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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ruiting Gao; Ning Su; Wenqiu Pan; Qiaoyu Bao; +4 Authors

    The SSM/SLSM (spliceosomal Smith (SM)/SM-like (LSM)) genes are the central components of the spliceosome in eukaryotes, which play an important role in regulating RNA splicing, participating in diverse biological processes. Although it has been detected in Arabidopsis and rice etc. plants, the members and significance of the SSM/SLSM gene family in wheat are still not reported. In this study, we identified the SSM/SLSM genes in wheat and its progenitors at genome-scale, where 57 SSM/SLSM genes were identified in wheat, together with 41, 17and 19 found in Triticum dicoccoides, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii. Furthermore, their phylogenetic relationship, gene structures, conserved motifs, and cis-regulatory elements were systematically analyzed. By synteny analysis, good collinearity of SSM/SLSM genes was found among bread wheat and its progenitors’ genomes, and the distribution of SMD2 genes in wheat chromosome 5A, 4B and 4D located in the 4AL-5AL-7BS chromosome model, due to the translocation. Then, the positively selected genes were further investigated based on the non-synonymous to synonymous (dN/dS) analysis of the orthologous pairs. Finally, the expression profiles of the SSM/SLSM genes were detected using RNA-seq datasets, and eight stress-responsive candidate genes were selected to validate their expression through qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction). According to the co-expression network analysis, the correlation between the LSM7-7A gene and related genes was illustrated through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Furthermore, the LSM7-7A gene was related to the Arabidopsis homologous salt tolerance gene RCY1. This investigation systematically identified the complete candidates of SSM/SLSM genes and their characters in wheat and its progenitors, and provided clues to a better understanding of their contribution during the wheat polyploidy process.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agronomyarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agronomyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vallery, Heike; Veneman, Jan F.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; +2 Authors

    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable stiffness is bounded by the stiffness of the SEA's elastic component. In practical experiments with the VMC, the aforementioned limitations affected the control performance. Desired gait modifications were not tracked exactly, because the subjects were able to deviate from the prescribed pattern even in the stiffest possible configuration. Despite the limitations, the practical experiments also demonstrated the general effectiveness of the realization. Manipulation of selected gait parameters is possible, whereby other parameters are left unaffected. This high selectivity is made possible by the low level of undesired interaction torques, which is achieved by elastic decoupling of motor mass and a lightweight exoskeleton. The discrepancy between theoretical bounds and rendered stiffness indicated that healthy subjects might represent a stabilizing component of the coupled system, which could be different for patients. In light of the theoretical stability analysis and with the focus on patients, the LOPES actuation was slightly modified. The robot was equipped with stiffer springs to obtain sufficient stiffness and to ensure stability without relying on stabilizing effects of the human. For this application, the disadvantages of compliant actuation can thus be tolerated or dealt with, and they are small compared with the advantages. Given that a rehabilitation robot, in the first place, is supposed to imitate therapist action, the limitations of bandwidth and stiffness do not pose severe problems. In contrast, safety and backdrivability are highly relevant, and they can be ensured easier with a compliant actuator. Therefore, we conclude that compliant actuation and a lightw- - eight exoskeleton provide effective means to accomplish the desired AAN behavior of a rehabilitation robot. The next step is to evaluate the robot behavior, control performance, and therapeutic effectiveness in patient studies.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Robotics & Auto...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2008
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Robotics & Auto...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Mark A, Wood; Joanna J, Bryson;

    This paper presents an imitation learning system capable of learning tasks in a complex dynamic real-time environment. In this paper, we argue that social learning should be thought of as a special case of general skill learning, and that the biases it presents to the skill learning problem radically simplify learning for species with sufficient innate predisposition to harness this power. We decompose skill learning into four subproblems, then show how a modification of Roy's CELL system can address all these problems simultaneously. Our system is demonstrated working in the domain of a real-time virtual-reality game, Unreal Tournament.

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    Authors: P. Haltofová; L. Jankovský; D. Palovčíková;

    The causal agent of the chestnut blight, the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) M. E. Barr (syn. Endothia parasitica (Murrill) P. J. Anderson et H. W. Anderson), was found out at new localities in the Czech Republic. The chestnut blight was observed for the first time in the Czech Republic in 2002. Two new localities were discovered in southern Moravia in May and June 2004. The disease was identified both on the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and on the red oak (Quercus rubraL.). Infected trees were treated according to the order of the State Phytosanitary Administration of the Czech Republic.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Forest Sc...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Forest Science
    Article . 2005
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    Journal of Forest Science
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Forest Science
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Forest Sc...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Forest Science
      Article . 2005
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      Journal of Forest Science
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Forest Science
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daniel L. Jeziorny;

