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  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Jenko, Tjaša;
    Country: Slovenia

    Na območju Celja smo izbrali 8 njiv, kjer je od zadnje obdelave pretekel najmanj 1 mesec. Vse vzorce tal smo odvzeli isti dan (20. 3. 2020), po krajšem obdobju suhega vremena. Vzorčili smo na njivah s poljedelskim kolobarjem, kjer je bila v jeseni 2019 posajena koruza. Glede na velikost njive smo odvzeli od 3 do 21 površinskih vzorcev tal na posamezni njivi, skupaj 93 vzorcev. Predvidevali smo, da je variabilnost meritev odvisna od heterogenosti tal na površini njiv in od izvedbe vzorčenja. Ugotovili smo, da je bila najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega fosforja 2,3 mg/100 g, največja pa 15,1 mg/100 g. Najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega kalija je bila 8,2 mg/100 g, največja pa 46,3 mg/100 g. Povprečne vrednosti so se torej precej razlikovale. Pri pH so se povprečne vrednosti za različne njive gibale od 4,6 do 6,9. Vrednosti deleža organske snovi pa so se gibale od 3,2 % do 4,8 %. Koeficient variacije (KV) je bil za pH vrednost od 3,2 do 12 %, pri deležu organske snovi pa je bil 6,5 – 34,7 %. Precej večja je bila variabilnost v meritvah rastlinam dostopnega fosforja in kalija. Koeficient variacije za kalij je bil od 11,5 do 73 % pri fosforju pa od 6,3 do 87,9 %. Vrednosti za rastlinam dostopen fosfor in kalij sta bila bolj variabilna kot za pH in organsko snov. We selected 8 fields in the Celje area, where at least 1 month had passed since the last cultivation. All samples were taken on the same day (March 20, 2020) after a short dry period. Samples were collected from fields with crop rotation where corn had been grown in the fall of 2019. Depending on the size of the field, between 3 and 21 soil samples were collected per field, resulting in a total of 93 soil samples. We assumed that the variability of the measurements depended on the heterogeneity of the soil on the field surface and sampling. We found that the lowest average value of plant-available phosphorus was 2.3 mg/100 g and the highest was 15.1 mg/100 g. The lowest average value of plant-available potassium is 8.2 mg/100 g and the highest was 46.3 mg/100 g. Thus, the average values vary considerably. For pH, the average values for different fields ranged from 4.6 to 6.9, and the percentage of organic matter varied from 3.2% to 4.8%. The coefficient of variation (KV) for pH ranged from 3.2 to 12%, and for the percentage of organic matter from 6.5 to 34.7%. The variability in the measurement of phosphorus and potassium available to plants was much greater. The coefficient of variation for potassium ranged from 11.5 to 73%, and that for phosphorus ranged from 6.3 to 87.9%. The data for plant available phosphorus and potassium were more variable than for pH and organic matter.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2022
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Sumpor, Josipa;
    Publisher: Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Filozofski fakultet. Odsjek za informacijske i komunikacijske znanosti.
    Country: Croatia

    U završnom radu analiziran je optički prepoznat tekst pohranjen u sklopu repozitorija Zaklade Hathi. Izdvojeni su odabrani primjeri iz repozitorija i ekstrahirani kao optički prepoznati tekstovi i digitalizirani tekstovi u JPEG formatu. Sukladno ekstrahiranim optički prepoznatim tekstovima, izrađeni su tekstovi koji su istovjetni izvorniku kako bi se mogla provesti evaluacija. Evaluacija je provedena ISRI alatima za evaluaciju optički prepoznatog teksta. U radu je provedeno i prepoznavanje OCR sustavima Abbyy FineReader i Tesseract na istim primjerima. Prepoznavanje je provedeno na prethodno binariziranim i nebinariziranim JPEG formatima. U radu se uspoređuje i analizira točnost optičkog prepoznavanja OCR sustava Zaklade Hathi i OCR sustava Abbyy FineReader i Tesseract te se predstavljaju rezultati. In this thesis, the repository of the Hathi Foundation is analyzed. Selected examples are identified from the repository and extracted as optically recognized texts and digitized texts in JPEG format. In accordance with extracted optically recognized texts, texts identical to the originals were created so that the evaluation could be carried out. The evaluation was carried out using ISRI tools for evaluating optically recognized text. Recognition by OCR systems Abbyy FineReader and Tesseract are carried out using the same examples. Recognition is performed on the pre-binarized and non-binarized JPEG formats. The optical recognition accuracy of the Hathi Foundation OCR system and the Abbyy FineReader and Tesseract OCR systems are comparatively analyzed and the results are presented.

