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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lacalle Úbeda, Ignacio;
    Publisher: Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
    Country: Spain

    [ES] El Internet de las Cosas (IoT) ha experimentado un gran crecimiento en los últimos años. El incremento en el número de dispositivos, una mayor miniaturización de la capacidad de computación y las técnicas de virtualización, han favorecido su adopción en la industria y en otros sectores. Asimismo, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías (como la Inteligencia Artificial, el 5G, el Tactile Internet o la Realidad Aumentada) y el auge del edge computing preparan el terreno, y formulan los requisitos, para lo que se conoce como Internet de las Cosas de Nueva Generación (NGIoT). Estos avances plantean nuevos desafíos tales como el establecimiento de arquitecturas que cubran dichas necesidades y a la vez resulten flexibles, escalables y prácticas para implementar servicios que aporten valor a la sociedad. En este sentido, el IoT puede resultar un elemento clave para el establecimiento de políticas y la toma de decisiones. Una herramienta muy útil para ello es la definición y cálculo de indicadores compuestos, que representan un impacto en un fenómeno real a través de un único valor. La generación de estos indicadores es un aspecto promovido por entidades oficiales como la Unión Europea, aunque su automatización y uso en entornos de tiempo real es un campo poco explorado. Este tipo de índices deben seguir una serie de operaciones matemáticas y formalidades (normalización, ponderación, agregación¿) para ser considerados válidos. Esta tesis doctoral plantea la unión de ambos campos en alza, proponiendo una arquitectura de Internet de las Cosas de nueva generación orientada al servicio de cálculo y predicción de indicadores compuestos. Partiendo de la experiencia del candidato en proyectos de investigación europeos y regionales, y construyendo sobre tecnologías open source, se ha incluido el diseño, desarrollo e integración de los módulos de dicha arquitectura (adquisición de datos, procesamiento, visualización y seguridad) como parte de la tesis. Dichos planteamientos e implementaciones se han validado en cinco escenarios diferentes, cubriendo cinco índices compuestos en entornos con requisitos dispares siguiendo una metodología diseñada durante este trabajo. Los casos de uso están centrados en aspectos de sostenibilidad en entornos urbano y marítimo-portuario, pero se ha destacado que la solución puede ser extrapolada a otros sectores ya que ha sido diseñada de una manera agnóstica. El resultado de la tesis ha sido, además, analizado desde el punto de vista de transferencia tecnológica. Se ha propuesto la formulación de un producto, así como una posible financiación en fases de madurez más avanzadas y su potencial explotación como elemento comercializable [CA] La Internet de les Coses (IoT) ha experimentat un gran creixement en els últims anys. L'increment en el nombre de dispositius, una major miniaturització de la capacitat de computació i les tècniques de virtualització, han afavorit la seua adopció en la indústria i en altres sectors. Així mateix, la introducció de noves tecnologies (com la Intel·ligència Artificial, el 5G, la Internet Tàctil o la Realitat Augmentada) i l'auge del edge computing preparen el terreny, i formulen els requisits, per al que es coneix com a Internet de les Coses de Nova Generació (NGIoT). Aquests avanços plantegen nous desafiaments com ara l'establiment d'arquitectures que cobrisquen aquestes necessitats i resulten, alhora, flexibles, escalables i pràctiques per a implementar serveis que aporten valor a la societat. Ací, el IoT pot resultar un element clau per a l'establiment de polítiques i la presa de decisions. Una eina molt útil en aquest sentit és la definició i càlcul d'indicadors compostos, que representen un impacte en un fenomen real a través d'un únic valor. La generació d'aquests indicadors és un aspecte promogut per entitats oficials com la Unió Europea, encara que la seua automatització i ús en entorns de temps real és un camp poc explorat. Aquest tipus d'índexs han de seguir una sèrie d'operacions matemàtiques i formalitats (normalització, ponderació, agregació¿) per a ser considerats vàlids. Aquesta tesi doctoral planteja la unió de tots dos camps en alça, proposant una arquitectura d'Internet de les Coses de nova generació orientada al servei de càlcul i predicció d'indicadors compostos. Partint de l'experiència del candidat en projectes d'investigació europeus i regionals, i construint sobre tecnologies open source, s'ha inclòs el disseny, desenvolupament i integració dels mòduls d'aquesta arquitectura (adquisició de dades, processament, visualització i seguretat) com a part de la tesi. Aquests plantejaments i implementacions s'han validat en cinc escenaris diferents, cobrint cinc índexs compostos en entorns amb requisits dispars seguint una metodologia dissenyada durant aquest treball. Els casos d'ús estan centrats en aspectes de sostenibilitat en entorns urbà i marítim-portuari, però s'ha destacat que la solució pot ser extrapolada a altres sectors ja que ha sigut dissenyada d'una manera agnòstica. El resultat de la tesi ha sigut, a més, analitzat des del punt de vista de transferència tecnològica. S'ha proposat la formulació d'un producte, així com un possible finançament en fases de maduresa més avançades i la seua potencial explotació com a element comercialitzable [EN] The Internet of Things (IoT) has experienced tremendous growth in recent years. The increase in the number of devices, greater miniaturization of computing capacity and virtualization techniques have favored its adoption in industry and other sectors. Likewise, the introduction of new technologies (such as Artificial Intelligence, 5G, Tactile Internet or Augmented Reality), together with the rise of edge computing, are paving the way, and formulating the requirements, for what is known as the Next Generation Internet of Things (NGIoT). These advances pose new challenges such as the establishment of proper architectures that meet those needs and, at the same time, are flexible, scalable, and practical for implementing services that bring value to society. In this sense, IoT could be a key element for policy and decision making. A very useful tool for this is the definition and calculation of composite indicators, which represent an impact on a real phenomenon through a single value. The generation of these indicators is an aspect promoted by official entities such as the European Union, although their automation and use in real-time environments is a rather uncharted research field. This type of indexes must follow a series of mathematical operations and formalities (normalization, weighting, aggregation...) to be considered valid. This doctoral thesis proposes the union of both fields, proposing a new generation Internet of Things architecture oriented to the calculation and prediction of composite indicators. Based on the candidate's experience in European and regional research projects, and building on open source technologies, the design, development and integration of the modules of such architecture (data acquisition, processing, visualization and security) has been included as part of the thesis. These approaches and implementations have been validated in five different scenarios, covering five composite indexes in environments with disparate requirements following a methodology designed during this work. The use cases are focused on sustainability aspects in urban and maritime-port environments, but it has been highlighted that the solution can be extrapolated to other sectors as it has been designed in an agnostic way. The result of the thesis has also been analyzed from the point of view of technology transfer. A tentative product definition has been formulated, as well as a possible financing in more advanced stages of maturity and its potential exploitation as a marketable element

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mass, Jakob;
    Country: Estonia

    Värkvõrk, ehk Asjade Internet (Internet of Things, lüh IoT) edendab lahendusi nagu nn tark linn, kus meid igapäevaselt ümbritsevad objektid on ühendatud infosüsteemidega ja ka üksteisega. Selliseks näiteks võib olla teekatete seisukorra monitoorimissüsteem. Võrku ühendatud sõidukitelt (nt bussidelt) kogutakse videomaterjali, mida seejärel töödeldakse, et tuvastada löökauke või lume kogunemist. Tavaliselt hõlmab selline lahendus keeruka tsentraalse süsteemi ehitamist. Otsuste langetamiseks (nt milliseid sõidukeid parasjagu protsessi kaasata) vajab keskne süsteem pidevat ühendust kõigi IoT seadmetega. Seadmete hulga kasvades võib keskne lahendus aga muutuda pudelikaelaks. Selliste protsesside disaini, haldust, automatiseerimist ja seiret hõlbustavad märkimisväärselt äriprotsesside halduse (Business Process Management, lüh BPM) valdkonna standardid ja tööriistad. Paraku ei ole BPM tehnoloogiad koheselt kasutatavad uute paradigmadega nagu Udu- ja Servaarvutus, mis tuleviku värkvõrgu jaoks vajalikud on. Nende puhul liigub suur osa otsustustest ja arvutustest üksikutest andmekeskustest servavõrgu seadmetele, mis asuvad lõppkasutajatele ja IoT seadmetele lähemal. Videotöötlust võiks teostada mini-andmekeskustes, mis on paigaldatud üle linna, näiteks bussipeatustesse. Arvestades IoT seadmete üha suurenevat hulka, vähendab selline koormuse jaotamine vähendab riski, et tsentraalne andmekeskust ülekoormamist. Doktoritöö uurib, kuidas mobiilsusega seonduvaid IoT protsesse taoliselt ümber korraldada, kohanedes pidevalt muutlikule, liikuvate seadmetega täidetud servavõrgule. Nimelt on ühendused katkendlikud, mistõttu otsuste langetus ja planeerimine peavad arvestama muuhulgas mobiilseadmete liikumistrajektoore. Töö raames valminud prototüüpe testiti Android seadmetel ja simulatsioonides. Lisaks valmis tööriistakomplekt STEP-ONE, mis võimaldab teadlastel hõlpsalt simuleerida ja analüüsida taolisi probleeme erinevais realistlikes stsenaariumites nagu seda on tark linn. The Internet of Things (IoT) promotes solutions such as a smart city, where everyday objects connect with info systems and each other. One example is a road condition monitoring system, where connected vehicles, such as buses, capture video, which is then processed to detect potholes and snow build-up. Building such a solution typically involves establishing a complex centralised system. The centralised approach may become a bottleneck as the number of IoT devices keeps growing. It relies on constant connectivity to all involved devices to make decisions, such as which vehicles to involve in the process. Designing, automating, managing, and monitoring such processes can greatly be supported using the standards and software systems provided by the field of Business Process Management (BPM). However, BPM techniques are not directly applicable to new computing paradigms, such as Fog Computing and Edge Computing, on which the future of IoT relies. Here, a lot of decision-making and processing is moved from central data-centers to devices in the network edge, near the end-users and IoT sensors. For example, video could be processed in mini-datacenters deployed throughout the city, e.g., at bus stops. This load distribution reduces the risk of the ever-growing number of IoT devices overloading the data center. This thesis studies how to reorganise the process execution in this decentralised fashion, where processes must dynamically adapt to the volatile edge environment filled with moving devices. Namely, connectivity is intermittent, so decision-making and planning need to involve factors such as the movement trajectories of mobile devices. We examined this issue in simulations and with a prototype for Android smartphones. We also showcase the STEP-ONE toolset, allowing researchers to conveniently simulate and analyse these issues in different realistic scenarios, such as those in a smart city. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5525514

