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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • Publication . Article . 1998
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Irene Hardill;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    This paper reports on some of the findings of a recent study on the employment impact of moving to a rural area. A case study approach is used to elucidate the choices/constraints/compromises encountered by women in in-migrant households to rural and semi-rural parts of the East Midlands, Great Britain. Rural labour markets are quantitatively and qualitatively different from urban labour markets and, while some of the surveyed in-migrant women managed to find jobs following their move, they often experienced downward occupational mobility; others withdrew from the labour market. A number of policy recommendations are also made to improve labour market access.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maha Hamdan Alotibi; Salma Kammoun Jarraya; Manar Salamah Ali; Kawthar Moria;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Crowd counting in specific places has recently been considered as a significant contribution in many applications in terms of security and economic values. Recently, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considered new ways and methods to diversify sources of income, where many non-traditional establishments in several fields have been initiated and put in place. However, controlling the number of visitors and participants to events and exhibitions has always been a challenge, as it has always been considered as an important success factor to any event. Smart public places approach is one of the inevitable directions of development in Saudi Arabia, where security, comfort, and safety of crowds is to be controlled and managed using machine learning techniques, more specifically, IoT-based crowd counting techniques. Such a technology will not only help in resolving security and safety problems, but also will play a significant role in reducing waiting time for visitors, by giving indicators, projections and advices on crowded places. In this paper, a mobile-based model is proposed for counting people in high and low crowded public places in Saudi Arabia under various scene conditions with no prior knowledge. The proposed model is built based on pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) called VGG-16 with some modifications on the last layer of the CNN to increase the efficiency of the training model. In addition to the improvement of efficiency, the proposed method accepts images of arbitrary sizes/scales as inputs. The applicability of the proposed method has been evaluated by incorporating IoT architecture, where surveillance cameras to be connected to the Internet to capture live pictures of different public places. To achieve this goal, New and special Saudi people dataset as well as some other existing dataset, have been produced and used to train the network. The result shows a significant improvement to the efficiency of the DCNN over the existing counting networks.

  • Authors: 
    Jing Zhang; Qianlan Zhou; Li Zhuo; Wenhao Geng; Suyu Wang;
    Publisher: World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, searching the similar image is a challenge for hyperspectral remote sensing image processing. Meanwhile, the dramatic growth in the amount of hyperspectral remote sensing data has stimulated considerable research on content-based image retrieval (CBIR) in the field of remote sensing technology. Although many CBIR systems have been developed, few studies focused on the hyperspectral remote sensing images. A CBIR system for hyperspectral remote sensing image using endmember extraction is proposed in this paper. The main contributions of our method are that: (1) the endmembers as the spectral features are extracted from hyperspectral remote sensing image by improved automatic pixel purity index (APPI) algorithm; (2) the spectral information divergence and spectral angle match (SID–SAM) mixed measure method is utilized as a similarity measurement between hyperspectral remote sensing images. At last, the images are ranked with descending and the top-[Formula: see text] retrieved images are returned. The experimental results on NASA datasets show that our system can yield a superior performance.

  • Publication . Conference object . Other literature type . 2019
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ana Kutnjak; I. Pihiri; M. Tomicic Furjan;
    Country: Croatia

    Digital transformation (DT) has been introduced in all industries for improving the way of running business. Industries have embraced technology to different extents, as not all technologies can be equally implemented, even in semantically similar processes. This can be explained by the fact that the hype cycle of emerging technologies differently impacts industries from the time a concrete technology has been discovered and introduced, to the time when technology reaches its full potential of use in real processes, or so-called maturity. This paper presents a literature review on Digital transformation papers, which use the case study method in their researches and/or compare digital transformation case studies across different industries. The purpose of the analysis of case studies is to bring some light to real digital transformation processes and their success in practice. Analysed papers are selected from the Web of Science database based on content, industry and number of papers within it.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Abdourahamane Tankari Dan-Badjo; Halima Oumarou Diadie; Sabrina Maria Rita Bonetto; Carlo Semita; Elena Isotta Cristofori; Anna Facello;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    The seasonal effects of global warming and water shortages begin to be observed on agricultural production and forecast trends encourage studies on adaptation to climate change. In Niger, West Africa, farmers have always had to cope with irregularity and poor distribution of rainfall. In recent years, a variation in the frequency and duration of rainy season were observed, suddenly affecting a drop in agricultural productions with the resulting food crisis. Therefore, it is necessary to find measures to adapt to the climate variability. This study focus on the Tillaberi region (Niger) where pearl millet is one of the main agricultural product. In the last few years, variations in rainfall distribution and quantity have negatively influenced the yield of the millet crops. A climatic assessment of the region has been verified collecting information from both previous studies and satellite data. Two early improved varieties of pearl millet (SOSAT-C88 and HKP) drought resistant have been distributed to local farmers in 16 pilot areas of the Tillaberi region and the crop yields were compared to those of the local traditional variety cultivated in the same area. The results have identified a significant increase in production, up to 62%, with the improved varieties compared to the local one. These results suggests the possibility of a potential extension, in this region, of improved varieties to mitigate the effects derived by climate change in the agricultural productivity in order to avoid famine and guarantee food security.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Puwadol Oak Dusadeerungsikul; Shimon Y. Nof; Avital Bechar; Yang Tao;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract In this article, a Collaborative Control Protocol for Robotic and Cyber-Physical System (CCP-CPS) is presented. CCP-CPS, which enables an application of robotics in a CPS system for smart and precision agriculture (PA), aims to monitor and identify stresses in greenhouse crops by a hyperspectral analysis method. Roles of CCP-CPS are to assign tasks to agents, identify and resolve conflicts and errors in the system, and enable a more effective collaboration and interaction among agents in CPS, compared to traditional non-collaborative and non-CPS approach. Collaborative Control Theory (CCT) is utilized for two system levels; protocol and agent level (CCP level), and CPS and environment level (CPS level). We use two case studies to test and validate our method with alternative approaches. The results from computer simulation show that 1) CCP-CPS can identify the highest number of greenhouse locations containing stresses, 2) CCP-CPS can utilize available resources (time) effectively, and 3) CCP-CPS can respond to an emergency stress situation faster and have more tolerance capability with system conflicts and errors, by having human integration and cyber-augmented greenhouse system, than other monitoring systems.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eoin Allen; David M. Wall; Christiane Herrmann; Jerry D. Murphy;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: SFI | Optimal production of ren... (11/RFP.1/ENM/3213)