  • Restricted Croatian
    Authors: 
    Radalj, Jure;
    Publisher: Sveučilište u Splitu. Sveučilišni odjel za stručne studije. Odsjek za elektrotehniku.
    Country: Croatia

    Robotika je interdisciplinarno područje koje se bavi dizajnom, konstrukcijom, definiranjem načina rada i korištenjem robota. Cilj robotike je konstruirati uređaj koji pomaže i asistira čovjeku. Ideja ovog rada je otkriti prednosti, mane i razlike između dva različita robota kod ''PICK AND PLACE'' programa. Usporediti će se načini na koji su kontrolirani roboti, njihove programske kodove te tehničke karakteristike poput brzine i preciznosti. Prvi robot je Mitsubishi RV-2F-Q1-S16, a drugi robot je KUKA KR 6 R700 sixx. Da bi se izvršio program potrebni su plastični predmeti koje će roboti prenositi sa jedne pozicije na drugu, palete i pneumatske hvataljke. Da robot napravi zadanu radnju potrebno je naučiti ga točke sa kojih će uzimati i točke na koje će stavljati predmete. Svaki robot treba svoj programski kod po kojemu će izvršavati zadane radnje. Sve stavke od pripreme pa do samog obavljanja programa će biti uspoređene. Robotics is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the design, construction, definition of working methods and the use of robots. The goal of robotics is to construct a device that helps and assists humans. The idea of this paper is to reveal the advantages, disadvantages and differences between two different robots in the "PICK AND PLACE" program. The ways in which robots are controlled, their programming codes and technical characteristics such as speed and precision will be compared. The first robot is a Mitsubishi RV-2F-Q1-S16, and the second robot is a KUKA KR 6 R700 sixx. In order to execute the program, it is needed to have plastic objects that will be transfered from one position to another, pallets and pneumatic grippers. In order for the robot to perform the given action, it is necessary to learn the points where it will be taken and the points where it will place objects. Each robot needs its own programming code to perform the given actions. All items from the preparation to the execution of the program will be compared.

  • Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Ester, Josip;
    Publisher: Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku. Fakultet elektrotehnike, računarstva i informacijskih tehnologija Osijek.
    Country: Croatia

    Suvremena poljoprivreda suočava se sa sve većim zahtjevima, uz loše vremenske prilike poput suše i čestih nanosa leda poljoprivrednicima je teško osigurati vrhunski proizvod a da pri tome imaju što manje troškove i da je sirovina (proizvod) zadovoljavajuće kvalitete. Razvoj Internet stvari (IoT) i pametnih senzorskih sustava omogućio je poljoprivrednicima da na precizniji i brži način mogu pratiti stanje usjeva na poljoprivrednim površinama. Osim toga, poljoprivrednici sada imaju uvid u karakteristike tla i biljaka što im omogućuje da optimiziraju korištenje gnojiva, pesticida i ostalih resursa što će naravno smanjiti troškove proizvodnje. Modern agriculture is faced with increasing demands, with bad weather conditions such as drought and frequent ice deposits, it is difficult for farmers to provide a top quality product while keeping costs as low as possible and that the raw material (product) is of satisfactory quality. The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart sensor systems has enabled farmers to monitor the condition of crops on agricultural land in a more precise and faster way. In addition, farmers now have insight into soil and plant characteristics, which allows them to optimize the use of fertilizers, pesticides and other resources, which will naturally reduce production costs.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    ZEMLJIČ, ELIZABETH;
    Country: Slovenia

