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23,213 Research products, page 1 of 2,322

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Publications
  • Research software
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Energy Research

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  • Open Access Japanese
    Publisher: 近畿大学商経学会

    [要旨]脱炭素社会への移行が加速する中で,金融市場では企業の気候関連情報開示に関心が高まりつつある。本研究では,文献レビューにより,気候関連財務情報開示タスクフォース(TCFD)が推奨する開示指標の特徴や開示の現状を検討している。また,新規の分析として,国別・セクター別のTCFD開示の現状と課題を探っている。さらに,日本や農林業・食品セクターにおける情報開示の特徴や課題についても分析している。これは国別・セクター別の気候関連情報開示についてより詳細な議論を行うための基礎となり得るものである。[Abstract] As the transition toward a decarbonized society accelerates, financial markets have become increasingly interested in the disclosure of climate-related information by businesses. Through a literature review, this study examines the characteristics of the disclosure indicators and the current state of disclosure as recommended by the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). As a novel piece of analysis, this study also explores the current status and issues of TCFD disclosure by country and sector. Furthermore, it analyses the characteristics and challenges of disclosure in Japan and the agriculture, forestry, and food sector. This can be a basis for more detailed discussions on national and sectoral climate-related disclosures.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anwar, Aminuddin;
    Publisher: Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Bisnis dan Ekonomika, Universitas Islam Indonesia

    Abstract Purpose – This study aims to analyze the determinants of agriculture in Indonesia, represented by the variables of labor, land, fertilizer, and rainfall from 1991 to 2018. Methods – This study uses the time series method by utilizing aggregate data at the national level in Indonesia. The method used in this research is the cointegration and error correction model (ECM). Findings – The results of this study indicate that in the short term, the factors that determine agricultural conditions in Indonesia are the amount of land and the use of fertilizers which show a positive impact. Meanwhile, the long-term results show that all variables, namely labor, land, fertilizer, and rainfall, impact agricultural conditions in Indonesia. The adjustment in the short-term to long-term process is shown that there is an adjustment for agricultural conditions in Indonesia. Implication – This study indicates that the policies carried out by the government in the agricultural sector are important for internal aspects, namely labor, land, and fertilizer, and external effects such as climate change so that appropriate policy interventions can increase agricultural production in Indonesia. Originality – This research contributes to modeling the determinants of the agricultural sector in Indonesia with the error correction model (ECM). Abstrak Tujuan – Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis determinan pertanian di Indonesia yang diwakili oleh variabel tenaga kerja, tanah, pupuk, dan curah hujan tahun 1991 sampai dengan tahun 2018. Metode – Penelitian ini menggunakan metode time series dengan memanfaatkan data agregat tingkat nasional di Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kointegrasi dan error correction model (ECM). Temuan – Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam jangka pendek faktor yang menentukan kondisi pertanian di Indonesia adalah jumlah lahan dan penggunaan pupuk yang menunjukkan dampak positif. Sementara itu, hasil jangka panjang menunjukkan bahwa semua variabel yaitu tenaga kerja, tanah, pupuk, dan curah hujan mempengaruhi kondisi pertanian di Indonesia. Penyesuaian dalam proses jangka pendek ke jangka panjang menunjukkan adanya penyesuaian kondisi pertanian di Indonesia. Implikasi – Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan yang dilakukan pemerintah di bidang pertanian penting untuk aspek internal yaitu tenaga kerja, lahan, dan pupuk, serta terhadap dampak eksternal seperti perubahan iklim sehingga intervensi kebijakan yang tepat dapat meningkatkan produksi pertanian di Indonesia. Orisinalitas – Penelitian ini berkontribusi dalam memodelkan determinan sektor pertanian di Indonesia dengan model error correction model (ECM).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gaukhar Alina; Nurlan Tashatov; Galina Tatkeyeva; Madi Bauyrzhanuly; Dinara Kaibassova; Margulan Nurtay;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This research is devoted to the development of software to increase the efficiency of autonomous wind-generating substations using panel structures, which will allow the use of wind energy to generate electricity with minimal losses and for the life support of buildings and structures. In the course of the work, a software and hardware system with a functional diagram for experimental measurements was developed. The paper also describes the process of modeling wind generation, collecting and transmitting real-time data to a web server via the HTTPS protocol. Due to the intensive development of wind energy in Kazakhstan, there is a need to apply methods to improve the energy generation process. In particular, the use of hardware and software to monitor and make decisions on optimizing the power generation process will help solve the problem of limited economic and labor resources. The results of the experiments revealed that the automatic control of the shield structures allows specialists to increase the effectiveness of the energy generation process by 25 % and, thus, a non-linear relationship between the power of the generated energy, the speed and direction of wind has been