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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mühle, Jens; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Gros, Valérie; +1 Authors

    During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) in February‐March 1999 the impact of continental outflow to the Indian Ocean was analyzed. On board the R/V Ronald Brown altogether 93 air samples were taken for analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the 14C/12C and 18O/16O isotope ratios of CO. Five types of air masses differing in origin, degree of pollution, and chemical age were identified based on back trajectory analyses and the trace gas data, supported by continuous CO and ozone (O3) observations from other investigators. The Indian Ocean was found to be frequently affected by nearby emissions from the Indian subcontinent and Indochina, but the strongest pollution event (characterized inter alia by high mixing ratios of medium‐ and long‐lived NMHC) was due to long‐range advection from the extratropical northern hemisphere. Carbon monoxide 14 showing a distinct meridional profile unequivocally confirms this remote impact. The ratio acetylene/CO was found to be often inadequate as a measure for atmospheric processing, the integrated influence of OH chemistry and mixing. Our data suggest that the influence from fresh continental pollution was less pronounced along the INDOEX R/V Ronald Brown cruise compared to observations made during other tropical campaigns, such as the Pacific Exploratory Mission‐West B in the Pacific Ocean.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2002
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2002
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christophe Vigny; Anne Socquet; Claude Rangin; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke; +4 Authors

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement campaigns in Myanmar, conducted in 1998 and 2000, allow quantifying the present‐day crustal deformation around the Sagaing fault system in central Myanmar. Both a regional network installed at four points within the country and a local 18‐station network centered on the city of Mandalay across the Sagaing fault demonstrate that active deformation related to the northward motion of India is distributed across Myanmar in a platelet that extends from the western edge of the Shan Plateau in the east to the Andaman Trench in the west. In this platelet, deformation is rather diffuse and distributed over distinct fault systems. In the east, the Sagaing/Shan Scarp fault system absorbs <20 mm/yr of the 35 mm/yr India/Sundaland strike‐slip motion. Along this major plate boundary, strain is partitioned along the N‐S trending Sagaing fault and the transtensile N160°E trending Shan Scarp fault. Shortening and wrenching within the inverted central Myanmar basins, strike‐slip faults affecting the Arakan Yoma fold‐and‐thrust belt, and oblique subduction along the Andaman trench should absorb the remaining India/Sundaland motion (>10 mm/yr). This GPS study combined with an on land geotectonic survey demonstrate that oblique slip of India along the rigid Sundaland block is accommodated by a partitioned system characterized by distribution of deformation over a wide zone.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Rodrigues, Izilda Aparecida; Buschinelli, Cláudio Cesar de Almeida; de Barros, Inacio;

    International audience; Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting spatial/territorial contexts, attest to the malleability of the method and its applicability as an integrated farm environmental management tool.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Environmental Impact...arrow_drop_down
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    Environmental Impact Assessment Review
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Rolland, Lisa;

    Le commerce équitable, système d’échanges marchand historiquement fondé sur une solidarité Nord-Sud, connaît depuis une quinzaine d’années des logiques relevant de son institutionnalisation dans les Nords. Le processus est double : il s’opère à travers l’intégration des produits équitables dans la grande et moyenne distribution, et plus récemment dans les marchés publics, facilité par une directive européenne adoptée en février 2014. Longtemps compris dans des problématiques de développement local dans les Suds ou des logiques de flux mondialisés, le commerce équitable, en s’insérant dans les politiques publiques, questionne ses imaginaires spatiaux traditionnels. A cet égard, la campagne internationale « Fair Trade Towns » (2000) appelle des réseaux et des mises en forme originales. En associant collectivités locales, acteurs locaux, privés et publics, dans une démarche de valorisation et de promotion du commerce équitable à l’échelle d’un territoire, le dispositif prend la forme d’une territorialisation inédite pour le secteur. Issue d’un travail doctoral de géographie , cette contribution propose de souligner en quoi la campagne « Fair Trade Towns » marque un changement de paradigme spatial et actoriel du commerce équitable, des Suds ruraux vers les Nords urbains.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Albert, Elise; Segura, Vincent; Gricourt, Justine; Bonnefoi, Julien; +2 Authors

