Publisher: Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Tree biomass equations are the most commonly used method to estimate tree and forest biomasses at various spatial and temporal scales because of their minor damage, ease of use, and high relative accuracy. The systematic compilation of models for the biomass of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest, a unique and essential class of typical vegetation types in the subtropical zone of China, has not been reported so far. In this paper, we compiled a species list through an inventory of 28.9 hm2 of mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forests in southwestern Hubei Province with fixed detection sample plots, the species list was compiled by this study, and used it to retrieve, collect and establish a model dataset of woody plant biomass in subtropical mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest. The species list contains a total of 665 biomass models in 167 groups. Each model corresponds to the plant species name, Latin name, plant life type, plant components calculated by the model, model independent variables, measurement units and ranges of independent variables, model correlation coefficient or coefficient of determination, and model sample size. is also recorded. By establishing this dataset, this paper not only provides essential information for in-depth research on the productivity and carbon sink of this specific vegetation but also provides a scientific basis for the management of this type of forest, the conservation of biodiversity, and the evaluation of forest ecological benefits.
Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Internet of Things (IoT) systems have advanced greatly in the past few years, especially with the support of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions. Numerous AI-supported IoT devices are playing a significant role in providing complex and user-specific smart city services. Given the multitude of heterogeneous wireless networks, the plethora of computer and storage architectures and paradigms, and the abundance of mobile and vehicular IoT devices, true smart city experiences are only attainable through a cooperative intelligent and secure IoT framework. This article provides an extensive study on different cooperative systems and envisions a cooperative solution that supports the integration and collaboration among both centralized and distributed systems, in which intelligent AI-supported IoT devices such as smart UAVs provide support in the data collection, processing and service provisioning process. Moreover, secure and collaborative decentralized solutions such as Blockchain are considered in the service provisioning process to enable enhanced privacy and authentication features for IoT applications. As such, user-specific complex services and applications within smart city environments will be delivered and made available in a timely, secure, and efficient manner.
Jana Bürger; Filip Küzmič; Urban Šilc; Florian Jansen; Erwin Bergmeier; Milan Chytrý; Alicia Cirujeda; Silvia Fogliatto; Guillaume Fried; Denise F. Dostatny; +16 more
Jana Bürger; Filip Küzmič; Urban Šilc; Florian Jansen; Erwin Bergmeier; Milan Chytrý; Alicia Cirujeda; Silvia Fogliatto; Guillaume Fried; Denise F. Dostatny; Bärbel Gerowitt; Michael Glemnitz; José L. González‐Andújar; Eva Hernández Plaza; Jordi Izquierdo; Michaela Kolářová; Zdeňka Lososová; Helen Metcalfe; Jevgenija Ņečajeva; Sandrine Petit; Gyula Pinke; Valerijus Rašomavičius; Christoph Redwitz; Matthias Schumacher; Lena Ulber; Francesco Vidotto;
Countries: Spain, United Kingdom, Lithuania, United Kingdom, Lithuania
Questions Two scientific disciplines, vegetation science and weed science, study arable weed vegetation, which has seen a strong diversity decrease in Europe over the last decades. We compared two collections of plot-based vegetation records originating from these two disciplines. The aim was to check the suitability of the collections for joint analysis and for addressing research questions from the opposing domains. We asked: are these collections complementary? If so, how can they be used for joint analysis? Location Europe. Methods We compared 13 311 phytosociological relevés and 13 328 records from weed science, concerning both data collection properties and the recorded species richness. To deal with bias in the data, we also analysed different subsets (i.e., crops, geographical regions, organic vs conventional fields, center vs edge plots). Results Records from vegetation science have an average species number of 19.0 ± 10.4. Metadata on survey methodology or agronomic practices are rare in this collection. Records from weed science have an average species number of 8.5 ± 6.4. They are accompanied by extensive methodological information. Vegetation science records and the weed science