future status of water bodies depending on the societal future to be expected. This study was funded by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic eco- systems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Cli- mate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu). We thank Jan Lemm (University of Duisburg-Essen) for his support in GIS and all contributors to the individual case studies that this synthe- sis is based on. This study was funded by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic eco- systems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Cli- mate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu). We thank Jan Lemm (University of Duisburg-Essen) for his support in GIS and all contributors to the individual case studies that this synthe- sis is based on.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yezekyan, T.; Marinello, F.; Armentano, G.; Sartori, L.;
    Country: Estonia

    Article Management of agricultural operations is currently rapidly changing caused by increased attention to the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable intensification. Enhancement of productivity and efficiency of agricultural machinery are the leadi ng factors in sustainable agriculture. The complete application and exploitation of engineering advances require the revision of traditional agricultural machinery management process. The definition of the farm fleet (tractors and implements), as well as m achinery planning and management, must consider different parameters, including not only the cost of the machines but also their dimensions, weight, working width, needed power, etc. All of this information related to an agricultural machine is eventually influencing the impact on productivity, on the return on the investmen t, and also on the environment. The present work is aimed at identifying the most relevant parameters which are influencing costs and performances of sprayers, including tank volume, max imum flow, needed power, weight and price. The different parameters are analysed in a correlation matrix, in order to allow identification of dependencies a nd to extract reference models. The study is based on linear and multiple linear regression analysis carried out on technical specifications of about 700 models of sprayers. Relevant correlations were highlighted between price and weight, between weight and tank capacity and in some cases between power and weight . Following such correlations , models have been proposed, which can be implemented in order to support the decision making phases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kroulik, M.; Hula, J.; Brant, V.;
    Publisher: Agronomy Research
    Country: Estonia

    Article Together with the requirement for higher productivity the average performance and the weight of agricultural machines are increasing. Agricultural land is increasingly exposed to pressures caused by agricultural machinery. The heavy agricultural machinery passes across a field are frequently associated with technogenic soil compaction. Soil compaction is one of the main problems of modern agriculture. From the previous measuring of the traffic intensity it was found 86.13 % of the total field area was run - o ver with a machine at least once a year, when using conventional tillage and 63.75 % of the total field area was run - over when using direct seeding technology, with dependence on the working width of the machines. Field passes are inevitable in present agri culture. As a result of the increase of total machines weight, it is necessary to optimize the traffic lines trajectories and limit the entries of the machines in the field. At present, the choice of traffic lines direction is based primarily on the experi ence of drivers or the practice of farmers. There are a number of influences that affect the machine work efficiency. Monitoring of the tractor, on an irregular 8 fields showed the following results. Eight - meter working width tiller or seeder brought short ening of total length of turns at headlands with the change in trajectory azimuth. For purposes of measuring the monitored tractors were equipped with monitoring units ITineris. An overview of the chosen directions of the trajectories and the lengths of wo rking and non - working passes was obtained. Based on the shape of the plot, the trajectory of the lines was also modelled. Suitable traffic lines directions in terms of the ratio of work and non - work passes were searched. Based on records of real trajectori es, the ratio of working and non - working path ranged between 6.3 and 15.2%. It was obvious from the results that the shortening of non - working passes and turns in comparison with the originally chosen trajectory directions was achieved by optimization. Thi s was especially valid for complex shapes of fields. Trajectory optimization leads to a reduction of total le n g th of path in all cases. The reduction in total length of path ranged from 69.7 m to 1 , 004.8 m. Changing the length of the working path ranged fr om 10.9 m to 264.9 m with the change in azimuth. The extension was observed in three cases. The highest part on the change of the overall length of the path presented nonworking rides.