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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • European University of Technology

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: DIOFANTOS HADJIMITSIS; Nektarios Chrysoulakis; Kyriacos Themistocleous; Adrianos Retalis; +1 Authors

    Research indicates that aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and particulate matter (PM10) measurements can be used as indicators of atmospheric pollution. The problem of relating AOT with suspended particulate matter near the ground is still an open question. While satellite images can provide reliable and synoptic measurements from space, comparisons with monitoring surface level air pollution continues to be a challenge since satellite measurements are column integrated quantities. In this study, in-situ spectroradiometric measurements were taken during satellite overpass using field spectrometers to obtain the reflectance values of the calibration targets used. Sun photometer measurements were taken with the Microtops hand-held sun photometer to measure AOT. Meteorological data was collected from nearby meteorological stations and PM10 measurements were collected from local mobile air pollution stations. Following, the darkest pixel method of atmospheric correction was applied to a series of Landsat satellite images. The reflectance values of the atmospherically-corrected image were used in the radiative transfer equation to solve for AOT. Thematic maps were generated in order to develop air quality indices. The image-derived AOT values were examined for a positive correlation with PM10 measurements. It appears there exists a significant correlation between AOT and PM10 measurements. 2012 SPIE.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ktisisarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Conference object . 2012
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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.974...
    Conference object . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ktisisarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Ktisis
      Conference object . 2012
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      https://doi.org/10.1117/12.974...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Angeliki Kylili; Paris A. Fokaides; Petros Christou; Soteris A. Kalogirou;

    Abstract Infrared thermography (IRT) has met an extensive popularity among the non-destructive technologies for building diagnostics, especially with the increasing concerns of energy minimisation and low energy consumption of the building sector. Its popularity for a broad range of applications can be attributed to its non-contact safe nature, its usefulness and effectiveness, as well as the energy and cost savings it can achieve. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art literature and research regarding the passive and active infrared thermography. The fundamentals of IRT are thoroughly explained and the thermographic process for building diagnostics is presented. This work also presents the fields of applicability of IRT with a focus on the building sector, as well as the advantages, limitations and potential sources of errors of IRT employment. Additionally previous non-destructive testing (NDT) studies that employed passive, active pulsed, and active lock-in thermographies for building diagnostics are presented. A review of the thermal image analysis methods and the future trends of thermal imaging are also included in this work. It can be concluded that while IRT is a useful tool for the characterisation of defects in the building sector, there is great prospect for the development of more advanced, effective and accurate approaches that will employ a combination of thermography approaches.

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    Article . 2014
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ktisisarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alexandre Boucher; Phaedon C. Kyriakidis;

    Many satellite images have a coarser spatial resolution than the extent of land cover patterns on the ground, leading to mixed pixels whose composite spectral response consists of responses from multiple land cover classes. Spectral unmixing procedures only determine the fractions of such classes within a coarse pixel without locating them in space. Super-resolution or sub-pixel mapping aims at providing a fine resolution map of class labels, one that displays realistic spatial structure (without artifact discontinuities) and reproduces the coarse resolution fractions. In this paper, existing approaches for super-resolution mapping are placed within an inverse problem framework, and a geostatistical method is proposed for generating alternative synthetic land cover maps at the fine (target) spatial resolution; these super-resolution realizations are consistent with all the information available. More precisely, indicator coKriging is used to approximate the probability that a pixel at the fine spatial resolution belongs to a particular class, given the coarse resolution fractions and (if available) a sparse set of class labels at some informed fine pixels. Such Kriging-derived probabilities are used in sequential indicator simulation to generate synthetic maps of class labels at the fine resolution pixels. This non-iterative and fast simulation procedure yields alternative super-resolution land cover maps that reproduce: (i) the observed coarse fractions, (ii) the fine resolution class labels that might be available, and (iii) the prior structural information encapsulated in a set of indicator variogram models at the fine resolution. A case study is provided to illustrate the proposed methodology using Landsat TM data from SE China. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2006
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ktisisarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2006
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mireia Romaguera; L. Toulios; Gheorghe Stancalie; Argentina Nertan; +4 Authors