    Abstract This paper details the analysis of biochemical methane potential (BMP) assessment of 83 substrates, which may be deemed as: first generation substrates (food crops); second generation (grasses and wastes); and third generation (seaweed). Significant variation in the BMP of a substrate may be found depending on for example, season and method of harvest. This could lead to significant discrepancy between energy production at the design stage and in operation of the facility. For example the BMP of dairy slurry varied from 175 L CH4 kg−1 VS in autumn (cattle fed on concentrate at end of farming year) to 239 L CH4 kg−1 VS in the summer when cattle are fed fresh grass. Grass ranged from 156 (for hay) to 433 L CH4 kg−1 VS for first cut baled silage. Saccharina latissima (brown seaweed) generated a higher BMP 36.4 m3 CH4 t−1 than summer dairy slurry 16 m3 CH4 t−1. In terms of a national resource, the cheapest and most sustainable source of biomethane will be from wastes, but the resource is finite. Biomethane from wastes could satisfy 18.4% of transport energy in Ireland. Larger resources will require third generation substrates such as seaweed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Victoria Kalitskaya; Andrey Pustuev; Olga Rykalina; Irina Perminova;
    Publisher: EDP Sciences

    In the framework of the study, the authors consider conceptual approaches to improve the management system of agrarian sphere development of regions in the realities of this industry functioning in the Russian Federation. Agrarian sphere is shown in aspects of socio-economic territorial system with its subsystems. The transition mechanisms of the agrarian sphere to the rails of sustainable development due to the choice of priority development directions within the life cycle are presented. The necessity of applying an integrated approach to the solution of industrial and social problems of the agricultural sector of the country is proved and reasoned.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Veronika Magdanz; Mariana Medina-Sánchez; Lukas Schwarz; Haifeng Xu; Jens Elgeti; Oliver G. Schmidt;
    Publisher: Wiley

    In recent years, the combination of synthetic micro- and nanomaterials with spermatozoa as functional components has led to the development of tubular and helical spermbots – microrobotic devices with potential applications in the biomedical and nanotechnological field. Here, the initial advances in this field are discussed and the use of spermatozoa as functional parts in microdevices elaborated. Besides the potential uses of these hybrid robotic microswimmers, the obstacles along the way are discussed, with suggestions for solutions of the encountered challenges also given.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Klára Kobetičová; Kristýna Ďurišová; Jana Nábělková;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    lignin and its precursors conipheryl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, coumaryl alcohol) were analyzed in the present study. Caffeine concentrations were analyzed using UV–VIS spectrometry at wavelength 287 nm. The results confirmed caffeine variable binding with wood components in comparison to controls (pure caffeine). Cellulose and sinapyl alcohol did not interact with caffeine. Caffeine was bonded with the rest of the wood components in an increasing rank: conipheryl alcohol = lignin < Caffeine is a verified bioactive substance suitable for wood protection against pests. Unlike studies of the biocidal effects of caffeine, caffeine-wood bonds and interactions with wood polymer structures have not been studied whatsoever thus far. For this reason, caffeine (1 g/L) interactions with the main wood components (cellulose coumaryl alcohol. These results have a significant role in the protection of wood depending on its chemical composition and the wood species. hemicellulose < hemicellulose