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jimmy Quang Minh Ngoc Tran;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    When disaster strikes in urban areas, the devastating results are collapsed structures that may contain voids, and trapped people within. To a large extent, the speed with which these victims can be found and extricated determines the likelihood of their survival. Specially trained and equipped emergency first responders are tasked with trying to save their lives by locating and extricating trapped victims from these dangerous environments. Telepresence systems can help first responders search for casualties from a safe location. Most automated search systems intended for use in urban disasters, come in the form of remotely operated robots. This work takes a different approach to telepresence and robotics. This work is an extension of previous work that exploits the intelligence and characteristics of trained search dogs combined with compatible technology and used as components in new kinds of telepresence systems for urban search and rescue (USAR) operations. The Canine Remote Deployment System (CRDS) is a tool that emergency responders can use to deliver critical supplies to trapped victims in rubble using dogs. The first contribution of this work is the development of the bark detection system for automatically triggering deployment of packages near trapped victims from the CRDS-guaranteeing accurate package deployment even when remote communication with the dog is impossible. A well-known ground robot problem is the difficulty in designing a mobility mechanism to traverse rubble. Another contribution of this thesis is the Canine Assisted Robot Deployment (CARD) framework and the design of a robot capable of being carried by a search dog. This work extends the responder’s telepresence in rescue operations by bringing robots much deeper into the disaster site than current methods. Visual odometry is used in location tracking in GPS-denied environments and can be used in rescue operations. This research explores the limitation of RGB-D cameras for visual odometry for this application. An algorithm called pseudo-Random Interest Points Extractor was developed iv to track images over visually feature-sparse areas with the potential use of visually reconstructing canine search paths to victims. This work concentrates on using visual odometry from data collected from a search dog-mounted RGB-D camera. The task of model stabilization is difficult due to the nature of dog’s constant and unpredictable movements, asthe data contains many motion blurred images. The development of an algorithm called Intelligent Frame Selector is shown to improve visual odometry for systems carried by search dogs by intelligently filtering data and selecting only usable frames. The algorithm can be applied to any general visual odometry pipeline beneficially as the technique reduces cumulative error problems by using less data.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Johanes, Jelvis;
    Country: Indonesia

    Jantung merupakan organ penting dalam tubuh manusia yang difungsikan untuk memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh. Untuk membantu memudahkan manusia dalam melakukan pemeriksaan detak jantung maka dalam penelitian ini menyajikan sebuah alat monitoring detak jantung dan suhu tubuh menggunakan Internet of Things. Internet of Things (IoT) adalah konsep dimana berbagai perangkat bersensor saling terhubung melalui internet untuk mengumpulkan dan mentransfer data. Dalam metode pengujian ini melibatkan 10 orang manahiswa, 1 orang anak-anak, 1 orang remaja, 1 orang dewasa, 1 orang lanjut usia, 1 orang dengan perokok aktif, 1 orang atlet dan 1 orang dengan berat badan berlebih (obesitas). Dalam pengujian ini menggunakan 2 buah sensor yaitu sensor MAX30105 sebagai sensor pengukuran detak jantung dan GY-906 sebagai sensor pengukur suhu tubuh. Dari hasil pengujian menggunakan alat pembanding error yang didapatkan rata-rata 0,06% untuk detak jantung dan 0,01 % untu suhu tubuh. Dalam pengujian sensor MAX30105 terdapat juga kadar oksigen dalam darah yang terdeteksi The heart is an important organ in the human body that functions to pump blood throughout the body. To help make it easier for humans to check their heart rate, this study presents a heart rate and body temperature monitoring tool using the Internet of Things. Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept where various sensor devices are interconnected via the internet to collect and transfer data. In this test method involved 10 students, 1 child, 1 teenager, 1 adult, 1 elderly person, 1 person with an active smoker, 1 athlete and 1 person with excess weight (obesity). In this test, 2 sensors are used, namely the MAX30105 sensor as a heart rate measurement sensor and the GY-906 as a body temperature sensor. From the test results using a comparison tool, the error obtained an average of 0.06% for heart rate and 0.01% for body temperature. In testing the MAX30105 sensor there is also a detectable level of oxygen in the blood.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giulio Mangino;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de València
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | G2P-SOL (677379)