    Referendum predstavlja eno izmed oblik neposrednega glasovanja, s katerim volivci, prebivalci določenega območja z volilno pravico odločajo o referendumskem vprašanju, ki je vezano na ustavne in zakonske določbe, pravne akte in vprašanja, ki so za družbo pomembna. Referendum je koristno orodje za zagotavljanje demokracije, ki pa ima kot vsaka oblika demokratičnega odločanja tudi svoje slabosti. S preučitvijo ustrezne literature, pregledom obstoječih spletnih orodij, študije primera in izvedbo strukturiranega intervjuja smo analizirali potencial informacijske tehnologije v referendumskem postopku v Republiki Sloveniji raziskali, kaj je potrebno za uspešno implementacijo digitalnih rešitev v ta proces. Ključen je pregled obstoječih spletnih orodij, s katerimi so posamezne aktivnosti referendumskega postopka že digitalizirane, niso pa povsem nadomeščene ter raziskava primerov dobre in delujoče prakse v Švici in Estoniji. Na osnovi analize strukturiranega intervjuja opravljenega s strokovnjaki s področja upravnega poslovanja, volitev in digitalizacije v javni upravi lahko kot glavno prednost referendumskega postopka izpostavimo dober dialog z državo ob hkratni pomembnosti zagotavljanja zadostne informacijske varnosti. Ugotavljamo, da je za uspešno digitalizacijo referendumskega postopka potrebna boljša osveščenost ter možnost izobraževanja državljanov za digitalizacijo postopkov in možnost zagotovitve primerne tehnološke podpore. Diplomsko delo predstavlja opis stanja na področju referendumskega postopka ter na podlagi analize stanja in domnev o prihajajočih spremembah v družbi podaja predloge, kaj in kako je možno digitalizirati referendumski postopek v Sloveniji, predvsem aktivnosti izven glasovanja samega. Referendum can be defined as one of the ways of direct voting where voters, residents of the certain area with the right to vote agree on the referendum question which is bound to constitutional and legal provisions, legal acts and issues that are important to society. Referendum is a beneficial tool for ensuring democracy although like any other form of democratic decision-making, it also has its downsides. By analysing the pertinent documents, reviewing current online tools, case studies and conducting a structured interview, we analyzed the potencial of information technology in the referendum process in the Republic of Slovenia and as well examinated what is required for a successful implementation of digital solutions in this case. The key is a survey of already existing online tools, in which individual tasks of the referendum process are already being digitized, but aren't completely subtituded. Another additional key of the survey is a research of successfull functional practise in Switzerland and Estonia. Based on the analysis of structured interview prepared with experts in the field of administrative operations, elections and digitalization in public administration, we can point out the main advantage of the referendum process is a good dialogue with the state, while at the same time the importance of ensuring sufficient information security. We noticed that a successful digitization of the referendum process seeks a better awareness and a possibility of educating citizens for the new digitized procedures as well as providing a suitable technological support. The diploma thesis portrays a description of the situation in the field of the referendum process and based on the analysis of the situation and upcoming assumptions in society changes, it makes suggestions as to what and how it is possible to digitize the referendum process in Slovenia especially activities of its voting system.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2022
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    CIGALE, BLAŽ;
    Country: Slovenia

    V tej diplomski nalogi je opisana digitalizacija analognega videa v viskoko- kakovostno digitalno obliko. Povod so bile slabe obstoječe digitalizacije na platformi YouTube in veliko zanimanje za določeno zgodovinsko obdobje, ki je dokumentirano na VHS-medijih. Odprtje lastnega YouTube kanala je sprožilo resno preučevanje najboljših možnih tehnik in praks v zvezi z di- gitalizacijo. Najuporabnejše informacije so bile na forumih digitalfaq.com in videohelp.com. Tu je velika baza znanja in ljudi, ki so velik del svojega življenja posvetili tehnični plati videa in so pripravljeni to znanje deliti z osta- limi zanesenjaki. Izkazalo se je, da je potreben vložek v opremo, ki je poleg visoke cene tudi zelo redka. Poleg dobre opreme pa je tu tudi velik časovni vložek, ki se odraža predvsem v delu, ko se obdeluje zajet nekompresiran AVI-posnetek. V tej točki z naprednim urejevalnim okoljem in skriptnim jezikom Avisynth popravimo vsak kader posebej, saj je mnogokrat precej odstopanj v svetlosti, premočnih barvah in tudi motnjah v samem videu. Motnje so lahko posledica poškodovanega magnetnega traku, napak v pe- riodi ali pa napak, ki so bile prisotne že v montaži kasete. Zato je ta del digitalizacije najtežji in najbolj časovno potraten. This diploma documents analog video conversion techniques for producing high quality digital video. The inspiration behind it was a shear amount of badly digitized material on YouTube. The most useful information was found on forums digitalfaq.com and videohelp.com, where people from all around the world share their knowledge in video digitization. Members like LordSmurf and Sanlyn selflessly share their extensive know-how gathered by years of digitizing. Reasearch makes it clear, that investment into proper capturing equipment is needed. The fact that most of it is hard to find does not help either. Besides the expensive hardware, it is also a serious time commitment as proper digitization can take a lot of time. In the end it all depends on the state of magnetic tape and the quality of material on it. Some tapes require scene by scene restoration due to color errors, time base errors, drop-outs and artifacts due to damaged, improperly stored magnetic tape or simply bad video mastering in the production of the cassette itself.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Šutar, Nejc;
    Country: Slovenia

