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14 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2012-2021
  • Open Access
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • LV
  • E-resource repository of the University of Latvia

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brindina, Lidija;

    Bakalaura darbā aplūkoti ar literāro darbu digitalizēšanu un tās rezultātu publiskošanu saistītie juridiskie jautājumi. Par pamatjautājumu, uzskatāms tas, vai uz digitalizētiem literārajiem darbiem attiecināmais regulējums ir identisks normām, kas attiecināmas uz papīra formāta izdevumiem. Viens no darba mērķiem ir noskaidrot, vai ar literāro darbu digitalizēšanu saistītās tiesību normas nodrošina efektīvu un modernajai pasaulei atbilstošu informācijas aprites kārtību. Darba gaitā secināts, ka darbu digitalizēšanas jautājumos vēl nepastāv vienota tiesiskā prakse. Vienlaikus konstatēta sabiedrības interese par e-bibliotēkas izveidi, tomēr tā kā e-bibliotēku tiesiski nav iespējams pielīdzināt klasiskai bibliotēkai, juristu starpā pastāv diskusijas par to, vai un kā ar pastāvošo regulējumu iespējams nodrošināt šādu veidojumu pastāvēšanu. In this bachelor thesis author explores legal aspects of digitising literal works and providing the society with the possibility to access the results. The main question is to understand if the legal frame for digitized books is identical to the frame that regulates any kind of actions with printed books. One of the aims of this paper is to analyse the legal basis for digitisation and to see if it is effective and complies with the demands of modern society. It is concluded that a unified legal practice in the field of digitisation has not developed yet. At the same time society wishes for e-libraries on-line. As it is not possible to equate completely an e-library with a traditional library, there are discussions among lawyers, if and how the existing legal frame allows the activities of an e-library to be carried out.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ E-resource repositor...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ E-resource repositor...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Karakuş, Burak;

    The objective of this thesis is to focus on the foreign market entry modes and the factors affecting the choice of a certain entry mode/strategy. Indian agricultural market as an industry and a market is also discussed alongside with Indian business customs as well as cultural issues. The goal of the thesis is to come up with recommendations for the company on which market entry mode strategy to choose that would suit the company’s purposes. Based on the research results, the best market entry mode option for the company is a brownfield investment. These modes are classified in group of hierarchical entry modes. Darba mērķis ir vērst uzmanību uz ārzemju tirgus ienākšanas veidiem un faktoriem, kas ietekmē konkrēto ienākšanas veidu/stratēģiju izvēli. Indijas lauksaimniecības tirgus kā nozare un tirgus tiek aplūkots kopā ar Indijas uzņēmējdarbības tradīcijām, kā arī kultūras jautājumiem. Darba mērķis ir ieteikt uzņēmumam piemērotu tirgus pieejas stratēģiju, kas atbilstu uzņēmuma mērķiem Pamatojoties uz pētījuma rezultātiem, labākais tirgus ienākšanas veida variants uzņēmumam ir investīcijas apvidū. Šie tirgus ienākšanas veidi tika klasificēti hierarhiskā tirgus ienākšanas veidu grupā.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Briedis, Armands;

    The topic of the bachelor's thesis is "The impact of the support funds granted by the European Union on the development of the Latvian economy and their control and supervision.". The aim of the bachelor's thesis is to study the European Union funds and develop proposals for the development of a control mechanism. The bachelor's thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter explores European Union funds. The second chapter analyzes the distribution of funds and their administration. The third chapter examines the development of the Latvian economy before and after joining the European Union. The fourth chapter compares the allocated funding between periods. The fifth chapter examines the control mechanism using existing projects and finds recommendations for improving control. Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Eiropas Savienības piešķirto atbalsta fondu ietekme uz Latvijas tautsaimniecības attīstību un to kontrole un uzraudzība.”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt Eiropas Savienības fondus un izstrādāt priekšlikumus kontroles mehānisma attīstīšanai. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no piecām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek izpētīti Eiropas Savienības fondi. Otrajā nodaļā tiek izanalīzēts fondu dalījums un to administrēšana. Trešajā nodaļā tiek izskatīta Latvijas tautsaimniecības attīstība pirms un pēc iestāšanās Eiropas Savienībā. Ceturtajā nodaļā tiek salīdzinati piešķirtie finansējumi starp periodiem. Piektajā nodaļā tiek pētīts kontroles mehānisms izmantojot jau esošus projektus un rast ieteikumus kontroles uzlabošanai.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ E-resource repositor...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Pierpaolo Marano;