revealed. It should also be noted that the results obtained in the course of this research make it possible to solve the problem of saving electricity in the cities of Kazakhstan, since so far there are only large-scale wind farms, which is not always available in simple urban conditions. Moreover, the software developed during the study will allow autonomous control and analysis of the behavior of the wind farm, taking into account various weather conditions. In the future, the methods of data analysis will be applied to the data obtained via the process of modeling. A script for receiving and transmitting real-time data with wind speed and direction sensors has been developed Дане дослідження присвячене розробці програмного забезпечення для підвищення ефективності автономних вітрогенеруючих підстанцій з використанням панельних конструкцій, що дозволить використовувати енергію вітру для вироблення електроенергії з мінімальними втратами і для життєзабезпечення будівель та споруд. В ході роботи розроблено програмно-апаратний комплекс із функціональною схемою для проведення експериментальних вимірювань. У статті також описується процес моделювання вітрогенерації, збору та передачі даних у режимі реального часу на веб-сервер за протоколом HTTPS. У зв'язку з інтенсивним розвитком вітроенергетики у Казахстані існує необхідність застосування методів удосконалення процесу вироблення енергії. Зокрема, використання технічних та програмних засобів контролю та прийняття рішень щодо оптимізації процесу вироблення електроенергії допоможе вирішити проблему обмежених економічних і трудових ресурсів. Результати експериментів показали, що автоматичне управління щитовими конструкціями дозволяє фахівцям підвищити ефективність процесу вироблення енергії на 25 % і, таким чином, виявлена нелінійна залежність між потужністю вироблюваної енергії, швидкістю та напрямком вітру. Слід також зазначити, що результати, отримані в ході даного дослідження, дозволяють вирішити проблему економії електроенергії в містах Казахстану, оскільки поки існують лише масштабні вітряні електростанції, що не завжди доступно в простих міських умовах. Більш того, розроблене в ході дослідження програмне забезпечення дозволить здійснювати автономне управління та аналізувати поведінку вітроелектростанції з урахуванням різних погодних умов. Надалі методи аналізу даних будуть застосовані до даних, отриманих у процесі моделювання. Розроблено сценарій прийому та передачі даних з датчиків швидкості і напрямку вітру в режимі реального часу.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tiago Miguel Marques Monteiro Amaro; Jonathan Cope; Bárbara Franco-Orozco;
    Publisher: Sociedad Colombiana de Ciencias Hotícolas, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    ABSTRACT Plant disease still plays a major role in limiting agricultural production worldwide. Pathogens and pests reduce crop yield and can cause large reductions in crop quality. Colombia is no exception as it contends with many devastating pathogens that present a major threat to the country’s agricultural sector. This review is important because it highlights four of the more damaging pathogens that affect the economics of important crops in Colombia - Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm),Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), Phytophthora palmivora, and Hemileia vastatrix. This paper was based on an extensive literature search for plant diseases in Colombia in databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar. Moreover, this search was complemented with research on crop production in the country in databases made available by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The four pathogens reviewed in this paper were chosen not only because of their current devastating effects on Colombia’s agricultural production but also because of their potential to cause further damage in the near future. Understanding the current situation of these crop pathogens in Colombia is imperative for state directives aimed at developing informed and efficient control strategies. RESUMEN Las enfermedades de las plantas constituyen todavía un gran factor limitante para la producción agrícola a nivel global. Los patógenos y plagas vegetales disminuyen el rendimiento agrícola y pueden causar grandes reducciones en la calidad de los cultivos cosechados. Colombia no es una excepción, ya que lucha contra muchos fitopatógenos devastadores que representan una gran amenaza para el sector agrícola del país. Este artículo de revisión es importante ya que destaca cuatro de los fitopatógenos más devastadores que afectan económicamente cultivos de gran importancia en Colombia - Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), Phytophthora palmivora, y Hemileia vastatrix. Este trabajo fue desarrollado a través de una búsqueda extensiva de literatura acerca de enfermedades vegetales en Colombia en bases de datos como por ejemplo PubMed y Google Scholar. Además, esta búsqueda fue complementada con un rastreo acerca de la producción agrícola del país en bases de datos que se encuentran disponibles por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO). Los cuatro patógenos descritos en este trabajo fueron elegidos no solamente por sus actuales efectos devastadores en la producción agrícola colombiana pero también por su potencial para causar aún más daño en un futuro cercano. El entendimiento de la situación actual de estos fitopatógenos en Colombia es esencial para que se implementen políticas públicas que promuevan el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control eficientes e informadas.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Andreas; Kalt, Gerald; Kaufmann, Lisa; Röös, Elin; Muller, Adrian; Weisshaidinger, Rainer; Frehner, Anita; Roux, Nicolas; Smith, Pete; Theurl, Michaela Clarissa; +2 more