records taken at field edges or from organic fields have similar species numbers. The collections cover different parts of Europe but the results are consistent in six geographical subsets and the overall data set. The difference in species numbers may be caused by differences in methodology between the disciplines, i.e., plot positioning within fields, plot sizes, or survey timing. Conclusion This comparison of arable weed data that were originally sampled with a different purpose represents a new effort in connecting research between vegetation scientists and weed scientists. Both collections show different aspects of weed vegetation, which means the joint use of the data is valuable as it can contribute to a more complete picture of weed species diversity in European arable landscapes. Published
The devices forming Internet of Things (IoT) networks need to be re-programmed over the air, so that new features are added, software bugs or security vulnerabilities are resolved, and their applications can be re-purposed. The limitations of IoT devices, such as installation in locations with limited physical access, resource-constrained nature, large scale, and high heterogeneity, should be taken into consideration for designing an efficient and reliable pipeline for over-the-air programming (OTAP). In this work, we present a survey of OTAP techniques, which can be applied to IoT networks. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of OTAP for IoT devices and analyze the essential steps of the firmware update process, along with different approaches and techniques that implement them. In addition, we discuss schemes that focus on securing the OTAP process. Finally, we present a collection of state-of-the-art open-source and commercial platforms that integrate secure and reliable OTAP.
Surveys were carried out between 2013-2021 to determine the status of phytoplasma agents in the vineyard areas of Adıyaman, Batman, Elazığ, Malatya, Mardin, Şanlıurfa and Diyarbakır provinces located in the Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Regions. As a result of the surveys carried out according to the guided sampling method, a total of 1110 plant samples were collected. Rapid diagnosis of the collected samples was performed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) analysis to determine the presence of the associated phytoplasma. Based on qPCR analysis, phytoplasma was detected in 2 samples, one in a sample from Elazig and the other in a sample from Mardin. Nested Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested qPCR) analyzes were performed using the universal primers R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2 for the identification of the detected positive samples and bands of 1.25 kb were obtained. BLAST and virtual RFLP analyzes were applied to the 1.25 kb amplification products obtained from the 16S rDNA region of the phytoplasma samples. BLAST analysis of the 16SrDNA sequences and virtual computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (virtual RFLP) analyses confirmed the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (16Sr group XII, subgroup A) in 2 grapevine samples (OM212474 ve OM909048). In the BLAST comparison of 16S rDNA sequences of phytoplasma isolates, it was determined that there was a 99-100% similarity with other phytoplasma isolates in the world. Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinde yer alan Adıyaman, Batman, Elazığ, Malatya, Mardin, Şanlıurfa ve Diyarbakır illerindeki bağ alanlarında fitoplazma hastalık etmenlerinin durumlarını belirlemek için 2013-2021 yılları arasında sörveyler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Güdümlü örnekleme yöntemine göre yapılan bu sörveyler sonucu 1110 bitki örneği toplanmıştır. Fitoplazma varlığını belirlemek amacıyla toplanan örneklerin Gerçek Zamanlı Polimeraz Zincir Reaksiyonu (qPCR) analizi ile hızlı teşhisleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. qPCR analizi sonucunda biri Elazığ diğeri ise Mardin ilinde olmak üzere toplam 2 örnekte fitoplazma etmeni tespit edilmiştir. Tespit edilen pozitif örneklerin teşhisleri için R16mF2/R16mR1 ve R16F2n/R16R2 üniversal primerlerinin kullanıldığı Yuvalanmış Gerçek Zamanlı Polimeraz Zincir Reaksiyonu (Nested qPCR) analizleri gerçekleştirilmiş ve 1.25 kb boyutunda bantlar elde edilmiştir. Fitoplazma örneklerinin 16S rDNA bölgesinden elde edilen 1.25 kb’lik amplifikasyon ürünlerine BLAST ve sanal RFLP analizleri uygulanmıştır. Bu analizler ile doğrulanan 2 pozitif örnekte ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (16Sr group XII, subgroup A)’nin varlığı belirlenmiştir (OM212474 ve OM909048). Fitoplazma izolatlarına ait 16S rDNA dizilerinin BLAST karşılaştırmasında dünyadaki diğer fitoplazma izolatları ile %99-100 arasında benzerlik gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir.