    Este artículo trata el tema de la apropiación territorial de los espacios rurales en el marco de procesos de innovación. Su autor plantea la tesis de que los procesos innovadores están configurados por el avance técnico y tecnológico, pero siguen la lógica de acumulación del capital, teniendo por tanto una dimensión económico-política. Sobre la base de este argumento analiza, en primer lugar, las dinámicas de innovación que han tenido lugar en el sector vitivinícola brasileño, centrando el análisis en el territorio denominado “Vale dos Vinhedos”, situado en el Estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Asimismo, analiza los sistemas de gobernanza surgidos en torno a esos procesos innovadores y el modo como se gestionan las interacciones entre los diversos actores sociales, económicos e institucionales presentes en ese territorio. Finalmente, analiza cómo los capitales instalados en el “Vale dos Vinhedos”, al encontrar dificultades para avanzar en el proceso de acumulación, se trasladan a la zona de la “Campanha Gaucha”, dando un giro al proceso de innovación en el sector vitivinícola. This paper is focused on innovation processes in rural areas. Its author pose that although these processes are encouraged of technical and technological advances, they are also oriented by the logic of capital accumulation. That is why the innovation processes has a political dimension. In base of this thesis, the author analyzes, firstly, the general innovation tendencies taking place in the Brazilian wine sector, and in particular the innovation experiences in the rural area called “Vale dos Vinhedos”, placed in the region of Rio Grande do Sul. Also, he analyzes the governance system in this territory, paying attention to the organization of social and economic players, and their relations with the public institutions at the local level. Finally, the author analyzes how the financial capital decides to change its strategy and to remove from Vale dos Vinhedos to other rural areas (for example, Campanha Gaucha) when economic players find difficulties to increase the capital accumulation process.

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    Revista Internacional de Sociología
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    Revista Internacional de Sociología
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2016
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    Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Internaciona...arrow_drop_down
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      Revista Internacional de Sociología
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      Revista Internacional de Sociología
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2016
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      Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: J, Mallon; M T, Chu; H I, Maibach;

    Keywords: 1,1,1-trichloroethane; methyl chloroform; allergic contact dermatitis; occupational; organic solvents; lumber company; machine cleaning

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    Contact Dermatitis
    Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Nao Okuma; Nao Okuma; Masayoshi Kawaguchi; Masayoshi Kawaguchi;

    Long-distance signaling between the shoot and roots of land plants plays a crucial role in ensuring their growth and development in a fluctuating environment, such as with soil nutrient deficiencies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to contribute to such environmental adaptation via long-distance signaling since several miRNAs are transported between the shoot and roots in response to various soil nutrient changes. Leguminous plants adopt a shoot-mediated long-distance signaling system to maintain their mutualism with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia by optimizing the number of symbiotic organs and root nodules. Recently, the involvement and importance of shoot-derived miR2111 in regulating nodule numbers have become evident. Shoot-derived miR2111 can systemically enhance rhizobial infection, and its accumulation is quickly suppressed in response to rhizobial inoculation and high-concentration nitrate application. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the recent progress on the systemic optimization of nodulation in response to external environments, with a focus on systemic regulation via miR2111.

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    Frontiers in Plant Science
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    Frontiers in Plant Science
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      Frontiers in Plant Science
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    Authors: K, Suzuki; Y, Ito; M, Otani; S, Suzuki; +1 Authors

    Serum carotenoid levels among residents with hyperglycemia who were screened in a health check-up program for the inhabitants living in a rural area of Hokkaido were compared with those with normal levels. Serum levels of alpha, beta-carotenes and cryptoxanthin were lower among those with high HbA1c newly detected than among those with a normal level, whereas the serum lipid peroxide (TBARS) level was higher in the former than in the latter for both sexes. Among males who currently smoked and drank alcohol, the intake frequency of carrot or pumpkin was significantly lower for those with high HbA1c than for the others, although no significant differences of serum carotenoid levels were observed. For the diabetes mellitus patients who were consulted in this study, and who have already been under control in the clinic, no significant differences of serum levels of carotenoids, or lipids such as total cholesterol and TBARS were shown compared with other groups. In conclusion, serum carotenoid levels might be a useful indicator of food intake and oxidative stress for the prediabetic condition since newly detected hyperglycemia tends to show lower serum antioxidant levels such as beta-carotene, and higher serum lipid peroxide levels.

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    Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: T. Maharajan; Stanislaus Antony Ceasar; Thumadath Palayullaparambil Ajeesh Krishna; M. Ramakrishnan; +3 Authors

    AbstractPhosphorus (P) is the second most growth limiting macronutrient after nitrogen and plays several important roles in all organisms including plants. In soil, P is available in both organic and inorganic forms. P deficiency reduces the growth and yield of several crop plants. Plants respond to P deficiency by the phenotypic changes especially by the modification of root architecture. Molecular marker‐assisted breeding (MAB) has been proposed as an important tool to identify and develop improved varieties of crop plants with efficient P‐use efficiency (PUE). Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits related to PUE has been considered as the first step in marker‐assisted selection (MAS) and improvement of crop yield programmes. In this review, we describe in detail on architectural changes of roots under P deficiency that are reported in various crops and discuss the efforts made to improve PUE using molecular marker tools. Details on QTLs identified for low P‐stress tolerance in various crop plants are presented. These QTLs can be used to improve PUE in crop plants through MAS and breeding, which may be beneficial to improve the yields under P‐deficient soil. Development of new and improved varieties using MAB will limit the use of non‐renewable fertilizers and improve PUE of key crop plants in low input agriculture.