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The European Commission recently embraced the concept of agroecology as a pathway to reduce negative impacts from agri-food systems on the environment. So far, it remains unclear whether agroecology can deliver on these high hopes if implemented on a large scale. We here assess socio-economic and environmental implications of multiple agroecological futures in the European Union in 2050, based on a novel diagnostic scenario approach, i.e. the biomass balancing model BioBaM-GHG 2.0. We find that agroecological measures from the plot to the food systems level can indeed reduce environmental pressures while maintaining domestic food availability within the EU. Such measures are, for example, more hedgerows on croplands or reduced biomass harvest on high natural value – HNV grasslands. However, a key prerequisite is an overall reduction of the food system's size (based on the reduction of animal production, food wastes, and export production) and an optimised crop-livestock integration. Only then does the transformation towards an agroecological agri-food system in the EU not risk overstretching domestic land availability or produce insufficient agricultural commodities. Mitigating the accompanied trade-off of reduced farm income is a central mandate for policy development aimed at re-designing agriculture in Europe to align with the Green Deal goals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ferdous Sohel; GM Shafiullah; Md. Sanwar Hossain; Khondoker Ziaul Islam; B M Ruhul AMIN;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a specified cellular platform to tackle the rapidly growing anticipated data traffic. From a communications perspective, data loads can be mapped to energy loads that are generally placed on the operator networks. Meanwhile, renewable energy-aided networks offer to curtailed fossil fuel consumption, so to reduce the environmental pollution. This paper proposes a renewable energy based power supply architecture for the off-grid HetNet using a novel energy sharing model. Solar photovoltaics (PV) along with sufficient energy storage devices are used for each macro, micro, pico, or femto base station (BS). Additionally, a biomass generator (BG) is used for macro and micro BSs. The collocated macro and micro BSs are connected through end-to-end resistive lines. A novel-weighted proportional-fair resource-scheduling algorithm with sleep mechanisms is proposed for non-real time (NRT) applications by trading-off the power consumption and communication delays. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm with an extended discontinuous reception (eDRX) and power saving mode (PSM) for narrowband internet of things (IoT) applications extends the battery lifetime for IoT devices. HOMER optimization software is used to perform optimal system architecture, economic, and carbon footprint analyses while the Monte-Carlo simulation tool is used for evaluating the throughput and energy efficiency performances. The proposed algorithms are validated through the practical data of the rural areas of Bangladesh from which it is evident that the proposed power supply architecture is energy-efficient, cost-effective, reliable, and eco-friendly.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tumulty, Megan;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses to the sustainability of sheep farming, there are very few publications on this nematode. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of N. battus in sheep across Ireland and the United Kingdom between the years 2011 and 2021. Relevant studies were reviewed from the literature to identify N. battus resistance to the benzimidazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic groups and to assess anthelmintic efficacy using in vivo and in vitro methods. Preliminary data was also gathered from the distribution of a survey to identify the perceived efficacy of anthelmintic treatments and the management factors that may be contributing to anthelmintic resistance. The dissemination of the survey was primarily shared via social media platforms. Results: The results obtained from the literature highlighted variation in the epidemiology of N. battus. Although the historically proposed lifecycle which occurs during the spring period is prevalent across Ireland and the UK, clinical nematodirosis in autumn is becoming more frequent. Resistance to a number of the broad-spectrum anthelmintics was identified in 60% (n=10) of the publications from the UK, with the benzimidazoles being reported as the least effective. The assessment of anthelmintic efficacy highlighted that there is a lack of effectiveness and sensitivity in the in vivo and in vitro methods that are readily applied in field conditions. From the 134 responses obtained from the survey, a number of concerns were raised with management practices. It was concluded that many flock owners have become complacent with incorrect dosing and a lack of calibrating of dosing equipment, as seen in 69% and 63% respectively. In addition, the prevalence of N. battus is becoming more evident on farms across Ireland and the UK, with 62% of farms having an outbreak of N. battus infection on the farm within the last five years. Although many of these respondents identified clinical signs in lambs during the predicted spring period, a number of respondents (6.7%) proposed that infection occurred during the autumn period, which concurred with previous