    The Insurance Distribution Directive (IDD) aims to regulate insurance distribution in the EU regardless of distribution channels and means. Although new technologies affect insurance distribution, the IDD does not explicitly regulate this digital transformation. Insurers and intermediaries must comply with detailed business conduct rules that aim to counteract distribution risks. However, the IDD exempts ancillary insurance intermediaries from its scope when they meet certain conditions. The article highlights the regulatory framework on insurance, requiring insurers and intermediaries to address distribution risks, and analyses how this exemption affects the management of distribution risks in online distribution from a legal perspective. The focus on online distribution depends on the scale such distribution can achieve. The consideration of the scale allows for challenging the political choice behind the exemption of ancillary insurance intermediaries, which consists of the principle of proportionality. A regulatory proposal to counteract these adverse effects is to remove the exemption from the IDD rules for ancillary intermediaries in online distribution. Such a proposal is compliant with the principle of technological neutrality and is in line with the new legislative proposals in the Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act. ---//--- This article is an open access article distributed under the terms andconditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Publikācija uzrakstīta un izdota Fundamentālo un lietišķo pētījumu programmas ietvaros: lzp-2020/2-0061 "Mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu (MVU) digitālā transformācija un ilgtspēja Latvijas ekonomikas restartēšanai un modernizācijai (DigiSMEs)"

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    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fontanini, Chiara;

    Digitalizācija ir izveidojusi ievērojami svarīgas pārmaiņas, kas Eiropas Savienībai un tās dalībvalstīm ir jāpieņem. Itālija tās digitālo procesu un prasmju vērtējumā ir zemāk par jebkuru citu ES dalībvalsti, tieši tāpēc šī situācija ir jāmaina un strauji jāuzlabo. Šī maģistra darba galvenais izvirzītais mērķis ir noteikt digitālizācijas svarīguma un ietekmes lomu Eiropā un Itālijā, lai atrastu iemeslus, kāpēc Itālija pēc šī kritērija ir viszemāk, salīdzinot ar pārējām ES dalībvalstīm, kā arī lai izdomātu un piedāvātu uzlabojumus Itālijas respondentu digitālajām prasmēm. Šī pētījuma rezultāts parāda, cik ES ir nepieciešami un svarīgi būt ne tikai digitālai, bet tikpat svarīga ir arī tās vēlme būt tādai. Lai Itālija, kuru DESI novērtēja ļoti zemu, varētu pilnveidoties digitālajā sfērā, ir nepieciešama papildus komunikācija un resursi. Jāmin arī, ka itāliešu respondentu digitālās prasmes ir ļoti zemas, neskatoties uz faktu, ka viņi zin, cik svarīgas ir šīs prasmes un to pielietošana. Digitalisation is an important change that EU and its MSs need to face. Italy is behind respect other states in digital processes and skills. Nevertheless, improvements must be done in Italy. The aim of this master thesis is to is to determine the importance digitalization in Europe and Italy, to find reasons why Italy is behind compared to other MSs, to provide suggestions for improvements to make an assessment of Italian respondents’ digital skills. The outcome of the research shows the necessity for EU to be digital as well as its will to be digital. Furthermore, Italy, which ranked very low by DESI could improve digitally with more communication and resources. Finally, digital skills of Italians’ respondents are low, even though they know digital skills’ importance.