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 9229, 2014, Article number 922912 Accurate assessment of water use is an important issue in a globally changing climate and environment, where water is becoming a scarce but essential resource. The concept "?Water Footprint (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. This indicator provides valuable information for a global assessment of how water resources are used. Remote sensing (RS) provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information over space and time, and has been used in hydrological applications in order to estimate relevant variables at different temporal and spatial scales. The paper focuses on exploring and exploiting the potential of using RS techniques and data for WF assessment in agriculture. Based on recent papers initiated in this research topic the investigation focuses on how variables needed in the calculation of water footprint are obtained (based on non RS and on RS approaches), on identifying the inputs required for estimating the WF of crops and whether it is feasible to integrate various RS approaches. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment, which were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change"? (EURO-AGRIWAT). © 2014 SPIE.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Ktisis
    Conference object . 2014
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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206...
    Conference object . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ktisisarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Conference object . 2014
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      https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sandis Dejus; Alīna Neščerecka; G. Kurcalts; Tālis Juhna;

    Abstract Concerns about drinking water (DW) quality contamination during water distribution raise a need for real-time monitoring and rapid contamination detection. Early warning systems (EWS) are a potential solution. The EWS consist of multiple conventional sensors that provide the real-time measurements and algorithms that allow the recognizing of contamination events from normal operating conditions. In most cases, these algorithms have been established with artificial data, while data from real and biological contamination events are limited. The goal of the study was the event detection performance of the Mahalanobis distance method in combination with on-line DW quality monitoring sensors and manual measurements of grab samples for potential DW biological contamination scenarios. In this study three contamination scenarios were simulated in a pilot-scale DW distribution system: untreated river water, groundwater and wastewater intrusion, which represent realistic contamination scenarios and imply biological contamination. Temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), chlorine ion (Cl-), oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), pH sensors and turbidity measurements were used as on-line sensors and for manual measurements. Novel adenosine-triphosphate and flow cytometric measurements were used for biological water quality evaluation. The results showed contamination detection probability from 56% to 89%, where the best performance was obtained with manual measurements. The probability of false alarm was 5–6% both for on-line and manual measurements. The Mahalanobis distance method with DW quality sensors has a good potential to be applied in EWS. However, the sustainability of the on-line measurement system and/or the detection algorithm should be improved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Water Supplyarrow_drop_down
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    Water Supply
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    Authors: Sheehan, Zaena;
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    Authors: P P Pop; A Pop-Vadean; C Barz; T Latinovic;

    In this article we will present a transdisciplinary approach to carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. The software provides a method proposed to measure the amount of carbon that can be captured from different soil types and different crop. The application has integrated an intuitive interface, is portable and calculate the number of green certificates as a reward for farmers financial support for environmental protection. We plan to initiate a scientific approach to environmental protection through financial incentives for agriculture fits in EU rules by taxing big polluters and rewarding those who maintain a suitable environment for the development of ecological and competitive agriculture.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IOP Conference Serie...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IOP Conference Serie...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Arce Martínez, Daniel;

    Analizar el cambio que se está produciendo en las entidades bancarias españolas, estudiando los distintos ámbitos estratégicos que están siguiendo, indicadores de cambio, y el desarrollo a corto plazo de la digitalización en la banca española Estudio de los diferentes cambios que se están produciendo en la banca española y consecuencias de los mismos Facultad de Ciencias de la Empresa Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

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    Authors: Martínez Meroño, Alba;

