Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed
Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Federico Antonioli; Ružica Brečić; Michele Donati; Hugo Ferrer-Pérez; Lisa Gauvrit; Viet Hoang; Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes; Apichaya Lilavanichakul; +11 more
Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Federico Antonioli; Ružica Brečić; Michele Donati; Hugo Ferrer-Pérez; Lisa Gauvrit; Viet Hoang; Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes; Apichaya Lilavanichakul; Edward Majewski; Agata Malak-Rawlikowska; Konstadinos Mattas; An Nguyen; Ioannis Papadopoulos; Jack Peerlings; Bojan Ristic; Marina Tomić Maksan; Áron Török; Gunnar Vittersø; Abdoul Diallo;
Abstract The carbon and land footprint of 26 certified food products – geographical indications and organic products and their conventional references are assessed. This assessment goes beyond existing literature by (1) designing a calculation method fit for the comparison between certified food and conventional production, (2) using the same calculation method and parameters for 52 products – 26 Food Quality Schemes and their reference products – to allow for a meaningful comparison, (3) transparently documenting this calculation method and opening access to the detailed results and the underlying data, and (4) providing the first assessment of the carbon and land footprint of geographical indications. The method used is Life Cycle Assessment, largely relying on the Cool Farm Tool for the impact assessment. The most common indicator of climate impact, the carbon footprint expressed per ton of product, is not significantly different between certified foods and their reference products. The only exception to this pattern are vegetal organic products, whose carbon footprint is 16% lower. This is because the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from the absence of mineral fertilizers is never fully offset by the associated lower yield. The climate impact of certified food per hectare is however 26% than their reference and their land footprint is logically 24% higher. Technical specifications directly or indirectly inducing a lower use of mineral fertilizers are a key driver of this pattern. So is yield, which depends both on terroir and farming practices. Overall, this assessment reinforces the quality policy of the European Union: promoting certified food is not inconsistent with mitigating climate change.
Shinichiro Fujimori; Tomoko Hasegawa; Volker Krey; Keywan Riahi; Christoph Bertram; Benjamin Leon Bodirsky; Valentina Bosetti; Jessica Callen; Jacques Després; Jonathan C. Doelman; +13 more
Shinichiro Fujimori; Tomoko Hasegawa; Volker Krey; Keywan Riahi; Christoph Bertram; Benjamin Leon Bodirsky; Valentina Bosetti; Jessica Callen; Jacques Després; Jonathan C. Doelman; Laurent Drouet; Johannes Emmerling; Stefan Frank; Oliver Fricko; Petr Havlik; Florian Humpenöder; Jason F.L. Koopman; Hans van Meijl; Yuki Ochi; Alexander Popp; Andreas Schmitz; Kiyoshi Takahashi; Detlef P. van Vuuren;
Holding the global increase in temperature caused by climate change well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, the goal affirmed by the Paris Agreement, is a major societal challenge. Meanwhile, food security is a high-priority area in the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which could potentially be adversely affected by stringent climate mitigation. Here we show the potential negative trade-offs between food security and climate mitigation using a multi-model comparison exercise. We find that carelessly designed climate mitigation policies could increase the number of people at risk of hunger by 160 million in 2050. Avoiding these adverse side effects would entail a cost of about 0.18% of global gross domestic product in 2050. It should be noted that direct impacts of climate change on yields were not assessed and that the direct benefits from mitigation in terms of avoided yield losses could be substantial, further reducing the above cost. Although results vary across models and model implementations, the qualitative implications are robust and call for careful design of climate mitigation policies taking into account agriculture and land prices.
This Deliverable presents the result from the application of a policy Delphi and highlights how experts assess the potential of governance contexts that may favour the realisation of legume-supported value chains.
A report on the most applicable, ‘Sustainability indicators for legume supported food and feed systems’. This shall be drafted with input from earlier activities in WP4 will be iterated with data from the other WPs to help develop ‘transition to sustainability’ models (WP8).
With the aim to fully exploit the by-products obtained after the industrial extraction of starch from sweet potatoes, a cascading approach was developed to extract high-value molecules, such as proteins and pectins, and to valorize the solid fraction, rich in starch and fibrous components. This fraction was used to prepare new biocomposites designed for food packaging applications. The sweet potato residue was added to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in various amounts up to 40 wt % by melt mixing, without any previous treatment. The composites are semicrystalline materials, characterized by thermal stability up to 260 °C. For the composites containing up to 10 wt % of residue, the tensile strength remains over 30 MPa and the strain stays over 3.2%. A homogeneous dispersion of the sweet potato waste into the bio-polymeric matrix was achieved but, despite the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between the components, a poor interfacial adhesion was detected. Considering the significant percentage of sweet potato waste used, the biocomposites obtained show a low economic and environmental impact, resulting in an interesting bio-alternative to the materials commonly used in the packaging industry. Thus, according to the principles of a circular economy, the preparation of the biocomposites closes the loop of the complete valorization of sweet potato products and by-products.
Abstract. Land Use and Land Cover (LULCs) mapping and change detection are of paramount importance to understand the distribution and effectively monitor the dynamics of the Earth’s system. An unexplored way to create global LULC maps is by building good quality LULC-models based on state-of-the-art deep learning networks. Building such models requires large global good quality time series LULC datasets, which are not available yet. This paper presents TimeSpec4LULC (Khaldi et al., 2021), a smart open-source global dataset of multi-Spectral Time series for 29 LULC classes. TimeSpec4LULC was built based on the 7 spectral bands of MODIS sensor at 500 m resolution from 2002 to 2021, and was annotated using a spatial agreement across the 15 global LULC products available in Google Earth Engine. The 19-year monthly time series of the seven bands were created globally by: (1) applying different spatio-temporal quality assessment ﬁlters on MODIS Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) aggregating their original 8-day temporal granularity into monthly composites, (3) merging their data into a Terra+Aqua combined time series, and (4) extracting, at the pixel level, 11.85 million time series for the 7 bands along with a set of metadata about geographic coordinates, country and departmental divisions, spatio-temporal consistency across LULC products, temporal data availability, and the global human modiﬁcation index. To assess the annotation quality of the dataset, a sample of 100 pixels, evenly distributed around the world, from each LULC class, was selected and validated by experts using very high resolution images from both Google Earth and Bing Maps imagery. This smartly, pre-processed, and annotated dataset is targeted towards scientiﬁc users interested in developing and evaluating various machine learning models, including deep learning networks, to perform global LULC mapping and change detection.
This Deliverable report presents the impact of key factors influencing decision making of farmers and consumers to uptake legume cultivation and, respectively, the choice to include legumes into diets. Results provide guidance on determinants of positive behavioural change towards legume inclusion. Farmer and consumer analyses are based on survey data for the UK farmers and consumers, and findings are discussed comparatively in the context of European production and consumption and main factors potentially influencing behaviours and trends. The report informs how we may operate more effectively to affect behavioural change positively towards legume inclusion.
You have been invited to join Assessing the socio-economic impact of digitalisation in rural areas Research Community Dashboard as a manager. Fill in the verification code, sent to your email, to accept the invitation request.
We are unable to process the request because the link is invalid, or it has expired.