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    Plant Breeding
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    Plant Breeding
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Plant Breeding
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      Plant Breeding
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sanjay, Gupta;

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy is a well-established and safe technique for obtaining tissue specimens from various regions of the body and plays a crucial role in patient management. Improvements in needle designs, development of new biopsy techniques, and continual advances in image-guidance technology have improved the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Lesions previously considered relatively inaccessible can now be safely biopsied. This review looks at the recent technologic developments in image guidance for percutaneous biopsy procedures. Improvements in needle design and other innovations intended to enhance the diagnostic yield of biopsy specimens are briefly discussed. Also described are some new techniques and unconventional approaches that help provide safe access to difficult-to-reach lesions.

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    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
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    Authors: Ruiting Gao; Ning Su; Wenqiu Pan; Qiaoyu Bao; +4 Authors

    The SSM/SLSM (spliceosomal Smith (SM)/SM-like (LSM)) genes are the central components of the spliceosome in eukaryotes, which play an important role in regulating RNA splicing, participating in diverse biological processes. Although it has been detected in Arabidopsis and rice etc. plants, the members and significance of the SSM/SLSM gene family in wheat are still not reported. In this study, we identified the SSM/SLSM genes in wheat and its progenitors at genome-scale, where 57 SSM/SLSM genes were identified in wheat, together with 41, 17and 19 found in Triticum dicoccoides, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii. Furthermore, their phylogenetic relationship, gene structures, conserved motifs, and cis-regulatory elements were systematically analyzed. By synteny analysis, good collinearity of SSM/SLSM genes was found among bread wheat and its progenitors’ genomes, and the distribution of SMD2 genes in wheat chromosome 5A, 4B and 4D located in the 4AL-5AL-7BS chromosome model, due to the translocation. Then, the positively selected genes were further investigated based on the non-synonymous to synonymous (dN/dS) analysis of the orthologous pairs. Finally, the expression profiles of the SSM/SLSM genes were detected using RNA-seq datasets, and eight stress-responsive candidate genes were selected to validate their expression through qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction). According to the co-expression network analysis, the correlation between the LSM7-7A gene and related genes was illustrated through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Furthermore, the LSM7-7A gene was related to the Arabidopsis homologous salt tolerance gene RCY1. This investigation systematically identified the complete candidates of SSM/SLSM genes and their characters in wheat and its progenitors, and provided clues to a better understanding of their contribution during the wheat polyploidy process.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vallery, Heike; Veneman, Jan F.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; +2 Authors

    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable stiffness is bounded by the stiffness of the SEA's elastic component. In practical experiments with the VMC, the aforementioned limitations affected the control performance. Desired gait modifications were not tracked exactly, because the subjects were able to deviate from the prescribed pattern even in the stiffest possible configuration. Despite the limitations, the practical experiments also demonstrated the general effectiveness of the realization. Manipulation of selected gait parameters is possible, whereby other parameters are left unaffected. This high selectivity is made possible by the low level of undesired interaction torques, which is achieved by elastic decoupling of motor mass and a lightweight exoskeleton. The discrepancy between theoretical bounds and rendered stiffness indicated that healthy subjects might represent a stabilizing component of the coupled system, which could be different for patients. In light of the theoretical stability analysis and with the focus on patients, the LOPES actuation was slightly modified. The robot was equipped with stiffer springs to obtain sufficient stiffness and to ensure stability without relying on stabilizing effects of the human. For this application, the disadvantages of compliant actuation can thus be tolerated or dealt with, and they are small compared with the advantages. Given that a rehabilitation robot, in the first place, is supposed to imitate therapist action, the limitations of bandwidth and stiffness do not pose severe problems. In contrast, safety and backdrivability are highly relevant, and they can be ensured easier with a compliant actuator. Therefore, we conclude that compliant actuation and a lightw- - eight exoskeleton provide effective means to accomplish the desired AAN behavior of a rehabilitation robot. The next step is to evaluate the robot behavior, control performance, and therapeutic effectiveness in patient studies.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Robotics & Auto...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Robotics & Auto...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2008
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IEEE Copyright
      Data sources: Crossref
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • Authors: Mark A, Wood; Joanna J, Bryson;

    This paper presents an imitation learning system capable of learning tasks in a complex dynamic real-time environment. In this paper, we argue that social learning should be thought of as a special case of general skill learning, and that the biases it presents to the skill learning problem radically simplify learning for species with sufficient innate predisposition to harness this power. We decompose skill learning into four subproblems, then show how a modification of Roy's CELL system can address all these problems simultaneously. Our system is demonstrated working in the domain of a real-time virtual-reality game, Unreal Tournament.

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