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    Authors: Dundure, Evija; Sloka, Biruta;

    Due to the implementation of new technologies and orientation on digital solutions the communication and sales channels have changed dramatically. Information and client service on-line availability presents strong advantages for business, state agencies as well as customers. However, lack of personal interaction during the communication and sales process can make it difficult for people to understand and even frustrate their desire for a product or service. The purpose of the research is to analyse the digitalization impact on voluntary savings for retirement in Latvia and make comparisons with other countries. The voluntary pension schemes are the part of pension system and its third pillar created to strengthen and foster sustainability and adequacy of people income level after retirement. Main stakeholders in voluntary savings for retirement are pension funds as well as government agencies carrying out the national pension system policy. Among other motivation factors the people knowledge level about the necessity to participate in third pension level causes their willingness to create voluntary savings. Service providers chosen marketing and governments realized legislation policy impact the level of people engagement in private pensions and make a basis for people retirement period living standards. Research methods used are analysis of scientific publications and previous conducted research, analysis of statistical data and sales and communication channels in Latvia. The results of analyses show the challenges that service providers are facing and steps that should be taken to promote the voluntary savings in a digital era. The research was supported by the NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME “LATVIAN HERITAGE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE STATE” project “CHALLENGES FOR THE LATVIAN STATE AND SOCIETY AND THE SOLUTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT" (INTERFRAME-LV, Project No.VPP-IZM-2018/1-0005)

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    Authors: Borskoviča, Sintija;

    Internet of Things is applied to devices that may be connected to the Internet and which facilitates the daily lives of people. Such devices can be both machines, and refrigerators. The number od such devices in recent years are growing rapidly. However, the consequences are increased number of cyber attacks on the Internet of Things, since most devices are not secure and with great security and privacy problems. Bachelor’s thesis context there will be aim to overview what is Internet of Things, the operating priciples, as well as security problems that are associated with home and smart devices. Also, there will be a survey in order to find out people’s opinion on the Internet of Things and its problems. Thesis also looks at several Internet of Things devices and applications that are summarizes with they application access permissions and their explanations. Lietu internets tiek attiecināts uz ierīcēm, kuras var savienot ar internetu, un kuras atvieglo cilvēku ikdienu. Šādas ierīces var būt gan mašīnas, gan ledusskapji. Šīs ierīču skaits pēdējo gadu laikā strauji pieaug. Taču līdz ar to pieaug arī kibernoziedznieku uzbrukumi lietu internetam, jo vairums ierīču ir nedrošas un ar lielām drošības un privātumu problēmām. Bakalaura darba ietvaros tiek apskatīts, kas ir lietu internets, tā darbības principi, kā arī drošības problēmas, kas ir saistītas ar saimniecības un viedajām ierīcēm. Tāpat tiek veikta aptauja, lai noskaidrotu cilvēku viedokli par lietu interneta un tā problēmām. Tiek apskatītas vairākas lietu interneta ierīces un to lietotnes, un tiek apkopotas lietotņu piekļuves atļaujas un to skaidrojumi.

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    Authors: Makhmudov, Anvar;