    [CAT] L'albergínia (Solanum melongena L.) és un dels cultius comercials d'hortalisses solanácees més importants que es cultiva àmpliament a Àsia i la regió del Mediterrani. Malgrat la seua importància econòmica, la disponibilitat de poblacions experimentals i eines genòmiques per al millorament és encara molt limitada en comparació amb altres cultius importants. A causa de l'alteració progressiva de l'ecosistema global pel canvi climàtic, les plantes estan constantment exposades a condicions ambientals estressants que impacten negativament en la seua productivitat. El coll de botella genètic ocorregut durant la domesticació de l'albergínia, que limita la disponibilitat de recursos genètics per al seu millorament genètic, fa que aquest cultiu siga extremadament vulnerable al canvi climàtic, per la qual cosa es requereixen noves estratègies per a reduir la seua erosió genètica. En aquest context, els parents silvestres dels cultius (CWRs) han demostrat ser un recurs genètic vàlid per a la millora vegetal, ja que el seu ús permet ampliar la diversitat genètica dels cultius i, en paral·lel, desenvolupar varietats millorades adaptades al canvi climàtic. Per a aconseguir aquest objectiu, en aquesta tesi doctoral presentem el desenvolupament i l'avaluació de materials avançats d'albergínia obtinguts mitjançant l'ús de parents silvestres. En el primer capítol, realitzem una avaluació fenotípica en dos ambients d'un conjunt de 16 IL d'albergínia amb introgresions de S. incanum, un parent silvestre. Es van puntuar dèsset caràcters agronòmics per a avaluar el rendiment de les ILs en comparació amb el parental recurrent i identificar els QTL per als caràcters investigats. Trobarem diferències morfològiques significatives entre els parentals, i l'híbrid va resultar heteròtic per als caràcters de vigor. A pesar que la interacció entre genotip i ambient (G x E) va resultar significativa per a la majoria dels caràcters, en general les ILs van mostrar poques diferències fenotípiques amb el progenitor receptor, fins i tot en presència de grans fragments d'introgresió del progenitor silvestre. Es van trobar valors de heredabilitat baixos a moderats per als caràcters agronòmics. En total, detectarem deu QTL estables, dos dels quals estaven relacionats a caràcters de planta i quatre per a caràcters de flor i fruit. En general, les introgresions de S. incanum van millorar els valors mitjos de la majoria dels caràcters de planta i flor, i van disminuir el dels caràcters de fruit. Per a tres QTL relacionats amb la longitud del pedicel del fruit i amb el pes del fruit, trobem evidència de sintenia amb altres QTLs identificats prèviament en poblacions d'albergínia. Set QTL eren nous, dels quals quatre estaven relacionats amb l'altura de la planta, amb la espinositat del calze de la flor i amb la llargària del pedicel del fruit no van colocalitzar amb cap QTL prèviament identificat en les poblacions d'albergínia, i tres relacionats amb el diàmetre de la tija, amb la llargària del peduncle i de l'estigma, van ser els primers reportats en albergínia per a aquests caràcters. En el segon capítol, el conjunt de IL d'albergínia amb introgresions de S. incanum es va avaluar per a la forma del fruit en dos ambients. Específicament, realitzarem un fenotipado detallat dels fruits dels parentals, de l'híbrid i de les ILs utilitzant 32 descriptors morfològics de l'eina fenómica Tomato Analyzer. Es van trobar grans diferències morfològiques en els fruits dels parentals, i l'híbrid va presentar valors negatius de heterosis per a molts dels caràcters de forma del fruit, sent fenotípicamente més pròxim al parental S. incanum. Per a la majoria dels descriptors de forma del fruit observarem diferències significatives entre les ILs i el parental recipient, fins i tot en presència de xicotets fragments d'introgresió del parental silvestre. A pesar que la contribució de l'ambient i la interacció G × E van ser significatives per a quasi tots els descriptors, trobem que els seus... [ES] La berenjena (Solanum melongena L.) es uno de los cultivos comerciales de hortalizas solanáceas más importantes que se cultiva ampliamente en Asia y la región del Mediterráneo. A pesar de su importancia económica, la disponibilidad de poblaciones experimentales y herramientas genómicas para el mejoramiento es aún muy limitada en comparación con otros cultivos importantes. Debido a la alteración progresiva del ecosistema global por el cambio climático, las plantas están constantemente expuestas a condiciones ambientales estresantes que impactan negativamente en su productividad. El cuello de botella genético ocurrido durante la domesticación de la berenjena, que limita la disponibilidad de recursos genéticos para su mejoramiento genético, hace que este cultivo sea extremadamente vulnerable al cambio climático, por lo que se requieren nuevas estrategias para reducir su erosión genética. En este contexto, los parientes silvestres de los cultivos (CWRs) han demostrado ser un recurso genético válido para la mejora vegetal, ya que su uso permite ampliar la diversidad genética de los cultivos y, en paralelo, desarrollar variedades mejoradas adaptadas al cambio climático. Para lograr este objetivo, en esta tesis doctoral informamos sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de materiales avanzados de berenjena obtenidos mediante el uso de parientes silvestres. En el primer capítulo, realizamos una evaluación fenotípica en dos ambientes de un conjunto de 16 ILs de berenjena con introgresión de S. incanum, un pariente silvestre. Se evaluaron diecisiete caracteres agronómicos para comparar el rendimiento de las ILs con el parental recurrente e identificar QTLs para los caracteres investigados. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas significativas entre los parentales, y el híbrido resultó heterótico para los caracteres de vigor. A pesar de que la interacción entre genotipo y ambiente (G x E) resultó significativa para la mayoría de los caracteres, en general las ILs mostraron pocas diferencias fenotípicas con el progenitor receptor, incluso en presencia de grandes fragmentos de introgresión del progenitor silvestre. Se encontraron valores de heredabilidad bajos a moderados para los caracteres agronómicos. En total, detectamos diez QTLs estables, dos de los cuales estaban relacionados con caracteres de planta y cuatro para caracteres de flor y fruto. En general, las introgresiones de S. incanum mejoraron los valores medios de la mayoría de los caracteres de planta y flor, y disminuyeron el de los caracteres de fruto. Para tres QTLs relacionados con la longitud del pedicelo del fruto y con el peso del fruto, encontramos evidencia de sintenia con otros QTLs identificados previamente en poblaciones de berenjena. Siete QTLs eran nuevos, de los cuales cuatro relacionados con la altura de la planta, con la espinosidad del cáliz de la flor y con la longitud del pedicelo del fruto no colocalizaron con ningún QTL previamente identificado en las poblaciones de berenjena, y tres relacionados con el diámetro del tallo, con la longitud del pedúnculo y del estigma, fueron los primeros identificados en berenjena para estos caracteres. En el segundo capítulo, el conjunto de IL de berenjena con introgresiones de S. incanum se evaluó para la forma del fruto en dos ambientes. Específicamente, realizamos un fenotipado detallado de los frutos de los parentales, del híbrido y de las ILs utilizando 32 descriptores morfológicos de la herramienta fenómica Tomato Analyzer. Se encontraron grandes diferencias morfológicas en los frutos de los parentales, y el híbrido presentó valores negativos de heterosis para muchos de los caracteres de forma del fruto, siendo fenotípicamente más cercano al parental S. incanum. Para la mayoría de los descriptores de forma del fruto observamos diferencias significativas entre las ILs y el parental receptor, incluso en presencia de pequeños fragmentos de introgresión del parental silvestre. A pesar de que la contribución del ambiente y la... [EN] Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important commercial solanaceous vegetable crops grown widely in Asia and Mediterranean region. Despite its economic importance, the availability of experimental populations and genomic tools for breeding is still very limited compared to other major crops. Due to the progressive alteration of global ecosystem by climate change, plants are constantly exposed to stressful environmental conditions that impact negatively on their productivity. The genetic bottleneck occurred during eggplant domestication, which limits the availability of genetic resources for its genetic improvement, makes this crop extremely vulnerable to climate change, and, therefore, new strategies are needed for reducing its genetic erosion. In this context, crop wild relatives (CWRs) have demonstrated to be a valid genetic resources for plant breeding, as their use allows to broaden the genetic diversity of the crop and, in parallel, develop improved varieties adapted to climate change. To achieve this objective, in this doctoral thesis we reported on the development and evaluation of eggplant advanced materials obtained by using crop wild relatives. In the first chapter, we have conducted a phenotypic evaluation in two environments of a set of 16 eggplant ILs with introgression from S. incanum, a close wild relative. Seventeen agronomic traits were scored to test the performance of ILs compared to the recurrent parent and identify QTLs for the investigated traits. We found significant morphological differences between parents, and the hybrid was heterotic for vigour related traits. Although significant genotype x environment interaction (G x E) was detected for most traits, the ILs generally exhibited few phenotypic differences with recipient parent, even in the presence of large introgression fragments from the wild parent. Low to moderate heritability values were found for the agronomic traits. In total, we detected ten stable QTLs, two of which were for plant-related traits and four for both flower- and fruit-related traits. In general, S. incanum introgressions improved the performance of most plant- and flower-related traits and decreased that of fruit-related traits. For three QTLs related to fruit pedicel length and fruit weight, we found evidence of synteny to other QTLs previously reported in eggplant populations. Seven QTLs were new, of which four related to plant height, flower calyx prickles, and fruit pedicel length, did not colocalized with any previous identified QTLs in eggplant populations, and three related to stem diameter, peduncle length, and stigma length, were the first reported in eggplant for these traits. In the second chapter, the set of eggplant ILs with introgression from S. incanum was evaluated for fruit shape in two environments. Specifically, we performed a detailed phenotyping of the fruits of the parents, hybrid, and ILs using 32 morphological descriptors of the phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer. Large differences in fruit morphology were found between ILs parents, and the hybrid exhibited negative values of heterosis for many fruit shape traits, being phenotypically closer to S. incanum parent. For most fruit shape descriptors, we observed significant differences between ILs and recipient parent, even in the presence of small wild donor fragments. Although the contribution of the environment and G × E interaction were significant for almost all descriptors, we found that their effects on fruit shape were relatively low, and the observed variations in fruit shape was mainly genetically regulated. Hierarchical clustering revealed nine clusters of highly correlated traits and six ILs groups. A total of 41 QTLs were mapped. Of these, sixteen associated to Basic Measurement and Fruit Shape Index descriptors were syntenic to other previously reported in several intraspecific and interspecific eggplant populations, while twenty-five QTLs related to Blockiness, Homogeneity.... This work was undertaken as part of the initiative “Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Collecting, Protecting, and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives”, which is supported by the Government of Norway. The project is managed by the Global Crop Diversity Trust with the Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and implemented in partnership with national and international gene banks and plant breeding institutes around the world. For further information, see the project website: http://www.cwrdiversity.org/. Funding was also received from Spanish Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (grant AGL2015-64755-R from MINECO/FEDER); from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Agencia Estatal de Investigación and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (grant RTI-2018-094592-B-100 from MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE); from European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No. 677379 (G2P-SOL project: Linking genetic resources, genomes and phenotypes of Solanaceous crops); and from Vicerrectorado de Investigación, Innovación y Transferencia de la Universitat Politècnica de València (Ayuda a Primeros Proyectos de Investigación; PAID-06-18). Giulio Mangino is grateful to Generalitat Valenciana for a predoctoral grant within the Santiago Grisolía programme (GRISOLIAP/2016/012).

  • Publication . Doctoral thesis . Thesis . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Botta, Andrea;
    Publisher: Politecnico di Torino
    Country: Italy

    The thesis reports on the design, development, and integration of the articulated mobile robot for precision agriculture and its control architecture. Starting from bibliographic research on precision agriculture with a particular focus on terrestrial robotic platforms (UGVs), the Agri.Q project was then developed with the aim of creating an articulated robot for agriculture in vineyards, or on fields with large slopes, with particular attention to the issue of sustainability and the integration of the robotic platform with monitoring drones and a redundant robotic arm dedicated to collect field samples or to interact with the environment. The thesis therefore reports the mechanical and electronic design process of the robot, focusing on the peculiarities and salient features. The thesis also gives wide space to the study and analysis of the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of the robot navigation through models, simulations, and experimentation on the prototype itself. These results become functional for the implementation of appropriate control strategies to overcome some problems related to the robot architecture and to make it a robust and functional platform. The thesis is accompanied by further phases of experimentation on more specific topics, such as the evaluation of power flows and the effectiveness of solar charging, an initial integration of a redundant robotic arm, and the beginning of preparatory activities for the implementation of autonomous driving.

  • Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    Elaine Calderari;
    Publisher: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

    The main objective of this work is to promote the reinsertion of urban water in the context of physical and territorial planning, in the cities, through the study of the watershed of Jataí stream in Uberlândia-MG. Pursuiting the rebalancing of the waters with the urban environment, this work promote the connectivity and physical strengthening of the relations between man and environment / nature. The study analyzed the environmental impacts generated in the watershed with the process of urbanization and infrastructure works carried out in the stream and surrounding areas. Simulation of 4 (four) scenarios were proposed and hydrological parameters were raised in a natural conditions (before the urbanization process), as far as current urbanization, complete urbanization and ideal urbanization. To develop this ideal scenario, direct and preventive urban interventions were proposed, through the inclusion of an ecological and sustainable urban design, with the use of green infrastructure, such as parks and green areas, based on the principles of an environmental planning and structured in an Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ) of the watershed of Jataí stream. The results were compared and evaluated in an integrated manner, with the use of remote sensing techniques and the guidelines adopted showed a positive result in the hydrological simulations, with the significant increase in permeability, time of concentration and reduction of peak flows, showing, respectively, in the scenarios A, B, C and D the following values: 2,81 m3/s, 19,70 m3/s, 51,24 m3/s, and 15,15 m/3s.Thus, it is understood that, through the control of the permeation rates, considering only the areas of public use, such interventions are sufficient to promote significant effects on the control of direct runoff and flooding, allowing the minimization of environmental impacts. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi promover a reinserção das águas urbanas no contexto do planejamento físico-territorial nas cidades, por meio do estudo da microbacia do córrego Jataí, na cidade de Uberlândia-MG, com a busca do reequilíbrio das águas com o meio urbano, promovendo a conectividade e o fortalecimento das relações físicas e ambientais entre homem/natureza. O estudo analisou os impactos ambientais gerados na microbacia com o processo de urbanização e as obras de infraestrutura realizadas no córrego e no entorno. Foram propostas as simulações de 4 (quatro) cenários e levantados os parâmetros hidrológicos na condição natural (anterior ao processo de urbanização), urbanização atual, urbanização completa e urbanização ideal. Para elaboração do cenário ideal, foram propostas diretrizes para intervenções urbanas preventivas e diretas, por meio da inserção de um desenho urbano ecológico e sustentável, com a inserção de parques e áreas verdes e a utilização de infraestruturas verdes, baseadas nos princípios de planejamento ambiental e estruturadas em um Zoneamento Ecológico-Econômico (ZEE) da microbacia do córrego Jataí. Os resultados foram comparados e avaliados de forma integrada com a utilização de técnicas de sensoriamento remoto, e as diretrizes adotadas apresentaram um resultado positivo nas simulações hidrológicas, com o aumento significativo das taxas de permeabilidade, aumento no tempo de concentração e a diminuição dos picos de vazões, apresentando respectivamente nos cenários A, B, C e D, os seguintes valores: 2,81 m³/s, 19,70 m³/s, 51,24 m³/s e 15,15 m³/s. Assim entende-se que por meio do controle da taxa de permeabilidade considerando apenas as áreas destinadas ao uso público, são suficientes para promoverem efeitos significativos no controle do escoamento superficial direto e inundações, permitindo a minimização dos impactos ambientais. Mestre em Engenharia Civil

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Montibeller, Bruno;
    Country: Estonia

    Forests are strongly impacted by human activities. While the deforestation is very likely the most common examples of human impact on forested areas, the remaining standing forests are susceptible to other types of direct or indirect forest degradation by humans. The direct human-induced impacts can be exemplified by forest fragmentation or selective logging while the indirect human-induced impacts can be related to the changes in the ecosystem services (e.g., carbon and water cycling) induced by anthropogenic climate change. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate two processes related to forest degradation: (i) fragmentation of tropical forest cover in the Brazilian Amazon and (ii) changes in forest evapotranspiration over/across the Baltic countries and the carbon cycle in undisturbed forest areas across Europe. Satellite derived data and spatial analyses were used to assess the impacts of forest degradation in these three different case studies. The results of this thesis showed that although the anti-deforestation initiatives have played an important role in reducing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region, the forest fragmentation has increased mainly because of the decrease in the size of forest loss patches and the spatial shift into areas previously isolated areas. Hence, more forest areas are potentially being degraded because of the edge effects (e.g., tree mortality) caused by the fragmentation. For the Baltic region, the results indicated an intensification of the evapotranspiration rates over undisturbed forest areas. The intensification occurred mainly during spring and early autumn months because of the longer growing season induced by the increasing temperatures during these periods. Changes in the climate patterns were also the potential cause for changes in the carbon assimilation rates over the European forests. Approximately 25% of the undisturbed European forests showed reduced total carbon assimilation. That shows the vulnerability and incapacity of certain forest areas to act as carbon sink. Metsaökosüsteemid võivad siduda kuni 12% inimtekkelisest süsihappegaasist ning tagastada atmosfääri kuni 40% kohalikest sademetest. Seetõttu on metsaökosüsteemidel oluline roll süsihappegaasi emissioonide vähendamisel ja veeringe reguleerimisel. Samal ajal väheneb metsade pindala ning metsad degradeeruvad läbi killustumise ning nende süsiniku- ja veeringe reguleerimise võime võib väheneda kliimamuutuste tõttu. Käesoleva doktoritöö eesmärgiks oli hinnata kahte metsade degradeerumisega seotud protsessi: (1) troopilise vihmametsa killustumist Brasiilia Amasoonias ja (2) muutuseid evapotranspiratsioonis ja süsinikuringes Baltikumi ja Eurooma muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides. Käesoleva doktoritöö tulemused näitasid, et kuigi Brasiilias on metsatustumise vastased poliitikad vähendanud metsade raadamist, siis samal ajal on suurenenud metsade killustumine, sest raiutakse väiksemate eraldiste kaupa ja liikudes endiselt varem raadamata aladele. Killustunud metsas on rohkem metsaserva, kust on süsinikukaod suuremad nii leostumise kui ka gaasilise emissioonina. Baltikumis leiti, et pikem taimekasvuperiood on suurendanud evapotranspiratsiooni kevadel ja sügisel, kuid samal ajal on suvel evapotranspiratsioon mõnedes piirkondades vähenenud. Kuigi evapotranspiratsiooni suurenemisel ei ole metsade ökosüsteemile otseselt negatiivset mõju, siis võib sellel olla ebasoovitav mõju regiooni veeringele, sest suurenenud evapotranspiratsioon suurendab tõenäosust, et suveperioodil on mullas vähem vett, mis omakorda suurendab põuaohtu. Lisaks selgus, et neljandikus Euroopa muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides on süsiniku sidumine vähenenud. Vähenenud süsiniku sidumisega metsamassiivid paiknesid üle kogu Euroopa ning hõlmasid erinevaid metsatüüpe. Kliimamuutuste mõjul võib metsade süsiniku sidumine väheneda veelgi rohkem, mis seab kahtluse alla varasemalt eeldatud metsade võimekuse leevendada kliimamuutuste mõjusid. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5519495

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Férriz Núñez, Macarena;
    Publisher: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - University Library
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | DIABOLO (633464)

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Koroso, N.H;
    Publisher: University Library/University of Twente
    Country: Netherlands

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization, leading to massive growth and expansion of cities. Rapid urbanization has implications for the built environment and peri-urban areas. In built-up areas, it affects the supply of urban land and housing and urban infrastructure. It also affects agricultural land and biodiversity in peri-urban areas. Uncontrolled rapid urbanization undermines efforts to ensure sustainable urbanization. One way of achieving sustainable urbanization is by promoting compact urbanization. An important part of achieving compact urbanization is ensuring the efficient use of urban land. In order to know whether a city/country is on the path of sustainable urbanization, it is imperative to understand how urban land is used and the factors that influence it. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of urban land use in Ethiopia. In doing so, we examined the role that urban land policy has played in ensuring or undermining sustainable urban land use in the country. We also examined the role of the overall institutional environment in a country in determining the outcomes of urban land policy. This study is based on quantitative and qualitative data, mainly remote sensing and secondary data. The efficiency of the urban land use of 17 cities was examined mainly through the analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat 7/8 and Google Earth Pro). Spatiotemporal changes in land use of the cities were calculated using ArcGIS. Furthermore, the suitability and effectiveness of the institutional environment in the country were assessed based on the conceptual framework (Institutional Analysis and Development-IAD) developed by Ostrom and Ho’s institutional credibility thesis. In Ethiopia, the findings revealed that urban land use efficiency (ULUE) is low. Land hoarding, urban sprawl and land underutilization are widespread. Land policy gaps, primarily in its forms and functions, played an important role in undermining urban land use efficiency in the country. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the effectiveness of land institutions and the quality of complementary institutions, specifically legal and political institutions. City-level institutional quality effects on ULUE and understanding the correlation between the degree of ULUE and urban state-land ownership should be further explored.