findings. Conclusion: The extensive use of anthelmintics on sheep production systems has led to the rapid progression of anthelmintic resistance across Ireland and the UK, particularly to the broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Without the use of effective and reliable testing methods and the implementation of stringent monitoring strategies, the fight against anthelmintic resistance will be a losing battle. It is critical that there is more emphasis on the need for improving worming strategies on sheep farms. Without effective worm control and a resistance management flock plan, animal health and anthelmintic efficacy will continue to deteriorate. Keywords: Gastrointestinal nematodes, anthelmintic resistance, Nematodirus battus, multiple-drug resistance, sheep, sustainability, prevalence, epidemiology, Ireland, United Kingdom, in vivo, in vitro.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bruna Cristina Gallo; Paulo Sérgio Graziano Magalhães; José A. M. Demattê; Walter Rossi Cervi; João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Leandro Carneiro Barbosa; Henrique Bellinaso; Danilo César de Mello; Gustavo Vieira Veloso; Marcelo Rodrigo Alves; +3 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Intensive cropland expansion for an increasing population has driven soil degradation worldwide. Modeling how agroecosystems respond to variations in soil attributes, relief and crop management dynamics can guide soil conservation. This research presents a new approach to evaluate soil loss by water erosion in cropland using the RUSLE model and Synthetic Soil Image (spectroscopy technique), which uses time series remotely sensed environmental, agricultural and anthropic variables, in the southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The availability of the open-access satellite images of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite images provided ten years of rainfall data and 35 years of exposed soil surface. The bare soil surface and agricultural land use were extracted, and the multi-temporal rainfall erosivity was assessed. We predict soil maps’ attributes (texture and organic matter) through innovative soil spectroscopy techniques to assess the soil erodibility and soil loss tolerance. The erosivity, erodibility, and topography obtained by the Earth observations were adopted to estimate soil erosion in four scenarios of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) residue coverage (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) in five years of the sugarcane cycle: the first year of sugarcane harvest and four subsequent harvesting years from 2013 to 2017. Soil loss tolerance means 4.3 Mg ha−1 exceeds the minimum rate in 40% of the region, resulting in a total soil loss of ~6 million Mg yr−1 under total coverage management (7 Mg ha−1). Our findings suggest that sugarcane straw production has not been sufficient to protect the soil loss against water erosion. Thus, straw removal is unfeasible unless alternative conservation practices are adopted, such as minimum soil tillage, contour lines, terracing and other techniques that favor increases in organic matter content and soil flocculating cations. This research also identifies a spatiotemporal erosion-prone area that requests an immediately sustainable land development guide to restore and rehabilitate the vulnerable ecosystem service. The high-resolution spatially distribution method provided can identify soil degradation-prone areas and the cropland expansion frequency. This information may guide farms and the policymakers for a better request of conservation practices according to site-specific management variation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luisa Bosetti;
    Country: Italy

    Health and safety in the workplace should be an integral part of any sustainable organization, regardless of its size, sector and geographical sphere of operations. To ensure and maintain a healthy and safe work environment, companies should constantly identify and prevent all factors that could provoke work-related injuries and diseases. In particular, in today’s rapidly changing context, companies should carefully consider not only the traditional risks to the employees’ health and safety, but also the emerging ones associated with the ecological transition, the increasing digitalization of business processes, and the impact of climate change on working conditions. Adopting a theoretical approach, this study aims at explaining the relationship between occupational health and safety and corporate sustainable success.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ruesch Schweizer, Corinne;
    Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

    Wozu soll Nachhaltigkeitskompetenz Hochschulabgänger*innen in ihrer beruflichen Praxis befähigen? Die Autorin geht dieser bisher zumeist normativ diskutierten Frage mit einer qualitativ-empirischen Studie nach. Über Situationsschilderungen der von ihr befragten Praxisexpert*innen arbeitet sie typische nachhaltigkeitsbezogene Anforderungen beschäftigungspraktischer Situationen heraus. Damit liefert sie nicht nur eine empirisch-fundierte Entscheidungs- und Reflexionsgrundlage für die curriculare Gestaltung von Studienangeboten im Kontext der Hochschulbildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung, sondern zeigt auch die Relevanz des organisationalen Handlungskontextes für die Präzisierung der Nachhaltigkeitskompetenz auf. (DIPF/Verlag) Opladen; Berlin; Toronto : Verlag Barbara Budrich 2022, 161 S. - (Schriftenreihe „Ökologie und Erziehungswissenschaft“ der Kommission Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE)) - (Bamberg, Univ., Diss., 2020)