    Economy is an all-encompassing organism that provides the vital functions of every person and society. Every country has its own economic situation, but even in this case there is a tendency to move to urban areas for better living standards and opportunities to get them. Therefore, this research concentrates on the difference between urban and rural areas, how it effects on entrepreneurial decision and how entrepreneurship behavior model is built, how different is the urban and rural area from an economic point of view, what is the opinion of the entrepreneurs about the rural and urban areas. Because of the fact that qualitative research method permits to seek out information deeply with people's views, opinion and remarks, it was decided that given method is more sensible for usage here. For personal analysis, interview method was selected in which nine experts(entrepreneurs) who possess business were taken part. Due to the situation with isolation, interviews were arranged using various methods such as telephone, web and personal. Participants were at the age between 28 - 56, from 2 different countries Latvia and Uzbekistan and were chosen basing on the locations of their enterprises. Questions for interviews were prepared in advance basing on two models, a model of entrepreneur behavior and performance and model of entrepreneurial decision making process. In case there is need to be clarified, participants were asked extra questions. The findings show that entrepreneurs are not positively intended to arrange business in rural area due to the worse conditions comparing to urban area. The result of the study approved that the living standards of population plays an important role in the progress of enterprise. From the other side the study disproved that not all spheres could be developed as good as in other area. Ekonomika ir visaptverošs organisms, kas nodrošina katra cilvēka un sabiedrības vitālās funkcijas. Katrai valstij ir sava ekonomiskā situācija, bet pat šajā gadījumā ir tendence pārcelties uz pilsētas rajoniem par labākiem dzīves standartiem un iespējām tos iegūt. Tāpēc šajā pētījumā galvenā uzmanība pievērsta atšķirībām starp pilsētām un lauku teritorijām, kā tā ietekmē lēmumu pieņemšanu uzņēmējdarbības jomā un kā tiek veidots uzņēmējdarbības uzvedības modelis, cik atšķirīga ir pilsētu un lauku teritorija no ekonomiskā viedokļa, kāds ir uzņēmēju viedoklis par lauku un pilsētu teritorijām. Tā kā kvalitatīvās izpētes metodes ļauj dziļi meklēt informāciju ar cilvēku uzskatiem, viedokļiem un piezīmēm, tika nolemts, ka dotā metode ir saprātīgāka lietošanai šeit. Personiskajai analīzei tika izvēlēta intervijas metode, kurā piedalījās deviņi eksperti (uzņēmēji), kuriem pieder uzņēmējdarbība. Ņemot vērā situāciju ar izolāciju, intervijas tika kārtotas, izmantojot dažādas metodes, piemēram, telefonu, tīmekli un personīgo. Dalībnieki bija vecumā no 28 līdz 56 gadiem, no 2 dažādām valstīm – Latvija un Uzbekistāna, un tika izvēlēti, balstoties uz uzņēmumu atrašanās vietām. Jautājumi intervijām tika sagatavoti iepriekš, pamatojoties uz diviem modeļiem – uzņēmēju uzvedības un darbības modeli un uzņēmējdarbības lēmumu pieņemšanas procesa modeli. Ja ir nepieciešami skaidrojumi, dalībniekiem tika uzdoti papildu jautājumi. Secinājumi liecina, ka uzņēmēji nav pozitīvi noskaņoti uz uzņēmējdarbības sakārtošanu lauku apvidos sliktāko apstākļu dēļ, salīdzinot ar pilsētas teritoriju. Pētījuma rezultāti apstiprināja, ka iedzīvotāju dzīves līmenim ir liela nozīme uzņēmējdarbības attīstībā. No otras puses, pētījums noraidīja, ka ne visas sfēras varētu attīstīties tik labi kā citās jomās.

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    Authors: Sloka, Biruta; Čipāne, Kate; Vasina, Sabine Anete; Volgasts, Emīls;

    Digital skills are defined as a basic competence, the same level as reading or writing and it is important for country to provide successful digitalisation in regions as regional development is the basis for national development. Purpose of the study is to analyse digitalisation in the regions of Latvia. The tasks of the study: 1) to analyse theoretical background of digitalisation in context of regional development; 2) to analyse existing research of digitalisation in the regions in EU; 3) to analyse problems of digitalisation in the regions of Latvia. Research methods used in preparation of this article: scientific publication and previous conducted research results analysis, analysis of Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), EU-SILC results (in 2014–2017) and results of the survey realised in Latvia at the end of 2017 and beginning of 2018 on internet shopping in cooperation with company iMarketing.lv, University of Latvia and Chamber of Trade and Commerce of Latvia (n = 2513). Data are compared with the results of other Eurozone and OECD countries. For data analysis there were used indicators of descriptive statistics (indicators of central tendency or location – arithmetic mean, mode, median), indicators of variability (indicators of dispersion – range, standard deviation and standard error of mean), cross-tabulations for regions in Latvia, for household members, for urban – rural living and analysis of variance – ANOVA are used. The results of analysis have indicated different challenges for decision makers on different levels. The research was supported by the NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME “LATVIAN HERITAGE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE STATE” project “CHALLENGES FOR THE LATVIAN STATE AND SOCIETY AND THE SOLUTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT" (INTERFRAME-LV, Project No.VPP-IZM-2018/1-0005)