    Water scarcity constitutes a crucial constraint for agriculture productivity. High-throughput approaches in model plant species identified hundreds of genes potentially involved in survival under drought, but few having beneficial effects on quality and yield. Nonetheless, controlled water deficit may improve fruit quality through higher concentration of flavor compounds. The underlying genetic determinants are still poorly known. In this study, we phenotyped 141 highly diverse small fruit tomato accessions for 27 traits under two contrasting watering conditions. A subset of 55 accessions exhibited increased metabolite contents and maintained yield under water deficit. Using 6100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), association mapping revealed 31, 41, and 44 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) under drought, control, and both conditions, respectively. Twenty-five additional QTLs were interactive between conditions, emphasizing the interest in accounting for QTLs by watering regime interactions in fruit quality improvement. Combining our results with the loci previously identified in a biparental progeny resulted in 11 common QTLs and contributed to a first detailed characterization of the genetic determinants of response to water deficit in tomato. Major QTLs for fruit quality traits were dissected and candidate genes were proposed using expression and polymorphism data. The outcomes provide a basis for fruit quality improvement under deficit irrigation while limiting yield losses. Highlight Tomato quality could be improved under deficit irrigation while maintaining yield. The underlying genetic architecture is polygenic and varies with water availability. Candidate genes related to primary metabolism were identified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2016
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    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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      Journal of Experimental Botany
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      ProdInra
      Article . 2016
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      Journal of Experimental Botany
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Patel, Pankesh; Pathak, Animesh; Teixeira, Thiago; Issarny, Valérie;

    ISBN: 978-1-4503-1072-7; International audience; The Internet of Things (IoT) integrates the physical world with the existing Internet, and is rapidly gaining popularity, thanks to the increased adoption of smart phones and sensing devices. One of the important challenges in this domain is to enable domain experts to easily specify applications for the IoT. As a first step towards developing a suitable programming abstraction, in this paper we present a domain model for applications in the Internet of Things, based on a survey of recently proposed IoT applications from the real world that represent a wide class of behaviors found in IoT use cases.

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    https://hal.inria.fr/hal-00711...
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    https://doi.org/10.1145/209319...
    Conference object . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Karl, Doetsch;

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

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    Acta Astronautica
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Acta Astronauticaarrow_drop_down
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      Acta Astronautica
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Christine Poncet; Cécile Bresch; Hicham Fatnassi; Ludovic Mailleret; +6 Authors

    International audience; Protected cultivation or Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) system has increased tenfold in the last 25 years thanks to tremendous scientific and technical breakthroughs, mainly directed to increasing crop yields and adapting to tough ambient conditions. Currently, greenhouse areas are still spreading and the CEA system is one of the keystones for the agriculture forecasting scenario. However, the environmental acceptability of this very intensive agro-ecosystem is now being questioned. Energy inputs are source of the main economic and environmental weakness, especially for high-tech greenhouses, where IPM is well-established. Pesticides, common in low-cost greenhouses systems, are a major barrier-to IPM. To design and manage more robust CEA systems, both technological and ecological approaches have been chosen. This allowed for increased consideration of IPM issues among global greenhouse engineering innovation and better use of greenhouse system capacities to enhance dedicated IPM high-tech tools and management practices. On the other hand, ecological concepts were used to determine and characterize complex biotic interactions that lead to question the tenant of biological control as soon as IPM is implemented in greenhouses with sub-optimum physical pest control means. More specifically, microclimate at the boundary layer level has been investigated both from a physical and biological point of view in order to determine the best climate preferences of the main pests and beneficials. By the same token, the efficiency of diverse biocontrol plants to provide accurate shelter to natural enemies has been assessed

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    Authors: Pouteau, Robin; Rambal, S.; Ratte, J.P.; Gogé, F.; +2 Authors