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The following results are related to Rural Digital Europe. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
23,213 Research products, page 1 of 2,322
  • Open Access Japanese
    Publisher: 近畿大学商経学会

    [要旨]脱炭素社会への移行が加速する中で,金融市場では企業の気候関連情報開示に関心が高まりつつある。本研究では,文献レビューにより,気候関連財務情報開示タスクフォース(TCFD)が推奨する開示指標の特徴や開示の現状を検討している。また,新規の分析として,国別・セクター別のTCFD開示の現状と課題を探っている。さらに,日本や農林業・食品セクターにおける情報開示の特徴や課題についても分析している。これは国別・セクター別の気候関連情報開示についてより詳細な議論を行うための基礎となり得るものである。[Abstract] As the transition toward a decarbonized society accelerates, financial markets have become increasingly interested in the disclosure of climate-related information by businesses. Through a literature review, this study examines the characteristics of the disclosure indicators and the current state of disclosure as recommended by the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). As a novel piece of analysis, this study also explores the current status and issues of TCFD disclosure by country and sector. Furthermore, it analyses the characteristics and challenges of disclosure in Japan and the agriculture, forestry, and food sector. This can be a basis for more detailed discussions on national and sectoral climate-related disclosures.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anwar, Aminuddin;
    Publisher: Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Bisnis dan Ekonomika, Universitas Islam Indonesia

    Abstract Purpose – This study aims to analyze the determinants of agriculture in Indonesia, represented by the variables of labor, land, fertilizer, and rainfall from 1991 to 2018. Methods – This study uses the time series method by utilizing aggregate data at the national level in Indonesia. The method used in this research is the cointegration and error correction model (ECM). Findings – The results of this study indicate that in the short term, the factors that determine agricultural conditions in Indonesia are the amount of land and the use of fertilizers which show a positive impact. Meanwhile, the long-term results show that all variables, namely labor, land, fertilizer, and rainfall, impact agricultural conditions in Indonesia. The adjustment in the short-term to long-term process is shown that there is an adjustment for agricultural conditions in Indonesia. Implication – This study indicates that the policies carried out by the government in the agricultural sector are important for internal aspects, namely labor, land, and fertilizer, and external effects such as climate change so that appropriate policy interventions can increase agricultural production in Indonesia. Originality – This research contributes to modeling the determinants of the agricultural sector in Indonesia with the error correction model (ECM). Abstrak Tujuan – Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis determinan pertanian di Indonesia yang diwakili oleh variabel tenaga kerja, tanah, pupuk, dan curah hujan tahun 1991 sampai dengan tahun 2018. Metode – Penelitian ini menggunakan metode time series dengan memanfaatkan data agregat tingkat nasional di Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kointegrasi dan error correction model (ECM). Temuan – Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam jangka pendek faktor yang menentukan kondisi pertanian di Indonesia adalah jumlah lahan dan penggunaan pupuk yang menunjukkan dampak positif. Sementara itu, hasil jangka panjang menunjukkan bahwa semua variabel yaitu tenaga kerja, tanah, pupuk, dan curah hujan mempengaruhi kondisi pertanian di Indonesia. Penyesuaian dalam proses jangka pendek ke jangka panjang menunjukkan adanya penyesuaian kondisi pertanian di Indonesia. Implikasi – Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan yang dilakukan pemerintah di bidang pertanian penting untuk aspek internal yaitu tenaga kerja, lahan, dan pupuk, serta terhadap dampak eksternal seperti perubahan iklim sehingga intervensi kebijakan yang tepat dapat meningkatkan produksi pertanian di Indonesia. Orisinalitas – Penelitian ini berkontribusi dalam memodelkan determinan sektor pertanian di Indonesia dengan model error correction model (ECM).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gaukhar Alina; Nurlan Tashatov; Galina Tatkeyeva; Madi Bauyrzhanuly; Dinara Kaibassova; Margulan Nurtay;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This research is devoted to the development of software to increase the efficiency of autonomous wind-generating substations using panel structures, which will allow the use of wind energy to generate electricity with minimal losses and for the life support of buildings and structures. In the course of the work, a software and hardware system with a functional diagram for experimental measurements was developed. The paper also describes the process of modeling wind generation, collecting and transmitting real-time data to a web server via the HTTPS protocol. Due to the intensive development of wind energy in Kazakhstan, there is a need to apply methods to improve the energy generation process. In particular, the use of hardware and software to monitor and make decisions on optimizing the power generation process will help solve the problem of limited economic and labor resources. The results of the experiments revealed that the automatic control of the shield structures allows specialists to increase the effectiveness of the energy generation process by 25 % and, thus, a non-linear relationship between the power of the generated energy, the speed and direction of wind has been revealed. It should also be noted that the results