    Existen numerosas aplicaciones de IoT donde los gateways recopilan los datos en bruto de sensores y los envían a una nube para su procesamiento. Una alternativa consiste en hacer gran parte del procesamiento en el propio gateway y minimizar el envío de datos y la carga computacional en la nube; esta estrategia se denomina edge-computing y puede lograr un mayor ahorro de energía y reducción del ancho de banda empleado en las comunicaciones. El objetivo del proyecto es diseñar e implementar un gateway edge-computing basado en Raspberry Pi usando Python y tecnologías estándar; el gateway edgecomputing recopila datos de numerosos sensores IoT y hace un preprocesamiento y tratamiento de dichos datos minimizando el envío de datos a una nube. Se propone un caso de uso basado en sensores IoT de temperatura y humedad usando comunicación Bluetooth Low Energy. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Telecomunicación Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

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    Authors: Agita Gancone; Jelena Pubule; Marika Rosa; Dagnija Blumberga;

    Abstract Agriculture is the second most significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with approximately 24 % of Latvia’s total GHG emissions in 2014. Emissions from agricultural soils contributed major share of the total emissions – 59.6 %, enteric fermentation emissions was second largest source – 32 %. The share of manure management emissions was evaluated as 7.5 % of total emissions in the sector, remaining 0.9 % of emissions refer to liming and urea application. GHG emissions increased in 2014 by 3.3 % comparing to 2013 due to increase of cattle, sheep and fur animal numbers. Statistics also showed increase of synthetic N fertilizer consumption approximately by 4.6 %, sown area by 0.3 % and lime application to soils 42.9 % [1]. Bearing in mind significant share of agricultural emissions in total GHG emissions in Latvia and the growing emission trend the additional attention is necessary for evaluation of impacts of agriculture on the environment. The purpose of this study is to explore indicators for assessing eco-efficiency in the Latvian agriculture sector. First the paper describes methods which can be used for measuring eco-efficiency, second availability of activity data and third, presents calculations of selected indicators for eco-efficiencies.

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    Authors: DIOFANTOS HADJIMITSIS; Nektarios Chrysoulakis; Kyriacos Themistocleous; Adrianos Retalis; +1 Authors

    Research indicates that aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and particulate matter (PM10) measurements can be used as indicators of atmospheric pollution. The problem of relating AOT with suspended particulate matter near the ground is still an open question. While satellite images can provide reliable and synoptic measurements from space, comparisons with monitoring surface level air pollution continues to be a challenge since satellite measurements are column integrated quantities. In this study, in-situ spectroradiometric measurements were taken during satellite overpass using field spectrometers to obtain the reflectance values of the calibration targets used. Sun photometer measurements were taken with the Microtops hand-held sun photometer to measure AOT. Meteorological data was collected from nearby meteorological stations and PM10 measurements were collected from local mobile air pollution stations. Following, the darkest pixel method of atmospheric correction was applied to a series of Landsat satellite images. The reflectance values of the atmospherically-corrected image were used in the radiative transfer equation to solve for AOT. Thematic maps were generated in order to develop air quality indices. The image-derived AOT values were examined for a positive correlation with PM10 measurements. It appears there exists a significant correlation between AOT and PM10 measurements. 2012 SPIE.

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    Conference object . 2012
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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.974...
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    Authors: Angeliki Kylili; Paris A. Fokaides; Petros Christou; Soteris A. Kalogirou;

    Abstract Infrared thermography (IRT) has met an extensive popularity among the non-destructive technologies for building diagnostics, especially with the increasing concerns of energy minimisation and low energy consumption of the building sector. Its popularity for a broad range of applications can be attributed to its non-contact safe nature, its usefulness and effectiveness, as well as the energy and cost savings it can achieve. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art literature and research regarding the passive and active infrared thermography. The fundamentals of IRT are thoroughly explained and the thermographic process for building diagnostics is presented. This work also presents the fields of applicability of IRT with a focus on the building sector, as well as the advantages, limitations and potential sources of errors of IRT employment. Additionally previous non-destructive testing (NDT) studies that employed passive, active pulsed, and active lock-in thermographies for building diagnostics are presented. A review of the thermal image analysis methods and the future trends of thermal imaging are also included in this work. It can be concluded that while IRT is a useful tool for the characterisation of defects in the building sector, there is great prospect for the development of more advanced, effective and accurate approaches that will employ a combination of thermography approaches.