Carpinus L. (Hornbeam) and Ostrya Scop. (Hop-hornbeam) are two genera belonging to the Betulaceae family. In this study, the anatomical features in the twig wood of Carpinus orientalis Mill., Carpinus betulus L. and Ostry carpinifolia Scope., native to Turkey, were comparatively examined. The anatomical features studied are as follows: tangential and radial vessel diameters, vessel frequencies, ray frequencies, ray heights and ray widths. No statistically significant differences were found for radial and tangential vessel diameters, vessel frequencies, ray heights and ray widths between C. orientalis and C. betulus twig woods. However, in the twig wood, ray frequency of C. orientalis is 18% higher than that of C. betulus. In the twig wood, the tangential vessel diameter of O. carpinifolia is 37.3% and 43.5% wider respectively compared to C. orientalis and C. betulus. Similarly, the radial vessel diameter of O. carpinifolia is 45,1% and 56,8% wider respectively compared to C. orientalis and C. betulus. The vessel frequency of O. carpinifolia is 27,6% and 16,9% less than that of C. orientalis and C. betulus, respectively. The ray height (µm) of O. carpinifolia is 71.5% and 69% less compared to C. orientalis and C. betulus, respectively. Among the three species, there is no statistically significant difference in terms of the ray widht (as µm and the number of cell) and the ray height (as the number of cells) in the twig wood. Carpinus L. (Gürgen) ve Ostrya Scop. (Kayacık) Betulaceae familyasına bağlı iki cinstir. Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de doğal yayılış gösteren Carpinus orientalis Mill. (Doğu gürgeni), Carpinus betulus L. (Adi gürgeni) ve Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (Gürgen yapraklı kayacık) türlerinde sürgünlerin anatomik özellikleri (trahelerin radyal ve teğetsel çapları, 1 mm2’de trahe sayısı, 1 mm’de özışını sayısı, özışını yüksekliği ve özışını genişliği) karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. C. orientalis ve C. betulus ikinci yıl sürgününe ait trahelerin radyal ve teğetsel çapları, 1 mm2de trahe sayısı, özışını yüksekliği ve genişliği arasında anlamlı bir fark yoktur. Ancak C. orientalis’in 1 mm’deki özışını sayısı C. betulus’a kıyasla %18 daha fazladır. O. carpinifolia’nın trahe teğet çapı, C. orientalis ve C. betulus’a kıyasla, sırasıyla %37,3 ve %43,5 daha geniştir. Benzer şekilde, O. carpinifolia’nın trahe radyal çapı da diğer iki türe göre sırasıyla %45,1 ve %56,8 daha geniştir. O. carpinifolia’ nın 1 mm2deki trahe sayısı C. orientalis ve C. betulus’a kıyasla sırasıyla %27,6 ve %16,9 daha azdır. O. carpinifolia’nın µm olarak özışını yüksekliği C. orientalis ve C. betulus’a kıyasla sırasıyla %71,5 ve %69 daha düşüktür. İncelenen üç türün özışını genişlikleri (µm ve hücre sayısı olarak) ve özışını yükseklilerinde (hücre sayısı olarak) anlamlı fark bulunmamıştır.