obtained in the course of this research make it possible to solve the problem of saving electricity in the cities of Kazakhstan, since so far there are only large-scale wind farms, which is not always available in simple urban conditions. Moreover, the software developed during the study will allow autonomous control and analysis of the behavior of the wind farm, taking into account various weather conditions. In the future, the methods of data analysis will be applied to the data obtained via the process of modeling. A script for receiving and transmitting real-time data with wind speed and direction sensors has been developed Дане дослідження присвячене розробці програмного забезпечення для підвищення ефективності автономних вітрогенеруючих підстанцій з використанням панельних конструкцій, що дозволить використовувати енергію вітру для вироблення електроенергії з мінімальними втратами і для життєзабезпечення будівель та споруд. В ході роботи розроблено програмно-апаратний комплекс із функціональною схемою для проведення експериментальних вимірювань. У статті також описується процес моделювання вітрогенерації, збору та передачі даних у режимі реального часу на веб-сервер за протоколом HTTPS. У зв'язку з інтенсивним розвитком вітроенергетики у Казахстані існує необхідність застосування методів удосконалення процесу вироблення енергії. Зокрема, використання технічних та програмних засобів контролю та прийняття рішень щодо оптимізації процесу вироблення електроенергії допоможе вирішити проблему обмежених економічних і трудових ресурсів. Результати експериментів показали, що автоматичне управління щитовими конструкціями дозволяє фахівцям підвищити ефективність процесу вироблення енергії на 25 % і, таким чином, виявлена нелінійна залежність між потужністю вироблюваної енергії, швидкістю та напрямком вітру. Слід також зазначити, що результати, отримані в ході даного дослідження, дозволяють вирішити проблему економії електроенергії в містах Казахстану, оскільки поки існують лише масштабні вітряні електростанції, що не завжди доступно в простих міських умовах. Більш того, розроблене в ході дослідження програмне забезпечення дозволить здійснювати автономне управління та аналізувати поведінку вітроелектростанції з урахуванням різних погодних умов. Надалі методи аналізу даних будуть застосовані до даних, отриманих у процесі моделювання. Розроблено сценарій прийому та передачі даних з датчиків швидкості і напрямку вітру в режимі реального часу.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tiago Miguel Marques Monteiro Amaro; Jonathan Cope; Bárbara Franco-Orozco;
    Publisher: Sociedad Colombiana de Ciencias Hotícolas, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    ABSTRACT Plant disease still plays a major role in limiting agricultural production worldwide. Pathogens and pests reduce crop yield and can cause large reductions in crop quality. Colombia is no exception as it contends with many devastating pathogens that present a major threat to the country’s agricultural sector. This review is important because it highlights four of the more damaging pathogens that affect the economics of important crops in Colombia - Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm),Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), Phytophthora palmivora, and Hemileia vastatrix. This paper was based on an extensive literature search for plant diseases in Colombia in databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar. Moreover, this search was complemented with research on crop production in the country in databases made available by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The four pathogens reviewed in this paper were chosen not only because of their current devastating effects on Colombia’s agricultural production but also because of their potential to cause further damage in the near future. Understanding the current situation of these crop pathogens in Colombia is imperative for state directives aimed at developing informed and efficient control strategies. RESUMEN Las enfermedades de las plantas constituyen todavía un gran factor limitante para la producción agrícola a nivel global. Los patógenos y plagas vegetales disminuyen el rendimiento agrícola y pueden causar grandes reducciones en la calidad de los cultivos cosechados. Colombia no es una excepción, ya que lucha contra muchos fitopatógenos devastadores que representan una gran amenaza para el sector agrícola del país. Este artículo de revisión es importante ya que destaca cuatro de los fitopatógenos más devastadores que afectan económicamente cultivos de gran importancia en Colombia - Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), Phytophthora palmivora, y Hemileia vastatrix. Este trabajo fue desarrollado a través de una búsqueda extensiva de literatura acerca de enfermedades vegetales en Colombia en bases de datos como por ejemplo PubMed y Google Scholar. Además, esta búsqueda fue complementada con un rastreo acerca de la producción agrícola del país en bases de datos que se encuentran disponibles por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO). Los cuatro patógenos descritos en este trabajo fueron elegidos no solamente por sus actuales efectos devastadores en la producción agrícola colombiana pero también por su potencial para causar aún más daño en un futuro cercano. El entendimiento de la situación actual de estos fitopatógenos en Colombia es esencial para que se implementen políticas públicas que promuevan el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control eficientes e informadas.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mayer, Andreas; Kalt, Gerald; Kaufmann, Lisa; Röös, Elin; Muller, Adrian; Weisshaidinger, Rainer; Frehner, Anita; Roux, Nicolas; Smith, Pete; Theurl, Michaela Clarissa; +2 more