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    Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Humanities and Social Sciences Latvia
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saulītis, Alberts;

    The main goal of this paper is to create Internet of Things architecture which provides multiuser support, is easy to setup from end user perspective and which can be provided to potential clients as a service by taking care of platform setup and maintenance. During paper, the Home Assistant and OpenHAB Internet of Things platform functionality has been mutually reviewed and compared. An evaluation has been created to find out which platform is the most suitable for multiuser environment. As a result of the paper Home Assistant platform architecture solution which allows to perform easy initial setup of platform, supports multiuser environment using multiple instances of platform and takes care of user data security was created. Darba mērķis ir izstrādāt lietu interneta platformas arhitektūru, kura nodrošina daudzlietotāju atbalstu, ir viegli uzstādāma no galalietotāju skatupunkta, un kuru ir iespējams piedāvāt potenciāliem lietotājiem kā pakalpojumu, parūpējoties par tās uzstādīšanu un uzturēšanu. Darba gaitā ir veikts OpenHAB un Home Assistant lietu interneta platformu funkcionalitāšu apskats, salīdzinājums un to piemērotības izvērtējums daudzlietotāju arhitektūras izveidošanai. Darba rezultātā ir izveidots Home Assistant platformas arhitektūras risinājums, kurš ļauj veikt vienkāršu sākotnējo platformas uzstādīšanu, nodrošina daudzlietotāju atbalstu, izmantojot vairākas platformas instances vienā resursdatorā, un parūpējas par lietotāju datu drošību.

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14 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brindina, Lidija;

    Bakalaura darbā aplūkoti ar literāro darbu digitalizēšanu un tās rezultātu publiskošanu saistītie juridiskie jautājumi. Par pamatjautājumu, uzskatāms tas, vai uz digitalizētiem literārajiem darbiem attiecināmais regulējums ir identisks normām, kas attiecināmas uz papīra formāta izdevumiem. Viens no darba mērķiem ir noskaidrot, vai ar literāro darbu digitalizēšanu saistītās tiesību normas nodrošina efektīvu un modernajai pasaulei atbilstošu informācijas aprites kārtību. Darba gaitā secināts, ka darbu digitalizēšanas jautājumos vēl nepastāv vienota tiesiskā prakse. Vienlaikus konstatēta sabiedrības interese par e-bibliotēkas izveidi, tomēr tā kā e-bibliotēku tiesiski nav iespējams pielīdzināt klasiskai bibliotēkai, juristu starpā pastāv diskusijas par to, vai un kā ar pastāvošo regulējumu iespējams nodrošināt šādu veidojumu pastāvēšanu. In this bachelor thesis author explores legal aspects of digitising literal works and providing the society with the possibility to access the results. The main question is to understand if the legal frame for digitized books is identical to the frame that regulates any kind of actions with printed books. One of the aims of this paper is to analyse the legal basis for digitisation and to see if it is effective and complies with the demands of modern society. It is concluded that a unified legal practice in the field of digitisation has not developed yet. At the same time society wishes for e-libraries on-line. As it is not possible to equate completely an e-library with a traditional library, there are discussions among lawyers, if and how the existing legal frame allows the activities of an e-library to be carried out.

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    Authors: Karakuş, Burak;

    The objective of this thesis is to focus on the foreign market entry modes and the factors affecting the choice of a certain entry mode/strategy. Indian agricultural market as an industry and a market is also discussed alongside with Indian business customs as well as cultural issues. The goal of the thesis is to come up with recommendations for the company on which market entry mode strategy to choose that would suit the company’s purposes. Based on the research results, the best market entry mode option for the company is a brownfield investment. These modes are classified in group of hierarchical entry modes. Darba mērķis ir vērst uzmanību uz ārzemju tirgus ienākšanas veidiem un faktoriem, kas ietekmē konkrēto ienākšanas veidu/stratēģiju izvēli. Indijas lauksaimniecības tirgus kā nozare un tirgus tiek aplūkots kopā ar Indijas uzņēmējdarbības tradīcijām, kā arī kultūras jautājumiem. Darba mērķis ir ieteikt uzņēmumam piemērotu tirgus pieejas stratēģiju, kas atbilstu uzņēmuma mērķiem Pamatojoties uz pētījuma rezultātiem, labākais tirgus ienākšanas veida variants uzņēmumam ir investīcijas apvidū. Šie tirgus ienākšanas veidi tika klasificēti hierarhiskā tirgus ienākšanas veidu grupā.

