Article Precision Agriculture is a well-established concept in agricultural field production. It has developed over the last three decades. As part of this concept, farmers are used to collect and handle data. Farmers are also used to create solutions for field operations based on their knowledge of diversity and local data. When compared to classic industrial production, agricultural field operations interact with a biologically-active system. From a production management system point of view, industrial production takes place in close, well-defined environments in which performance data can, to a great extent, be measured by deterministic matters: mass (kg), volume/dimensions (m3 /m), time (sec), etc. In agricultural operations such as work involving tillage, seeding, fertilising, and plant care, there are by nature a good many possible adjustments available in order to optimise the operation method, plus intensity and timing. The challenge here is to establish the levels of knowledge that are necessary to support the control of the individual and/or graduated, precision-based operations. Within this context, parameters such as, for example, the workability of the soil cannot be defined in terms of a few deterministic parameters. Neither can the operational impact upon the soil which is made by the tools being used. It is assumed that this challenge is part of the reason why the concept of precision agriculture still contains a great deal of unutilised potential. The hypothesis raised by this article is that analysis should be carried out in regard to whether inspiration for the concept of an ‘Industry 4.0’ can facilitate the establishment of operational solutions in the field of precision farming. http://dx.doi.org/10.15159/ar.18.007
Article Together with the requirement for higher productivity the average performance and the weight of agricultural machines are increasing. Agricultural land is increasingly exposed to pressures caused by agricultural machinery. The heavy agricultural machinery passes across a field are frequently associated with technogenic soil compaction. Soil compaction is one of the main problems of modern agriculture. From the previous measuring of the traffic intensity it was found 86.13 % of the total field area was run - o ver with a machine at least once a year, when using conventional tillage and 63.75 % of the total field area was run - over when using direct seeding technology, with dependence on the working width of the machines. Field passes are inevitable in present agri culture. As a result of the increase of total machines weight, it is necessary to optimize the traffic lines trajectories and limit the entries of the machines in the field. At present, the choice of traffic lines direction is based primarily on the experi ence of drivers or the practice of farmers. There are a number of influences that affect the machine work efficiency. Monitoring of the tractor, on an irregular 8 fields showed the following results. Eight - meter working width tiller or seeder brought short ening of total length of turns at headlands with the change in trajectory azimuth. For purposes of measuring the monitored tractors were equipped with monitoring units ITineris. An overview of the chosen directions of the trajectories and the lengths of wo rking and non - working passes was obtained. Based on the shape of the plot, the trajectory of the lines was also modelled. Suitable traffic lines directions in terms of the ratio of work and non - work passes were searched. Based on records of real trajectori es, the ratio of working and non - working path ranged between 6.3 and 15.2%. It was obvious from the results that the shortening of non - working passes and turns in comparison with the originally chosen trajectory directions was achieved by optimization. Thi s was especially valid for complex shapes of fields. Trajectory optimization leads to a reduction of total le n g th of path in all cases. The reduction in total length of path ranged from 69.7 m to 1 , 004.8 m. Changing the length of the working path ranged fr om 10.9 m to 264.9 m with the change in azimuth. The extension was observed in three cases. The highest part on the change of the overall length of the path presented nonworking rides.
Article T hree dimension virtual models of Avocado ( Persea americana ) , Salak ( Salacca zalacca ) , Dragon fruit ( Hylocereus undatus ) , Mango ( Mangifera indica ) , Coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) using 3D scanner Intel RealSense were determined. C alculated models based on arithmetic and geometric diameter were also determined. From statistically analysis implies that virtual models on significance level 0 .05 are significantly different with calculated values based on arithmetic or geometric diameter.
Grapevine leaves are a major by-product of viticulture practices derived from the leaf-removal from the fruit cluster zone in all vine growing regions. These leaves can be a valuable source of antioxidants to be used in pharmaceuticals or other health-related products. In this study, the leaves of grapevine cultivars were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph-diode array detector () for the total polyphenols (TPC) and resveratrol affected by cultivar, leaf-removal time and viticultural practice. The effect of cultivar varied yearly, European grapevine cv. &lsquo grown under the polytunnel had decreased TPC in leaves. In conclusion, cultivar selection, viticultural practice and leaf-removal time contribute significantly to the accumulation of total polyphenols and resveratrol. Results of this study will contribute to better utilization of biomass produced in the vineyards, help to decrease the negative environmental impacts, and provide an overview on various factors affecting the biochemical constituents, especially in leaves. 1) were higher in leaves of interspecific hybrid cvs. &lsquo had increased TPC and resveratrol in comparison to &lsquo 1) and resveratrol (1.061 mg 100 g&minus during full fruit ripeness. Cv. &lsquo in 2018. TPC (1213&ndash Hasansky Sladky&rsquo 1841 mg 100 g&minus in 2017, but &lsquo Boskoop&rsquo s Glory&rsquo Solaris&rsquo Regent&rsquo Rondo&rsquo Zilga&rsquo and &lsquo , &lsquo
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production cos ts and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56 ° 30.658 ’ N and 23 ° 41.580 ’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ssp. oleifera )/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould - board ploughing at a depth of 22 – 24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm ), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N15 0 (90+60) , N180 (90+60+30) , N210 (90+70+50) , and N240 (120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate ( p < 0.001) and forecrop ( p < 0.05). Three - year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators ( p < 0.001) . Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N - rate from N150 up to N 210.
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