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The European Commission recently embraced the concept of agroecology as a pathway to reduce negative impacts from agri-food systems on the environment. So far, it remains unclear whether agroecology can deliver on these high hopes if implemented on a large scale. We here assess socio-economic and environmental implications of multiple agroecological futures in the European Union in 2050, based on a novel diagnostic scenario approach, i.e. the biomass balancing model BioBaM-GHG 2.0. We find that agroecological measures from the plot to the food systems level can indeed reduce environmental pressures while maintaining domestic food availability within the EU. Such measures are, for example, more hedgerows on croplands or reduced biomass harvest on high natural value – HNV grasslands. However, a key prerequisite is an overall reduction of the food system's size (based on the reduction of animal production, food wastes, and export production) and an optimised crop-livestock integration. Only then does the transformation towards an agroecological agri-food system in the EU not risk overstretching domestic land availability or produce insufficient agricultural commodities. Mitigating the accompanied trade-off of reduced farm income is a central mandate for policy development aimed at re-designing agriculture in Europe to align with the Green Deal goals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ferdous Sohel; GM Shafiullah; Md. Sanwar Hossain; Khondoker Ziaul Islam; B M Ruhul AMIN;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a specified cellular platform to tackle the rapidly growing anticipated data traffic. From a communications perspective, data loads can be mapped to energy loads that are generally placed on the operator networks. Meanwhile, renewable energy-aided networks offer to curtailed fossil fuel consumption, so to reduce the environmental pollution. This paper proposes a renewable energy based power supply architecture for the off-grid HetNet using a novel energy sharing model. Solar photovoltaics (PV) along with sufficient energy storage devices are used for each macro, micro, pico, or femto base station (BS). Additionally, a biomass generator (BG) is used for macro and micro BSs. The collocated macro and micro BSs are connected through end-to-end resistive lines. A novel-weighted proportional-fair resource-scheduling algorithm with sleep mechanisms is proposed for non-real time (NRT) applications by trading-off the power consumption and communication delays. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm with an extended discontinuous reception (eDRX) and power saving mode (PSM) for narrowband internet of things (IoT) applications extends the battery lifetime for IoT devices. HOMER optimization software is used to perform optimal system architecture, economic, and carbon footprint analyses while the Monte-Carlo simulation tool is used for evaluating the throughput and energy efficiency performances. The proposed algorithms are validated through the practical data of the rural areas of Bangladesh from which it is evident that the proposed power supply architecture is energy-efficient, cost-effective, reliable, and eco-friendly.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tumulty, Megan;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses to the sustainability of sheep farming, there are very few publications on this nematode. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of N. battus in sheep across Ireland and the United Kingdom between the years 2011 and 2021. Relevant studies were reviewed from the literature to identify N. battus resistance to the benzimidazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic groups and to assess anthelmintic efficacy using in vivo and in vitro methods. Preliminary data was also gathered from the distribution of a survey to identify the perceived efficacy of anthelmintic treatments and the management factors that may be contributing to anthelmintic resistance. The dissemination of the survey was primarily shared via social media platforms. Results: The results obtained from the literature highlighted variation in the epidemiology of N. battus. Although the historically proposed lifecycle which occurs during the spring period is prevalent across Ireland and the UK, clinical nematodirosis in autumn is becoming more frequent. Resistance to a number of the broad-spectrum anthelmintics was identified in 60% (n=10) of the publications from the UK, with the benzimidazoles being reported as the least effective. The assessment of anthelmintic efficacy highlighted that there is a lack of effectiveness and sensitivity in the in vivo and in vitro methods that are readily applied in field conditions. From the 134 responses obtained from the survey, a number of concerns were raised with management practices. It was concluded that many flock owners have become complacent with incorrect dosing and a lack of calibrating of dosing equipment, as seen in 69% and 63% respectively. In addition, the prevalence of N. battus is becoming more evident on farms across Ireland and the UK, with 62% of farms having an outbreak of N. battus infection on the farm within the last five years. Although many of these respondents identified clinical signs in lambs during the predicted spring period, a number of respondents (6.7%) proposed that infection occurred during the autumn period, which concurred with previous findings. Conclusion: The extensive use of anthelmintics on sheep production systems has led to the rapid progression of anthelmintic resistance across Ireland and the UK, particularly to the broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Without the use of effective and reliable testing methods and the implementation of stringent monitoring strategies, the fight against anthelmintic resistance will be a losing battle. It is critical that there is more emphasis on the need for improving worming strategies on sheep farms. Without effective worm control and a resistance management flock plan, animal health and anthelmintic efficacy will continue to deteriorate. Keywords: Gastrointestinal nematodes, anthelmintic resistance, Nematodirus battus, multiple-drug resistance, sheep, sustainability, prevalence, epidemiology, Ireland, United Kingdom, in vivo, in vitro.