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lacalle Úbeda, Ignacio;
    Publisher: Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
    Country: Spain

    [ES] El Internet de las Cosas (IoT) ha experimentado un gran crecimiento en los últimos años. El incremento en el número de dispositivos, una mayor miniaturización de la capacidad de computación y las técnicas de virtualización, han favorecido su adopción en la industria y en otros sectores. Asimismo, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías (como la Inteligencia Artificial, el 5G, el Tactile Internet o la Realidad Aumentada) y el auge del edge computing preparan el terreno, y formulan los requisitos, para lo que se conoce como Internet de las Cosas de Nueva Generación (NGIoT). Estos avances plantean nuevos desafíos tales como el establecimiento de arquitecturas que cubran dichas necesidades y a la vez resulten flexibles, escalables y prácticas para implementar servicios que aporten valor a la sociedad. En este sentido, el IoT puede resultar un elemento clave para el establecimiento de políticas y la toma de decisiones. Una herramienta muy útil para ello es la definición y cálculo de indicadores compuestos, que representan un impacto en un fenómeno real a través de un único valor. La generación de estos indicadores es un aspecto promovido por entidades oficiales como la Unión Europea, aunque su automatización y uso en entornos de tiempo real es un campo poco explorado. Este tipo de índices deben seguir una serie de operaciones matemáticas y formalidades (normalización, ponderación, agregación¿) para ser considerados válidos. Esta tesis doctoral plantea la unión de ambos campos en alza, proponiendo una arquitectura de Internet de las Cosas de nueva generación orientada al servicio de cálculo y predicción de indicadores compuestos. Partiendo de la experiencia del candidato en proyectos de investigación europeos y regionales, y construyendo sobre tecnologías open source, se ha incluido el diseño, desarrollo e integración de los módulos de dicha arquitectura (adquisición de datos, procesamiento, visualización y seguridad) como parte de la tesis. Dichos planteamientos e implementaciones se han validado en cinco escenarios diferentes, cubriendo cinco índices compuestos en entornos con requisitos dispares siguiendo una metodología diseñada durante este trabajo. Los casos de uso están centrados en aspectos de sostenibilidad en entornos urbano y marítimo-portuario, pero se ha destacado que la solución puede ser extrapolada a otros sectores ya que ha sido diseñada de una manera agnóstica. El resultado de la tesis ha sido, además, analizado desde el punto de vista de transferencia tecnológica. Se ha propuesto la formulación de un producto, así como una posible financiación en fases de madurez más avanzadas y su potencial explotación como elemento comercializable [CA] La Internet de les Coses (IoT) ha experimentat un gran creixement en els últims anys. L'increment en el nombre de dispositius, una major miniaturització de la capacitat de computació i les tècniques de virtualització, han afavorit la seua adopció en la indústria i en altres sectors. Així mateix, la introducció de noves tecnologies (com la Intel·ligència Artificial, el 5G, la Internet Tàctil o la Realitat Augmentada) i l'auge del edge computing preparen el terreny, i formulen els requisits, per al que es coneix com a Internet de les Coses de Nova Generació (NGIoT). Aquests avanços plantegen nous desafiaments com ara l'establiment d'arquitectures que cobrisquen aquestes necessitats i resulten, alhora, flexibles, escalables i pràctiques per a implementar serveis que aporten valor a la societat. Ací, el IoT pot resultar un element clau per a l'establiment de polítiques i la presa de decisions. Una eina molt útil en aquest sentit és la definició i càlcul d'indicadors compostos, que representen un impacte en un fenomen real a través d'un únic valor. La generació d'aquests indicadors és un aspecte promogut per entitats oficials com la Unió Europea, encara que la seua automatització i ús en entorns de temps real és un camp poc explorat. Aquest tipus d'índexs han de seguir una sèrie d'operacions matemàtiques i formalitats (normalització, ponderació, agregació¿) per a ser considerats vàlids. Aquesta tesi doctoral planteja la unió de tots dos camps en alça, proposant una arquitectura d'Internet de les Coses de nova generació orientada al servei de càlcul i predicció d'indicadors compostos. Partint de l'experiència del candidat en projectes d'investigació europeus i regionals, i construint sobre tecnologies open source, s'ha inclòs el disseny, desenvolupament i integració dels mòduls d'aquesta arquitectura (adquisició de dades, processament, visualització i seguretat) com a part de la tesi. Aquests plantejaments i implementacions s'han validat en cinc escenaris diferents, cobrint cinc índexs compostos en entorns amb requisits dispars seguint una metodologia dissenyada durant aquest treball. Els casos d'ús estan centrats en aspectes de sostenibilitat en entorns urbà i marítim-portuari, però s'ha destacat que la solució pot ser extrapolada a altres sectors ja que ha sigut dissenyada d'una manera agnòstica. El resultat de la tesi ha sigut, a més, analitzat des del punt de vista de transferència tecnològica. S'ha proposat la formulació d'un producte, així com un possible finançament en fases de maduresa més avançades i la seua potencial explotació com a element comercialitzable [EN] The Internet of Things (IoT) has experienced tremendous growth in recent years. The increase in the number of devices, greater miniaturization of computing capacity and virtualization techniques have favored its adoption in industry and other sectors. Likewise, the introduction of new technologies (such as Artificial Intelligence, 5G, Tactile Internet or Augmented Reality), together with the rise of edge computing, are paving the way, and formulating the requirements, for what is known as the Next Generation Internet of Things (NGIoT). These advances pose new challenges such as the establishment of proper architectures that meet those needs and, at the same time, are flexible, scalable, and practical for implementing services that bring value to society. In this sense, IoT could be a key element for policy and decision making. A very useful tool for this is the definition and calculation of composite indicators, which represent an impact on a real phenomenon through a single value. The generation of these indicators is an aspect promoted by official entities such as the European Union, although their automation and use in real-time environments is a rather uncharted research field. This type of indexes must follow a series of mathematical operations and formalities (normalization, weighting, aggregation...) to be considered valid. This doctoral thesis proposes the union of both fields, proposing a new generation Internet of Things architecture oriented to the calculation and prediction of composite indicators. Based on the candidate's experience in European and regional research projects, and building on open source technologies, the design, development and integration of the modules of such architecture (data acquisition, processing, visualization and security) has been included as part of the thesis. These approaches and implementations have been validated in five different scenarios, covering five composite indexes in environments with disparate requirements following a methodology designed during this work. The use cases are focused on sustainability aspects in urban and maritime-port environments, but it has been highlighted that the solution can be extrapolated to other sectors as it has been designed in an agnostic way. The result of the thesis has also been analyzed from the point of view of technology transfer. A tentative product definition has been formulated, as well as a possible financing in more advanced stages of maturity and its potential exploitation as a marketable element

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mass, Jakob;
    Country: Estonia

    Värkvõrk, ehk Asjade Internet (Internet of Things, lüh IoT) edendab lahendusi nagu nn tark linn, kus meid igapäevaselt ümbritsevad objektid on ühendatud infosüsteemidega ja ka üksteisega. Selliseks näiteks võib olla teekatete seisukorra monitoorimissüsteem. Võrku ühendatud sõidukitelt (nt bussidelt) kogutakse videomaterjali, mida seejärel töödeldakse, et tuvastada löökauke või lume kogunemist. Tavaliselt hõlmab selline lahendus keeruka tsentraalse süsteemi ehitamist. Otsuste langetamiseks (nt milliseid sõidukeid parasjagu protsessi kaasata) vajab keskne süsteem pidevat ühendust kõigi IoT seadmetega. Seadmete hulga kasvades võib keskne lahendus aga muutuda pudelikaelaks. Selliste protsesside disaini, haldust, automatiseerimist ja seiret hõlbustavad märkimisväärselt äriprotsesside halduse (Business Process Management, lüh BPM) valdkonna standardid ja tööriistad. Paraku ei ole BPM tehnoloogiad koheselt kasutatavad uute paradigmadega nagu Udu- ja Servaarvutus, mis tuleviku värkvõrgu jaoks vajalikud on. Nende puhul liigub suur osa otsustustest ja arvutustest üksikutest andmekeskustest servavõrgu seadmetele, mis asuvad lõppkasutajatele ja IoT seadmetele lähemal. Videotöötlust võiks teostada mini-andmekeskustes, mis on paigaldatud üle linna, näiteks bussipeatustesse. Arvestades IoT seadmete üha suurenevat hulka, vähendab selline koormuse jaotamine vähendab riski, et tsentraalne andmekeskust ülekoormamist. Doktoritöö uurib, kuidas mobiilsusega seonduvaid IoT protsesse taoliselt ümber korraldada, kohanedes pidevalt muutlikule, liikuvate seadmetega täidetud servavõrgule. Nimelt on ühendused katkendlikud, mistõttu otsuste langetus ja planeerimine peavad arvestama muuhulgas mobiilseadmete liikumistrajektoore. Töö raames valminud prototüüpe testiti Android seadmetel ja simulatsioonides. Lisaks valmis tööriistakomplekt STEP-ONE, mis võimaldab teadlastel hõlpsalt simuleerida ja analüüsida taolisi probleeme erinevais realistlikes stsenaariumites nagu seda on tark linn. The Internet of Things (IoT) promotes solutions such as a smart city, where everyday objects connect with info systems and each other. One example is a road condition monitoring system, where connected vehicles, such as buses, capture video, which is then processed to detect potholes and snow build-up. Building such a solution typically involves establishing a complex centralised system. The centralised approach may become a bottleneck as the number of IoT devices keeps growing. It relies on constant connectivity to all involved devices to make decisions, such as which vehicles to involve in the process. Designing, automating, managing, and monitoring such processes can greatly be supported using the standards and software systems provided by the field of Business Process Management (BPM). However, BPM techniques are not directly applicable to new computing paradigms, such as Fog Computing and Edge Computing, on which the future of IoT relies. Here, a lot of decision-making and processing is moved from central data-centers to devices in the network edge, near the end-users and IoT sensors. For example, video could be processed in mini-datacenters deployed throughout the city, e.g., at bus stops. This load distribution reduces the risk of the ever-growing number of IoT devices overloading the data center. This thesis studies how to reorganise the process execution in this decentralised fashion, where processes must dynamically adapt to the volatile edge environment filled with moving devices. Namely, connectivity is intermittent, so decision-making and planning need to involve factors such as the movement trajectories of mobile devices. We examined this issue in simulations and with a prototype for Android smartphones. We also showcase the STEP-ONE toolset, allowing researchers to conveniently simulate and analyse these issues in different realistic scenarios, such as those in a smart city. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5525514