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    Authors: Briedis, Armands;

    The topic of the bachelor's thesis is "The impact of the support funds granted by the European Union on the development of the Latvian economy and their control and supervision.". The aim of the bachelor's thesis is to study the European Union funds and develop proposals for the development of a control mechanism. The bachelor's thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter explores European Union funds. The second chapter analyzes the distribution of funds and their administration. The third chapter examines the development of the Latvian economy before and after joining the European Union. The fourth chapter compares the allocated funding between periods. The fifth chapter examines the control mechanism using existing projects and finds recommendations for improving control. Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Eiropas Savienības piešķirto atbalsta fondu ietekme uz Latvijas tautsaimniecības attīstību un to kontrole un uzraudzība.”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt Eiropas Savienības fondus un izstrādāt priekšlikumus kontroles mehānisma attīstīšanai. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no piecām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek izpētīti Eiropas Savienības fondi. Otrajā nodaļā tiek izanalīzēts fondu dalījums un to administrēšana. Trešajā nodaļā tiek izskatīta Latvijas tautsaimniecības attīstība pirms un pēc iestāšanās Eiropas Savienībā. Ceturtajā nodaļā tiek salīdzinati piešķirtie finansējumi starp periodiem. Piektajā nodaļā tiek pētīts kontroles mehānisms izmantojot jau esošus projektus un rast ieteikumus kontroles uzlabošanai.

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    Authors: Pierpaolo Marano;

    The Insurance Distribution Directive (IDD) aims to regulate insurance distribution in the EU regardless of distribution channels and means. Although new technologies affect insurance distribution, the IDD does not explicitly regulate this digital transformation. Insurers and intermediaries must comply with detailed business conduct rules that aim to counteract distribution risks. However, the IDD exempts ancillary insurance intermediaries from its scope when they meet certain conditions. The article highlights the regulatory framework on insurance, requiring insurers and intermediaries to address distribution risks, and analyses how this exemption affects the management of distribution risks in online distribution from a legal perspective. The focus on online distribution depends on the scale such distribution can achieve. The consideration of the scale allows for challenging the political choice behind the exemption of ancillary insurance intermediaries, which consists of the principle of proportionality. A regulatory proposal to counteract these adverse effects is to remove the exemption from the IDD rules for ancillary intermediaries in online distribution. Such a proposal is compliant with the principle of technological neutrality and is in line with the new legislative proposals in the Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act. ---//--- This article is an open access article distributed under the terms andconditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Publikācija uzrakstīta un izdota Fundamentālo un lietišķo pētījumu programmas ietvaros: lzp-2020/2-0061 "Mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu (MVU) digitālā transformācija un ilgtspēja Latvijas ekonomikas restartēšanai un modernizācijai (DigiSMEs)"

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    Authors: Fontanini, Chiara;