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bruna Cristina Gallo; Paulo Sérgio Graziano Magalhães; José A. M. Demattê; Walter Rossi Cervi; João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Leandro Carneiro Barbosa; Henrique Bellinaso; Danilo César de Mello; Gustavo Vieira Veloso; Marcelo Rodrigo Alves; +3 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Intensive cropland expansion for an increasing population has driven soil degradation worldwide. Modeling how agroecosystems respond to variations in soil attributes, relief and crop management dynamics can guide soil conservation. This research presents a new approach to evaluate soil loss by water erosion in cropland using the RUSLE model and Synthetic Soil Image (spectroscopy technique), which uses time series remotely sensed environmental, agricultural and anthropic variables, in the southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The availability of the open-access satellite images of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite images provided ten years of rainfall data and 35 years of exposed soil surface. The bare soil surface and agricultural land use were extracted, and the multi-temporal rainfall erosivity was assessed. We predict soil maps’ attributes (texture and organic matter) through innovative soil spectroscopy techniques to assess the soil erodibility and soil loss tolerance. The erosivity, erodibility, and topography obtained by the Earth observations were adopted to estimate soil erosion in four scenarios of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) residue coverage (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) in five years of the sugarcane cycle: the first year of sugarcane harvest and four subsequent harvesting years from 2013 to 2017. Soil loss tolerance means 4.3 Mg ha−1 exceeds the minimum rate in 40% of the region, resulting in a total soil loss of ~6 million Mg yr−1 under total coverage management (7 Mg ha−1). Our findings suggest that sugarcane straw production has not been sufficient to protect the soil loss against water erosion. Thus, straw removal is unfeasible unless alternative conservation practices are adopted, such as minimum soil tillage, contour lines, terracing and other techniques that favor increases in organic matter content and soil flocculating cations. This research also identifies a spatiotemporal erosion-prone area that requests an immediately sustainable land development guide to restore and rehabilitate the vulnerable ecosystem service. The high-resolution spatially distribution method provided can identify soil degradation-prone areas and the cropland expansion frequency. This information may guide farms and the policymakers for a better request of conservation practices according to site-specific management variation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luisa Bosetti;
    Country: Italy

    Health and safety in the workplace should be an integral part of any sustainable organization, regardless of its size, sector and geographical sphere of operations. To ensure and maintain a healthy and safe work environment, companies should constantly identify and prevent all factors that could provoke work-related injuries and diseases. In particular, in today’s rapidly changing context, companies should carefully consider not only the traditional risks to the employees’ health and safety, but also the emerging ones associated with the ecological transition, the increasing digitalization of business processes, and the impact of climate change on working conditions. Adopting a theoretical approach, this study aims at explaining the relationship between occupational health and safety and corporate sustainable success.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ruesch Schweizer, Corinne;
    Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

    Wozu soll Nachhaltigkeitskompetenz Hochschulabgänger*innen in ihrer beruflichen Praxis befähigen? Die Autorin geht dieser bisher zumeist normativ diskutierten Frage mit einer qualitativ-empirischen Studie nach. Über Situationsschilderungen der von ihr befragten Praxisexpert*innen arbeitet sie typische nachhaltigkeitsbezogene Anforderungen beschäftigungspraktischer Situationen heraus. Damit liefert sie nicht nur eine empirisch-fundierte Entscheidungs- und Reflexionsgrundlage für die curriculare Gestaltung von Studienangeboten im Kontext der Hochschulbildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung, sondern zeigt auch die Relevanz des organisationalen Handlungskontextes für die Präzisierung der Nachhaltigkeitskompetenz auf. (DIPF/Verlag) Opladen; Berlin; Toronto : Verlag Barbara Budrich 2022, 161 S. - (Schriftenreihe „Ökologie und Erziehungswissenschaft“ der Kommission Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE)) - (Bamberg, Univ., Diss., 2020)