International audience; Forest dieback is a high risk factor for the sustainability of these ecosystems in the climate change context. Productivity losses and increased defoliation and mortality rates have already been recorded for many tree species worldwide. However, dieback is a process that depends on complex interactions between many biotic and environmental factors acting at different scales, and is thus difficult to address and predict.Our aim was to build tree- and stand-level foliar deficit models integrating biotic and abiotic factors for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), a species particularly threatened in Europe, and especially in the southeastern part of France. To this end, we quantified foliar deficit in 1740 trees from 87 plots distributed along an environmental gradient. We also measured tree annual radial growth and the abundance of two parasites: the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) and mistletoe (Viscum album L.). Topographic, soil, climate and water balance indices were assessed for each plot, together with the stand dendrometric characteristics. Given the large number of environmental factors and the strong correlations between many of them, models were developed using a partial least squares (PLS) regression approach.All the models pointed to a preponderance of the biotic factors (processionary moth and mistletoe) in explaining the intensity of foliar deficit at both tree- and stand- levels. We also show that strong interactions between climate, soil, water balance and biotic factors help to explain the intensity of dieback. Dieback was thus greater in the driest topoedaphic and climatic conditions where the mistletoe and processionary moth were present.This study highlights the need to account for a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors to explain the complex process of forest dieback, and especially the environmental variables that contribute to the water balance on the local scale. The phenomenological modeling approach presented here can be used in other regions and for other species, after a re-calibration and some adaptations to local constraints considering the limited distribution area of some biotic agents.
Qatar, by its economic wealth, is among the most important countries in the Middle East in foreign trade. Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt, which are among the other countries in the Middle East, started to impose some embargoes which is named Gulf Cries on Qatar in 2017, and Qatar was both diplomatically and politically left alone in this period. In this period, Turkey's attitude on Qatar's side has reinforced the relationship between Turkey and Qatar, which has strengthened in the last 20 years. The aim of this study is to examine how the economic and political relationship between Turkey and Qatar, which is getting stronger day by day, affects the trade of forest products. Qatar, which does not have forest assets, is also inclined to import partly raw materials, mostly finished and semi-finished products, thanks to its economic wealth. As a result of this study, which has been carried out by examining and interpreting past studies and current statistics with the qualitative research method, it is seen that 2017 Gulf Crisis affected an average of 44% increase in Turkey's total exports to Qatar. The reflection of this increase in the forest products industry, there is another increase of 211% in the Cork and wood manufactures (excluding furniture), 353% in the wood and articles of wood charcoal, and 108% in furniture. It has been observed that the conditions of 2017 Gulf crisis have caused an increase of high value-added semi-finished and finished products with Qatar. After ending the current crisis, it may be predicted that if the positive relationship of the political authority with Qatar continues, the increase in exports will continue to increase. Ekonomik zenginliği ile Katar, dış ticarette Orta Doğu’nun en önemli ülkeleri arasında yer alır. 2017 yılında bölge ülkelerinden Suudi Arabistan, Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri, Bahreyn ve Mısır Katar’a bazı ambargolar uygulamaya başlamış ve bu dönemde Katar diplomatik ve siyasi hayatta yalnız bırakılmıştır. Bu ambargolar sırasında Türkiye’nin Katar’ın yanında tavır sergilemesi, son 20 yıl içinde güçlenen Katar ile Türkiye ilişkisini pekiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye ile Katar’ın her geçen gün güçlenen ekonomik ve siyasi ilişkisinin orman ürünleri ticaretini nasıl etkilediğini incelemektir. Orman varlığına sahip olmayan Katar, ekonomik zenginliği ile kısmen hammadde, çoğunlukla da mamul ve yarı mamul ithalatına da meyillidir. Mevcut literatür ve güncel istatistiklerin incelenip yorumlanması ile gerçekleştirilen bu çalışma sonucunda, 2017 Körfez Krizi’nin Türkiye’nin Katar’a yönelik toplam genel ihracatında ortalama %44’lük bir artışa etki ettiği görülür. Genel ihracat kategorisindeki bu artışın orman ürünleri sanayine yansımasına bakıldığında ise mobilya hariç, mantar ve ahşap eşya kategorisinde %211’lik, ağaç ve ahşap eşya kategorisinde %353, mobilya kategorisinde ise %108’lik bir artışa neden olduğu görülmektedir. 2017 Körfez Krizi koşullarının Katar ile olan işlenmiş ve mamul düzeydeki katma değeri yüksek mobilya ihracatı kategorisinde artışa neden olduğu gözlenmiştir. Mevcut krizin sona erdiği şu günlerden sonra ise ihracattaki artışın, siyasi otoritenin Katar ile ilişkilerinin seyrine bağlı olmak kaydıyla, artarak devam edeceği tahmin edilebilir.