    Digitalizācija ir izveidojusi ievērojami svarīgas pārmaiņas, kas Eiropas Savienībai un tās dalībvalstīm ir jāpieņem. Itālija tās digitālo procesu un prasmju vērtējumā ir zemāk par jebkuru citu ES dalībvalsti, tieši tāpēc šī situācija ir jāmaina un strauji jāuzlabo. Šī maģistra darba galvenais izvirzītais mērķis ir noteikt digitālizācijas svarīguma un ietekmes lomu Eiropā un Itālijā, lai atrastu iemeslus, kāpēc Itālija pēc šī kritērija ir viszemāk, salīdzinot ar pārējām ES dalībvalstīm, kā arī lai izdomātu un piedāvātu uzlabojumus Itālijas respondentu digitālajām prasmēm. Šī pētījuma rezultāts parāda, cik ES ir nepieciešami un svarīgi būt ne tikai digitālai, bet tikpat svarīga ir arī tās vēlme būt tādai. Lai Itālija, kuru DESI novērtēja ļoti zemu, varētu pilnveidoties digitālajā sfērā, ir nepieciešama papildus komunikācija un resursi. Jāmin arī, ka itāliešu respondentu digitālās prasmes ir ļoti zemas, neskatoties uz faktu, ka viņi zin, cik svarīgas ir šīs prasmes un to pielietošana. Digitalisation is an important change that EU and its MSs need to face. Italy is behind respect other states in digital processes and skills. Nevertheless, improvements must be done in Italy. The aim of this master thesis is to is to determine the importance digitalization in Europe and Italy, to find reasons why Italy is behind compared to other MSs, to provide suggestions for improvements to make an assessment of Italian respondents’ digital skills. The outcome of the research shows the necessity for EU to be digital as well as its will to be digital. Furthermore, Italy, which ranked very low by DESI could improve digitally with more communication and resources. Finally, digital skills of Italians’ respondents are low, even though they know digital skills’ importance.

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    Authors: Dundure, Evija; Sloka, Biruta;

    Due to the implementation of new technologies and orientation on digital solutions the communication and sales channels have changed dramatically. Information and client service on-line availability presents strong advantages for business, state agencies as well as customers. However, lack of personal interaction during the communication and sales process can make it difficult for people to understand and even frustrate their desire for a product or service. The purpose of the research is to analyse the digitalization impact on voluntary savings for retirement in Latvia and make comparisons with other countries. The voluntary pension schemes are the part of pension system and its third pillar created to strengthen and foster sustainability and adequacy of people income level after retirement. Main stakeholders in voluntary savings for retirement are pension funds as well as government agencies carrying out the national pension system policy. Among other motivation factors the people knowledge level about the necessity to participate in third pension level causes their willingness to create voluntary savings. Service providers chosen marketing and governments realized legislation policy impact the level of people engagement in private pensions and make a basis for people retirement period living standards. Research methods used are analysis of scientific publications and previous conducted research, analysis of statistical data and sales and communication channels in Latvia. The results of analyses show the challenges that service providers are facing and steps that should be taken to promote the voluntary savings in a digital era. The research was supported by the NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME “LATVIAN HERITAGE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE STATE” project “CHALLENGES FOR THE LATVIAN STATE AND SOCIETY AND THE SOLUTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT" (INTERFRAME-LV, Project No.VPP-IZM-2018/1-0005)

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    Authors: Borskoviča, Sintija;

    Internet of Things is applied to devices that may be connected to the Internet and which facilitates the daily lives of people. Such devices can be both machines, and refrigerators. The number od such devices in recent years are growing rapidly. However, the consequences are increased number of cyber attacks on the Internet of Things, since most devices are not secure and with great security and privacy problems. Bachelor’s thesis context there will be aim to overview what is Internet of Things, the operating priciples, as well as security problems that are associated with home and smart devices. Also, there will be a survey in order to find out people’s opinion on the Internet of Things and its problems. Thesis also looks at several Internet of Things devices and applications that are summarizes with they application access permissions and their explanations. Lietu internets tiek attiecināts uz ierīcēm, kuras var savienot ar internetu, un kuras atvieglo cilvēku ikdienu. Šādas ierīces var būt gan mašīnas, gan ledusskapji. Šīs ierīču skaits pēdējo gadu laikā strauji pieaug. Taču līdz ar to pieaug arī kibernoziedznieku uzbrukumi lietu internetam, jo vairums ierīču ir nedrošas un ar lielām drošības un privātumu problēmām. Bakalaura darba ietvaros tiek apskatīts, kas ir lietu internets, tā darbības principi, kā arī drošības problēmas, kas ir saistītas ar saimniecības un viedajām ierīcēm. Tāpat tiek veikta aptauja, lai noskaidrotu cilvēku viedokli par lietu interneta un tā problēmām. Tiek apskatītas vairākas lietu interneta ierīces un to lietotnes, un tiek apkopotas lietotņu piekļuves atļaujas un to skaidrojumi.