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jimmy Quang Minh Ngoc Tran;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    When disaster strikes in urban areas, the devastating results are collapsed structures that may contain voids, and trapped people within. To a large extent, the speed with which these victims can be found and extricated determines the likelihood of their survival. Specially trained and equipped emergency first responders are tasked with trying to save their lives by locating and extricating trapped victims from these dangerous environments. Telepresence systems can help first responders search for casualties from a safe location. Most automated search systems intended for use in urban disasters, come in the form of remotely operated robots. This work takes a different approach to telepresence and robotics. This work is an extension of previous work that exploits the intelligence and characteristics of trained search dogs combined with compatible technology and used as components in new kinds of telepresence systems for urban search and rescue (USAR) operations. The Canine Remote Deployment System (CRDS) is a tool that emergency responders can use to deliver critical supplies to trapped victims in rubble using dogs. The first contribution of this work is the development of the bark detection system for automatically triggering deployment of packages near trapped victims from the CRDS-guaranteeing accurate package deployment even when remote communication with the dog is impossible. A well-known ground robot problem is the difficulty in designing a mobility mechanism to traverse rubble. Another contribution of this thesis is the Canine Assisted Robot Deployment (CARD) framework and the design of a robot capable of being carried by a search dog. This work extends the responder’s telepresence in rescue operations by bringing robots much deeper into the disaster site than current methods. Visual odometry is used in location tracking in GPS-denied environments and can be used in rescue operations. This research explores the limitation of RGB-D cameras for visual odometry for this application. An algorithm called pseudo-Random Interest Points Extractor was developed iv to track images over visually feature-sparse areas with the potential use of visually reconstructing canine search paths to victims. This work concentrates on using visual odometry from data collected from a search dog-mounted RGB-D camera. The task of model stabilization is difficult due to the nature of dog’s constant and unpredictable movements, asthe data contains many motion blurred images. The development of an algorithm called Intelligent Frame Selector is shown to improve visual odometry for systems carried by search dogs by intelligently filtering data and selecting only usable frames. The algorithm can be applied to any general visual odometry pipeline beneficially as the technique reduces cumulative error problems by using less data.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Johanes, Jelvis;
    Country: Indonesia

    Jantung merupakan organ penting dalam tubuh manusia yang difungsikan untuk memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh. Untuk membantu memudahkan manusia dalam melakukan pemeriksaan detak jantung maka dalam penelitian ini menyajikan sebuah alat monitoring detak jantung dan suhu tubuh menggunakan Internet of Things. Internet of Things (IoT) adalah konsep dimana berbagai perangkat bersensor saling terhubung melalui internet untuk mengumpulkan dan mentransfer data. Dalam metode pengujian ini melibatkan 10 orang manahiswa, 1 orang anak-anak, 1 orang remaja, 1 orang dewasa, 1 orang lanjut usia, 1 orang dengan perokok aktif, 1 orang atlet dan 1 orang dengan berat badan berlebih (obesitas). Dalam pengujian ini menggunakan 2 buah sensor yaitu sensor MAX30105 sebagai sensor pengukuran detak jantung dan GY-906 sebagai sensor pengukur suhu tubuh. Dari hasil pengujian menggunakan alat pembanding error yang didapatkan rata-rata 0,06% untuk detak jantung dan 0,01 % untu suhu tubuh. Dalam pengujian sensor MAX30105 terdapat juga kadar oksigen dalam darah yang terdeteksi The heart is an important organ in the human body that functions to pump blood throughout the body. To help make it easier for humans to check their heart rate, this study presents a heart rate and body temperature monitoring tool using the Internet of Things. Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept where various sensor devices are interconnected via the internet to collect and transfer data. In this test method involved 10 students, 1 child, 1 teenager, 1 adult, 1 elderly person, 1 person with an active smoker, 1 athlete and 1 person with excess weight (obesity). In this test, 2 sensors are used, namely the MAX30105 sensor as a heart rate measurement sensor and the GY-906 as a body temperature sensor. From the test results using a comparison tool, the error obtained an average of 0.06% for heart rate and 0.01% for body temperature. In testing the MAX30105 sensor there is also a detectable level of oxygen in the blood.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giulio Mangino;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de València
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | G2P-SOL (677379)