    International audience; Frost risk assessment is of critical importance in tropical highlands like the Andes where human activities thrives at altitudes up to 4200 m, and night frost may occur all the year round. In these semi-arid and cold regions with sparse meteorological networks, remote sensing and topographic modeling are of potential interest for understanding how physiography influences the local climate regime. After integrating night land surface temperature from the MODIS satellite, and physiographic descriptors derived from a digital elevation model, we explored how regional and landscape-scale features influence frost occurrence in the southern altiplano of Bolivia. Based on the high correlation between night land surface temperature and minimum air temperature, frost occurrence in early-, middle- and late-summer periods were calculated from satellite observations and mapped at a 1-km resolution over a 45,000 km² area. Physiographic modeling of frost occurrence was then conducted comparing multiple regression (MR) and boosted regression trees (BRT). Physiographic predictors were latitude, elevation, distance from salt lakes, slope steepness, potential insolation, and topographic convergence. Insolation influence on night frost was tested assuming that ground surface warming in the daytime reduces frost occurrence in the next night. Depending on the time period and the calibration domain, BRT models explained 74% to 90% of frost occurrence variation, outperforming the MR method. Inverted BRT models allowed the downscaling of frost occurrence maps at 100-m resolution, illustrating local processes like cold air drainage. Minimum temperature lapse rates showed seasonal variation and mean values higher than those reported for temperate mountains. When applied at regional and subregional scales successively, BRT models revealed prominent effects of elevation, latitude and distance to salt lakes at large scales, whereas slope, topographic convergence and insolation gained influence at local scales. Our results highlight the role of daytime insolation on night frost occurrence at local scale, particularly in the early- and mid-summer periods when solar astronomic forcing is maximum. Seasonal variations and interactions in physiographic effects are also shown. Nested effects of physiographic factors across scales are discussed, as well as potential applications of physiographic modeling to downscale ecological processes in complex terrains. (résumé d'auteur)

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    Other literature type . 2011
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2011
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mühle, Jens; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Gros, Valérie; +1 Authors

    During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) in February‐March 1999 the impact of continental outflow to the Indian Ocean was analyzed. On board the R/V Ronald Brown altogether 93 air samples were taken for analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the 14C/12C and 18O/16O isotope ratios of CO. Five types of air masses differing in origin, degree of pollution, and chemical age were identified based on back trajectory analyses and the trace gas data, supported by continuous CO and ozone (O3) observations from other investigators. The Indian Ocean was found to be frequently affected by nearby emissions from the Indian subcontinent and Indochina, but the strongest pollution event (characterized inter alia by high mixing ratios of medium‐ and long‐lived NMHC) was due to long‐range advection from the extratropical northern hemisphere. Carbon monoxide 14 showing a distinct meridional profile unequivocally confirms this remote impact. The ratio acetylene/CO was found to be often inadequate as a measure for atmospheric processing, the integrated influence of OH chemistry and mixing. Our data suggest that the influence from fresh continental pollution was less pronounced along the INDOEX R/V Ronald Brown cruise compared to observations made during other tropical campaigns, such as the Pacific Exploratory Mission‐West B in the Pacific Ocean.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2002
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christophe Vigny; Anne Socquet; Claude Rangin; Nicolas Chamot-Rooke; +4 Authors

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement campaigns in Myanmar, conducted in 1998 and 2000, allow quantifying the present‐day crustal deformation around the Sagaing fault system in central Myanmar. Both a regional network installed at four points within the country and a local 18‐station network centered on the city of Mandalay across the Sagaing fault demonstrate that active deformation related to the northward motion of India is distributed across Myanmar in a platelet that extends from the western edge of the Shan Plateau in the east to the Andaman Trench in the west. In this platelet, deformation is rather diffuse and distributed over distinct fault systems. In the east, the Sagaing/Shan Scarp fault system absorbs <20 mm/yr of the 35 mm/yr India/Sundaland strike‐slip motion. Along this major plate boundary, strain is partitioned along the N‐S trending Sagaing fault and the transtensile N160°E trending Shan Scarp fault. Shortening and wrenching within the inverted central Myanmar basins, strike‐slip faults affecting the Arakan Yoma fold‐and‐thrust belt, and oblique subduction along the Andaman trench should absorb the remaining India/Sundaland motion (>10 mm/yr). This GPS study combined with an on land geotectonic survey demonstrate that oblique slip of India along the rigid Sundaland block is accommodated by a partitioned system characterized by distribution of deformation over a wide zone.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
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    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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