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Alexandre Boucher; Phaedon C. Kyriakidis;

    Many satellite images have a coarser spatial resolution than the extent of land cover patterns on the ground, leading to mixed pixels whose composite spectral response consists of responses from multiple land cover classes. Spectral unmixing procedures only determine the fractions of such classes within a coarse pixel without locating them in space. Super-resolution or sub-pixel mapping aims at providing a fine resolution map of class labels, one that displays realistic spatial structure (without artifact discontinuities) and reproduces the coarse resolution fractions. In this paper, existing approaches for super-resolution mapping are placed within an inverse problem framework, and a geostatistical method is proposed for generating alternative synthetic land cover maps at the fine (target) spatial resolution; these super-resolution realizations are consistent with all the information available. More precisely, indicator coKriging is used to approximate the probability that a pixel at the fine spatial resolution belongs to a particular class, given the coarse resolution fractions and (if available) a sparse set of class labels at some informed fine pixels. Such Kriging-derived probabilities are used in sequential indicator simulation to generate synthetic maps of class labels at the fine resolution pixels. This non-iterative and fast simulation procedure yields alternative super-resolution land cover maps that reproduce: (i) the observed coarse fractions, (ii) the fine resolution class labels that might be available, and (iii) the prior structural information encapsulated in a set of indicator variogram models at the fine resolution. A case study is provided to illustrate the proposed methodology using Landsat TM data from SE China. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    Article . 2006
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    Authors: Mireia Romaguera; L. Toulios; Gheorghe Stancalie; Argentina Nertan; +4 Authors

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 9229, 2014, Article number 922912 Accurate assessment of water use is an important issue in a globally changing climate and environment, where water is becoming a scarce but essential resource. The concept "?Water Footprint (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. This indicator provides valuable information for a global assessment of how water resources are used. Remote sensing (RS) provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information over space and time, and has been used in hydrological applications in order to estimate relevant variables at different temporal and spatial scales. The paper focuses on exploring and exploiting the potential of using RS techniques and data for WF assessment in agriculture. Based on recent papers initiated in this research topic the investigation focuses on how variables needed in the calculation of water footprint are obtained (based on non RS and on RS approaches), on identifying the inputs required for estimating the WF of crops and whether it is feasible to integrate various RS approaches. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment, which were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change"? (EURO-AGRIWAT). © 2014 SPIE.

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    Conference object . 2014
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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206...
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    Authors: Sandis Dejus; Alīna Neščerecka; G. Kurcalts; Tālis Juhna;

    Abstract Concerns about drinking water (DW) quality contamination during water distribution raise a need for real-time monitoring and rapid contamination detection. Early warning systems (EWS) are a potential solution. The EWS consist of multiple conventional sensors that provide the real-time measurements and algorithms that allow the recognizing of contamination events from normal operating conditions. In most cases, these algorithms have been established with artificial data, while data from real and biological contamination events are limited. The goal of the study was the event detection performance of the Mahalanobis distance method in combination with on-line DW quality monitoring sensors and manual measurements of grab samples for potential DW biological contamination scenarios. In this study three contamination scenarios were simulated in a pilot-scale DW distribution system: untreated river water, groundwater and wastewater intrusion, which represent realistic contamination scenarios and imply biological contamination. Temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), chlorine ion (Cl-), oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), pH sensors and turbidity measurements were used as on-line sensors and for manual measurements. Novel adenosine-triphosphate and flow cytometric measurements were used for biological water quality evaluation. The results showed contamination detection probability from 56% to 89%, where the best performance was obtained with manual measurements. The probability of false alarm was 5–6% both for on-line and manual measurements. The Mahalanobis distance method with DW quality sensors has a good potential to be applied in EWS. However, the sustainability of the on-line measurement system and/or the detection algorithm should be improved.

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    Water Supply
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      Water Supply
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    Authors: Sheehan, Zaena;
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