    [CAT] L'albergínia (Solanum melongena L.) és un dels cultius comercials d'hortalisses solanácees més importants que es cultiva àmpliament a Àsia i la regió del Mediterrani. Malgrat la seua importància econòmica, la disponibilitat de poblacions experimentals i eines genòmiques per al millorament és encara molt limitada en comparació amb altres cultius importants. A causa de l'alteració progressiva de l'ecosistema global pel canvi climàtic, les plantes estan constantment exposades a condicions ambientals estressants que impacten negativament en la seua productivitat. El coll de botella genètic ocorregut durant la domesticació de l'albergínia, que limita la disponibilitat de recursos genètics per al seu millorament genètic, fa que aquest cultiu siga extremadament vulnerable al canvi climàtic, per la qual cosa es requereixen noves estratègies per a reduir la seua erosió genètica. En aquest context, els parents silvestres dels cultius (CWRs) han demostrat ser un recurs genètic vàlid per a la millora vegetal, ja que el seu ús permet ampliar la diversitat genètica dels cultius i, en paral·lel, desenvolupar varietats millorades adaptades al canvi climàtic. Per a aconseguir aquest objectiu, en aquesta tesi doctoral presentem el desenvolupament i l'avaluació de materials avançats d'albergínia obtinguts mitjançant l'ús de parents silvestres. En el primer capítol, realitzem una avaluació fenotípica en dos ambients d'un conjunt de 16 IL d'albergínia amb introgresions de S. incanum, un parent silvestre. Es van puntuar dèsset caràcters agronòmics per a avaluar el rendiment de les ILs en comparació amb el parental recurrent i identificar els QTL per als caràcters investigats. Trobarem diferències morfològiques significatives entre els parentals, i l'híbrid va resultar heteròtic per als caràcters de vigor. A pesar que la interacció entre genotip i ambient (G x E) va resultar significativa per a la majoria dels caràcters, en general les ILs van mostrar poques diferències fenotípiques amb el progenitor receptor, fins i tot en presència de grans fragments d'introgresió del progenitor silvestre. Es van trobar valors de heredabilitat baixos a moderats per als caràcters agronòmics. En total, detectarem deu QTL estables, dos dels quals estaven relacionats a caràcters de planta i quatre per a caràcters de flor i fruit. En general, les introgresions de S. incanum van millorar els valors mitjos de la majoria dels caràcters de planta i flor, i van disminuir el dels caràcters de fruit. Per a tres QTL relacionats amb la longitud del pedicel del fruit i amb el pes del fruit, trobem evidència de sintenia amb altres QTLs identificats prèviament en poblacions d'albergínia. Set QTL eren nous, dels quals quatre estaven relacionats amb l'altura de la planta, amb la espinositat del calze de la flor i amb la llargària del pedicel del fruit no van colocalitzar amb cap QTL prèviament identificat en les poblacions d'albergínia, i tres relacionats amb el diàmetre de la tija, amb la llargària del peduncle i de l'estigma, van ser els primers reportats en albergínia per a aquests caràcters. En el segon capítol, el conjunt de IL d'albergínia amb introgresions de S. incanum es va avaluar per a la forma del fruit en dos ambients. Específicament, realitzarem un fenotipado detallat dels fruits dels parentals, de l'híbrid i de les ILs utilitzant 32 descriptors morfològics de l'eina fenómica Tomato Analyzer. Es van trobar grans diferències morfològiques en els fruits dels parentals, i l'híbrid va presentar valors negatius de heterosis per a molts dels caràcters de forma del fruit, sent fenotípicamente més pròxim al parental S. incanum. Per a la majoria dels descriptors de forma del fruit observarem diferències significatives entre les ILs i el parental recipient, fins i tot en presència de xicotets fragments d'introgresió del parental silvestre. A pesar que la contribució de l'ambient i la interacció G × E van ser significatives per a quasi tots els descriptors, trobem que els seus... [ES] La berenjena (Solanum melongena L.) es uno de los cultivos comerciales de hortalizas solanáceas más importantes que se cultiva ampliamente en Asia y la región del Mediterráneo. A pesar de su importancia económica, la disponibilidad de poblaciones experimentales y herramientas genómicas para el mejoramiento es aún muy limitada en comparación con otros cultivos importantes. Debido a la alteración progresiva del ecosistema global por el cambio climático, las plantas están constantemente expuestas a condiciones ambientales estresantes que impactan negativamente en su productividad. El cuello de botella genético ocurrido durante la domesticación de la berenjena, que limita la disponibilidad de recursos genéticos para su mejoramiento genético, hace que este cultivo sea extremadamente vulnerable al cambio climático, por lo que se requieren nuevas estrategias para reducir su erosión genética. En este contexto, los parientes silvestres de los cultivos (CWRs) han demostrado ser un recurso genético válido para la mejora vegetal, ya que su uso permite ampliar la diversidad genética de los cultivos y, en paralelo, desarrollar variedades mejoradas adaptadas al cambio climático. Para lograr este objetivo, en esta tesis doctoral informamos sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de materiales avanzados de berenjena obtenidos mediante el uso de parientes silvestres. En el primer capítulo, realizamos una evaluación fenotípica en dos ambientes de un conjunto de 16 ILs de berenjena con introgresión de S. incanum, un pariente silvestre. Se evaluaron diecisiete caracteres agronómicos para comparar el rendimiento de las ILs con el parental recurrente e identificar QTLs para los caracteres investigados. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas significativas entre los parentales, y el híbrido resultó heterótico para los caracteres de vigor. A pesar de que la interacción entre genotipo y ambiente (G x E) resultó significativa para la mayoría de los caracteres, en general las ILs mostraron pocas diferencias fenotípicas con el progenitor receptor, incluso en presencia de grandes fragmentos de introgresión del progenitor silvestre. Se encontraron valores de heredabilidad bajos a moderados para los caracteres agronómicos. En total, detectamos diez QTLs estables, dos de los cuales estaban relacionados con caracteres de planta y cuatro para caracteres de flor y fruto. En general, las introgresiones de S. incanum mejoraron los valores medios de la mayoría de los caracteres de planta y flor, y disminuyeron el de los caracteres de fruto. Para tres QTLs relacionados con la longitud del pedicelo del fruto y con el peso del fruto, encontramos evidencia de sintenia con otros QTLs identificados previamente en poblaciones de berenjena. Siete QTLs eran nuevos, de los cuales cuatro relacionados con la altura de la planta, con la espinosidad del cáliz de la flor y con la longitud del pedicelo del fruto no colocalizaron con ningún QTL previamente identificado en las poblaciones de berenjena, y tres relacionados con el diámetro del tallo, con la longitud del pedúnculo y del estigma, fueron los primeros identificados en berenjena para estos caracteres. En el segundo capítulo, el conjunto de IL de berenjena con introgresiones de S. incanum se evaluó para la forma del fruto en dos ambientes. Específicamente, realizamos un fenotipado detallado de los frutos de los parentales, del híbrido y de las ILs utilizando 32 descriptores morfológicos de la herramienta fenómica Tomato Analyzer. Se encontraron grandes diferencias morfológicas en los frutos de los parentales, y el híbrido presentó valores negativos de heterosis para muchos de los caracteres de forma del fruto, siendo fenotípicamente más cercano al parental S. incanum. Para la mayoría de los descriptores de forma del fruto observamos diferencias significativas entre las ILs y el parental receptor, incluso en presencia de pequeños fragmentos de introgresión del parental silvestre. A pesar de que la contribución del ambiente y la... [EN] Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important commercial solanaceous vegetable crops grown widely in Asia and Mediterranean region. Despite its economic importance, the availability of experimental populations and genomic tools for breeding is still very limited compared to other major crops. Due to the progressive alteration of global ecosystem by climate change, plants are constantly exposed to stressful environmental conditions that impact negatively on their productivity. The genetic bottleneck occurred during eggplant domestication, which limits the availability of genetic resources for its genetic improvement, makes this crop extremely vulnerable to climate change, and, therefore, new strategies are needed for reducing its genetic erosion. In this context, crop wild relatives (CWRs) have demonstrated to be a valid genetic resources for plant breeding, as their use allows to broaden the genetic diversity of the crop and, in parallel, develop improved varieties adapted to climate change. To achieve this objective, in this doctoral thesis we reported on the development and evaluation of eggplant advanced materials obtained by using crop wild relatives. In the first chapter, we have conducted a phenotypic evaluation in two environments of a set of 16 eggplant ILs with introgression from S. incanum, a close wild relative. Seventeen agronomic traits were scored to test the performance of ILs compared to the recurrent parent and identify QTLs for the investigated traits. We found significant morphological differences between parents, and the hybrid was heterotic for vigour related traits. Although significant genotype x environment interaction (G x E) was detected for most traits, the ILs generally exhibited few phenotypic differences with recipient parent, even in the presence of large introgression fragments from the wild parent. Low to moderate heritability values were found for the agronomic traits. In total, we detected ten stable QTLs, two of which were for plant-related traits and four for both flower- and fruit-related traits. In general, S. incanum introgressions improved the performance of most plant- and flower-related traits and decreased that of fruit-related traits. For three QTLs related to fruit pedicel length and fruit weight, we found evidence of synteny to other QTLs previously reported in eggplant populations. Seven QTLs were new, of which four related to plant height, flower calyx prickles, and fruit pedicel length, did not colocalized with any previous identified QTLs in eggplant populations, and three related to stem diameter, peduncle length, and stigma length, were the first reported in eggplant for these traits. In the second chapter, the set of eggplant ILs with introgression from S. incanum was evaluated for fruit shape in two environments. Specifically, we performed a detailed phenotyping of the fruits of the parents, hybrid, and ILs using 32 morphological descriptors of the phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer. Large differences in fruit morphology were found between ILs parents, and the hybrid exhibited negative values of heterosis for many fruit shape traits, being phenotypically closer to S. incanum parent. For most fruit shape descriptors, we observed significant differences between ILs and recipient parent, even in the presence of small wild donor fragments. Although the contribution of the environment and G × E interaction were significant for almost all descriptors, we found that their effects on fruit shape were relatively low, and the observed variations in fruit shape was mainly genetically regulated. Hierarchical clustering revealed nine clusters of highly correlated traits and six ILs groups. A total of 41 QTLs were mapped. Of these, sixteen associated to Basic Measurement and Fruit Shape Index descriptors were syntenic to other previously reported in several intraspecific and interspecific eggplant populations, while twenty-five QTLs related to Blockiness, Homogeneity.... This work was undertaken as part of the initiative “Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Collecting, Protecting, and Preparing Crop Wild Relatives”, which is supported by the Government of Norway. The project is managed by the Global Crop Diversity Trust with the Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and implemented in partnership with national and international gene banks and plant breeding institutes around the world. For further information, see the project website: http://www.cwrdiversity.org/. Funding was also received from Spanish Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (grant AGL2015-64755-R from MINECO/FEDER); from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Agencia Estatal de Investigación and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (grant RTI-2018-094592-B-100 from MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE); from European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No. 677379 (G2P-SOL project: Linking genetic resources, genomes and phenotypes of Solanaceous crops); and from Vicerrectorado de Investigación, Innovación y Transferencia de la Universitat Politècnica de València (Ayuda a Primeros Proyectos de Investigación; PAID-06-18). Giulio Mangino is grateful to Generalitat Valenciana for a predoctoral grant within the Santiago Grisolía programme (GRISOLIAP/2016/012).

  • Publication . Doctoral thesis . Thesis . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Botta, Andrea;
    Publisher: Politecnico di Torino
    Country: Italy

    The thesis reports on the design, development, and integration of the articulated mobile robot for precision agriculture and its control architecture. Starting from bibliographic research on precision agriculture with a particular focus on terrestrial robotic platforms (UGVs), the Agri.Q project was then developed with the aim of creating an articulated robot for agriculture in vineyards, or on fields with large slopes, with particular attention to the issue of sustainability and the integration of the robotic platform with monitoring drones and a redundant robotic arm dedicated to collect field samples or to interact with the environment. The thesis therefore reports the mechanical and electronic design process of the robot, focusing on the peculiarities and salient features. The thesis also gives wide space to the study and analysis of the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of the robot navigation through models, simulations, and experimentation on the prototype itself. These results become functional for the implementation of appropriate control strategies to overcome some problems related to the robot architecture and to make it a robust and functional platform. The thesis is accompanied by further phases of experimentation on more specific topics, such as the evaluation of power flows and the effectiveness of solar charging, an initial integration of a redundant robotic arm, and the beginning of preparatory activities for the implementation of autonomous driving.

  • Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    Elaine Calderari;
    Publisher: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

    The main objective of this work is to promote the reinsertion of urban water in the context of physical and territorial planning, in the cities, through the study of the watershed of Jataí stream in Uberlândia-MG. Pursuiting the rebalancing of the waters with the urban environment, this work promote the connectivity and physical strengthening of the relations between man and environment / nature. The study analyzed the environmental impacts generated in the watershed with the process of urbanization and infrastructure works carried out in the stream and surrounding areas. Simulation of 4 (four) scenarios were proposed and hydrological parameters were raised in a natural conditions (before the urbanization process), as far as current urbanization, complete urbanization and ideal urbanization. To develop this ideal scenario, direct and preventive urban interventions were proposed, through the inclusion of an ecological and sustainable urban design, with the use of green infrastructure, such as parks and green areas, based on the principles of an environmental planning and structured in an Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ) of the watershed of Jataí stream. The results were compared and evaluated in an integrated manner, with the use of remote sensing techniques and the guidelines adopted showed a positive result in the hydrological simulations, with the significant increase in permeability, time of concentration and reduction of peak flows, showing, respectively, in the scenarios A, B, C and D the following values: 2,81 m3/s, 19,70 m3/s, 51,24 m3/s, and 15,15 m/3s.Thus, it is understood that, through the control of the permeation rates, considering only the areas of public use, such interventions are sufficient to promote significant effects on the control of direct runoff and flooding, allowing the minimization of environmental impacts. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi promover a reinserção das águas urbanas no contexto do planejamento físico-territorial nas cidades, por meio do estudo da microbacia do córrego Jataí, na cidade de Uberlândia-MG, com a busca do reequilíbrio das águas com o meio urbano, promovendo a conectividade e o fortalecimento das relações físicas e ambientais entre homem/natureza. O estudo analisou os impactos ambientais gerados na microbacia com o processo de urbanização e as obras de infraestrutura realizadas no córrego e no entorno. Foram propostas as simulações de 4 (quatro) cenários e levantados os parâmetros hidrológicos na condição natural (anterior ao processo de urbanização), urbanização atual, urbanização completa e urbanização ideal. Para elaboração do cenário ideal, foram propostas diretrizes para intervenções urbanas preventivas e diretas, por meio da inserção de um desenho urbano ecológico e sustentável, com a inserção de parques e áreas verdes e a utilização de infraestruturas verdes, baseadas nos princípios de planejamento ambiental e estruturadas em um Zoneamento Ecológico-Econômico (ZEE) da microbacia do córrego Jataí. Os resultados foram comparados e avaliados de forma integrada com a utilização de técnicas de sensoriamento remoto, e as diretrizes adotadas apresentaram um resultado positivo nas simulações hidrológicas, com o aumento significativo das taxas de permeabilidade, aumento no tempo de concentração e a diminuição dos picos de vazões, apresentando respectivamente nos cenários A, B, C e D, os seguintes valores: 2,81 m³/s, 19,70 m³/s, 51,24 m³/s e 15,15 m³/s. Assim entende-se que por meio do controle da taxa de permeabilidade considerando apenas as áreas destinadas ao uso público, são suficientes para promoverem efeitos significativos no controle do escoamento superficial direto e inundações, permitindo a minimização dos impactos ambientais. Mestre em Engenharia Civil

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Montibeller, Bruno;
    Country: Estonia

    Forests are strongly impacted by human activities. While the deforestation is very likely the most common examples of human impact on forested areas, the remaining standing forests are susceptible to other types of direct or indirect forest degradation by humans. The direct human-induced impacts can be exemplified by forest fragmentation or selective logging while the indirect human-induced impacts can be related to the changes in the ecosystem services (e.g., carbon and water cycling) induced by anthropogenic climate change. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate two processes related to forest degradation: (i) fragmentation of tropical forest cover in the Brazilian Amazon and (ii) changes in forest evapotranspiration over/across the Baltic countries and the carbon cycle in undisturbed forest areas across Europe. Satellite derived data and spatial analyses were used to assess the impacts of forest degradation in these three different case studies. The results of this thesis showed that although the anti-deforestation initiatives have played an important role in reducing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region, the forest fragmentation has increased mainly because of the decrease in the size of forest loss patches and the spatial shift into areas previously isolated areas. Hence, more forest areas are potentially being degraded because of the edge effects (e.g., tree mortality) caused by the fragmentation. For the Baltic region, the results indicated an intensification of the evapotranspiration rates over undisturbed forest areas. The intensification occurred mainly during spring and early autumn months because of the longer growing season induced by the increasing temperatures during these periods. Changes in the climate patterns were also the potential cause for changes in the carbon assimilation rates over the European forests. Approximately 25% of the undisturbed European forests showed reduced total carbon assimilation. That shows the vulnerability and incapacity of certain forest areas to act as carbon sink. Metsaökosüsteemid võivad siduda kuni 12% inimtekkelisest süsihappegaasist ning tagastada atmosfääri kuni 40% kohalikest sademetest. Seetõttu on metsaökosüsteemidel oluline roll süsihappegaasi emissioonide vähendamisel ja veeringe reguleerimisel. Samal ajal väheneb metsade pindala ning metsad degradeeruvad läbi killustumise ning nende süsiniku- ja veeringe reguleerimise võime võib väheneda kliimamuutuste tõttu. Käesoleva doktoritöö eesmärgiks oli hinnata kahte metsade degradeerumisega seotud protsessi: (1) troopilise vihmametsa killustumist Brasiilia Amasoonias ja (2) muutuseid evapotranspiratsioonis ja süsinikuringes Baltikumi ja Eurooma muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides. Käesoleva doktoritöö tulemused näitasid, et kuigi Brasiilias on metsatustumise vastased poliitikad vähendanud metsade raadamist, siis samal ajal on suurenenud metsade killustumine, sest raiutakse väiksemate eraldiste kaupa ja liikudes endiselt varem raadamata aladele. Killustunud metsas on rohkem metsaserva, kust on süsinikukaod suuremad nii leostumise kui ka gaasilise emissioonina. Baltikumis leiti, et pikem taimekasvuperiood on suurendanud evapotranspiratsiooni kevadel ja sügisel, kuid samal ajal on suvel evapotranspiratsioon mõnedes piirkondades vähenenud. Kuigi evapotranspiratsiooni suurenemisel ei ole metsade ökosüsteemile otseselt negatiivset mõju, siis võib sellel olla ebasoovitav mõju regiooni veeringele, sest suurenenud evapotranspiratsioon suurendab tõenäosust, et suveperioodil on mullas vähem vett, mis omakorda suurendab põuaohtu. Lisaks selgus, et neljandikus Euroopa muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides on süsiniku sidumine vähenenud. Vähenenud süsiniku sidumisega metsamassiivid paiknesid üle kogu Euroopa ning hõlmasid erinevaid metsatüüpe. Kliimamuutuste mõjul võib metsade süsiniku sidumine väheneda veelgi rohkem, mis seab kahtluse alla varasemalt eeldatud metsade võimekuse leevendada kliimamuutuste mõjusid. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5519495

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Férriz Núñez, Macarena;
    Publisher: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - University Library
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | DIABOLO (633464)

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Koroso, N.H;
    Publisher: University Library/University of Twente
    Country: Netherlands

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization, leading to massive growth and expansion of cities. Rapid urbanization has implications for the built environment and peri-urban areas. In built-up areas, it affects the supply of urban land and housing and urban infrastructure. It also affects agricultural land and biodiversity in peri-urban areas. Uncontrolled rapid urbanization undermines efforts to ensure sustainable urbanization. One way of achieving sustainable urbanization is by promoting compact urbanization. An important part of achieving compact urbanization is ensuring the efficient use of urban land. In order to know whether a city/country is on the path of sustainable urbanization, it is imperative to understand how urban land is used and the factors that influence it. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of urban land use in Ethiopia. In doing so, we examined the role that urban land policy has played in ensuring or undermining sustainable urban land use in the country. We also examined the role of the overall institutional environment in a country in determining the outcomes of urban land policy. This study is based on quantitative and qualitative data, mainly remote sensing and secondary data. The efficiency of the urban land use of 17 cities was examined mainly through the analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat 7/8 and Google Earth Pro). Spatiotemporal changes in land use of the cities were calculated using ArcGIS. Furthermore, the suitability and effectiveness of the institutional environment in the country were assessed based on the conceptual framework (Institutional Analysis and Development-IAD) developed by Ostrom and Ho’s institutional credibility thesis. In Ethiopia, the findings revealed that urban land use efficiency (ULUE) is low. Land hoarding, urban sprawl and land underutilization are widespread. Land policy gaps, primarily in its forms and functions, played an important role in undermining urban land use efficiency in the country. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the effectiveness of land institutions and the quality of complementary institutions, specifically legal and political institutions. City-level institutional quality effects on ULUE and understanding the correlation between the degree of ULUE and urban state-land ownership should be further explored.