Heavily exploited for its reddish, decay-resistant heartwood, the tallest conifer, Sequoia sempervirens, is a major component of coastal forests from extreme southwestern Oregon to California's Santa Lucia Mountains. Primary Sequoia forests are now restricted to < 5 % of their former distribution, and mature secondary forests with trees over 60 m tall are even scarcer due to repeated logging. Leveraging allometric equations recently derived from intensive work in both forest types, we climbed, measured, and core-sampled 235 trees in 45 locations distributed across the species range to examine growth trends and understand how tall Sequoia are responding to recent environmental changes. Paired samples of sapwood and heartwood collected along the height gradient were used to quantify Sequoia investment in decay resistance. During the 20th century, trees in most locations began producing more wood than expected for their size with this growth surge becoming pronounced after 1970 and ending around 2000. Radial increments—ring widths—correlate with climatic variables related to water availability, and these relationships are strengthening as temperatures rise. Sensitivity to drought increased from north to south along a 6° latitudinal gradient of decreasing precipitation and summer fog frequency. Sequoia trees north of 40° were least sensitive to drought, producing similar biomass annually during dry and wet years, whereas trees farther south produced less biomass during individual drought years. Hotter 21st century drought barely affected Sequoia growth efficiency (biomass increment per unit leaf mass) north of 40° until the fourth consecutive year (2015), when growth efficiency dropped precipitously, recovering within two years. South of 40°, Sequoia trees exhibited steadily declining growth efficiency during the multi-year drought followed by recovery, but recovery did not occur south of 37° despite ample precipitation in 2017. Sequoia growth efficiency is currently highest in secondary forests north of 40°, where trees produce relatively small amounts of heartwood with the lowest decay resistance (least fungicide) while receiving the most nocturnal summer fog. Increasing sink limitations, whereby rising temperatures, drier air at night, and extreme tree height collectively lower turgor pressure to inhibit cambial activity, may reduce Sequoia growth efficiency while contributing to more durable biomass production. Heartwood and fungicide increments are higher in primary than secondary forests across the species range. Crown structural complexity promotes development of vascular epiphytes and arboreal soil habitats in Sequoia forests with sufficient moisture availability. These habitats are lacking in secondary forests and rare in primary forests south of 40°. After logging, restoration of tall Sequoia forests can be achieved via silviculture that maximizes height increments during early stand development and then retains some dominant trees in perpetuity, allowing them to gain full stature, produce increasingly decay-resistant heartwood, and support significant arboreal biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 526 ISSN:1872-7042 ISSN:0378-1127
Forest management practices might act as nature-based methods to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and slow anthropogenic climate change and thus support an EU forest-based climate change mitigation strategy. However, the extent to which diversified management actions could lead to quantitatively important changes in carbon sequestration and stocking capacity at the tree level remains to be thoroughly assessed. To that end, we used a state-of-the-science bio-geochemically based forest growth model to simulate effects of multiple forest management scenarios on net primary productivity (NPP) and potential carbon woody stocks (pCWS) under twenty scenarios of climate change in a suite of observed and virtual forest stands in temperate and boreal European forests. Previous modelling experiments indicated that the capacity of forests to assimilate and store atmospheric CO2 in woody biomass is already being attained under business-as-usual forest management practices across a range of climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, we find that on the long-term, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and warming, managed forests show both higher productivity capacity and a larger potential pool size of stored carbon than unmanaged forests as long as thinning and tree harvesting are of moderate intensity. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 327 ISSN:1873-2240 ISSN:0168-1923
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