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    Authors: Makhmudov, Anvar;

    Economy is an all-encompassing organism that provides the vital functions of every person and society. Every country has its own economic situation, but even in this case there is a tendency to move to urban areas for better living standards and opportunities to get them. Therefore, this research concentrates on the difference between urban and rural areas, how it effects on entrepreneurial decision and how entrepreneurship behavior model is built, how different is the urban and rural area from an economic point of view, what is the opinion of the entrepreneurs about the rural and urban areas. Because of the fact that qualitative research method permits to seek out information deeply with people's views, opinion and remarks, it was decided that given method is more sensible for usage here. For personal analysis, interview method was selected in which nine experts(entrepreneurs) who possess business were taken part. Due to the situation with isolation, interviews were arranged using various methods such as telephone, web and personal. Participants were at the age between 28 - 56, from 2 different countries Latvia and Uzbekistan and were chosen basing on the locations of their enterprises. Questions for interviews were prepared in advance basing on two models, a model of entrepreneur behavior and performance and model of entrepreneurial decision making process. In case there is need to be clarified, participants were asked extra questions. The findings show that entrepreneurs are not positively intended to arrange business in rural area due to the worse conditions comparing to urban area. The result of the study approved that the living standards of population plays an important role in the progress of enterprise. From the other side the study disproved that not all spheres could be developed as good as in other area. Ekonomika ir visaptverošs organisms, kas nodrošina katra cilvēka un sabiedrības vitālās funkcijas. Katrai valstij ir sava ekonomiskā situācija, bet pat šajā gadījumā ir tendence pārcelties uz pilsētas rajoniem par labākiem dzīves standartiem un iespējām tos iegūt. Tāpēc šajā pētījumā galvenā uzmanība pievērsta atšķirībām starp pilsētām un lauku teritorijām, kā tā ietekmē lēmumu pieņemšanu uzņēmējdarbības jomā un kā tiek veidots uzņēmējdarbības uzvedības modelis, cik atšķirīga ir pilsētu un lauku teritorija no ekonomiskā viedokļa, kāds ir uzņēmēju viedoklis par lauku un pilsētu teritorijām. Tā kā kvalitatīvās izpētes metodes ļauj dziļi meklēt informāciju ar cilvēku uzskatiem, viedokļiem un piezīmēm, tika nolemts, ka dotā metode ir saprātīgāka lietošanai šeit. Personiskajai analīzei tika izvēlēta intervijas metode, kurā piedalījās deviņi eksperti (uzņēmēji), kuriem pieder uzņēmējdarbība. Ņemot vērā situāciju ar izolāciju, intervijas tika kārtotas, izmantojot dažādas metodes, piemēram, telefonu, tīmekli un personīgo. Dalībnieki bija vecumā no 28 līdz 56 gadiem, no 2 dažādām valstīm – Latvija un Uzbekistāna, un tika izvēlēti, balstoties uz uzņēmumu atrašanās vietām. Jautājumi intervijām tika sagatavoti iepriekš, pamatojoties uz diviem modeļiem – uzņēmēju uzvedības un darbības modeli un uzņēmējdarbības lēmumu pieņemšanas procesa modeli. Ja ir nepieciešami skaidrojumi, dalībniekiem tika uzdoti papildu jautājumi. Secinājumi liecina, ka uzņēmēji nav pozitīvi noskaņoti uz uzņēmējdarbības sakārtošanu lauku apvidos sliktāko apstākļu dēļ, salīdzinot ar pilsētas teritoriju. Pētījuma rezultāti apstiprināja, ka iedzīvotāju dzīves līmenim ir liela nozīme uzņēmējdarbības attīstībā. No otras puses, pētījums noraidīja, ka ne visas sfēras varētu attīstīties tik labi kā citās jomās.

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