    Združeno kraljestvo (ZK) je 31. januarja 2020, po štirih letih burnih razprav, z dogovorom uradno zapustilo Evropsko Unijo (EU). Da bi omilili negativne učinke zaradi sprememb, ki jih je prinesel dogovor, je sledilo enoletno prehodno obdobje namenjeno pripravam ZK na nove ureditve. Kljub prehodnemu obdobju so bili učinki izstopa negativni. Vse od referenduma 23. junija 2016, še posebej pa v zadnjih dveh letih odkar je začela veljati večina sprememb, ki jih je prinesel trgovinski dogovor, se v ZK kaže negativni trend v rasti bruto družbenega proizvoda (BDP) v primerjavi z EU. Prizadet je bil tudi kmetijski sektor. Zaradi novih pravil pri izvažanju blaga in pomanjkanja delovne sile, je upadla pridelava kmetijskih izdelkov, pojavile so se težave v oskrbi z živili in s tem višanje cen dobrin. V delu so opisane tudi spremembe v politični ureditvi EU in učinki na oblikovanje nove skupne kmetijske politike (SKP) v EU, ter spremembe v odnosih med EU in ZK. Diplomsko delo zaključujemo z napovedmi za prihodnost kmetijstva ter izzivi na področju kakovosti in varnosti hrane v ZK. On January 31, 2020, after four years of turbulent negotiations, the United Kingdom (UK) officially leaved the European Union (EU). In order to prevent or at least mitigate the negative effects of the changes adopted by the agreement, a one-year transition period followed to prepare the United Kingdom for the new arrangements. Despite the transition period, the effects of the withdrawal were negative. Ever since the referendum on June, 23, 2016, and especially in the last two years since most of the changes adopted by the trade agreement came into place, the UK has shown a negative trend in Gross domestic product (GDP) growth compared to the EU. The agricultural sector was also affected. Due to the new rules for the export of goods and the lack of labor, the production of agricultural products has declined, problems have arisen in supply chain, and thus the price of goods has risen. The B. Sc. Thesis also describes the changes in the political system of the EU and the effects on the formation of the new common agricultural policy (CAP in the EU, as well as the changes in the relations between the EU and the UK. We conclude the B. Sc. Thesis with forecasts for the future of agriculture and challenges in the field of food quality and safety in the UK.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2022
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    BEVC, MATJAŽ;
    Country: Slovenia

    Ob vse bolj obširni digitalizaciji in uporabi interneta stvari se povečuje tudi uporaba tehnologije LoRa. Ta zaradi nizke porabe energije omogoča uporabo na mobilnih napravah z baterijskim napajanjem, pri katerih je pomembna tudi lokacija. Ena od rešitev je uporaba GPS sprejemnika na napravi, vendar to pomeni bolj kompleksno napravo in poveča porabo energije. Tehnologija LoRa omogoča merjenje razdalje med napravami. S podporo frekvenc v pasu 2,4 GHz se je povečala pasovna širina ter razširitveni faktor in s tem tudi natančnost teh meritev. V tej diplomski nalogi je predstavljen in preizkušen način za lokalizacijo oddajnika in sprejemnika, ki uporablja tehnologijo LoRa na frekvenci 2,4 GHz. Z uporabo treh naprav s funkcijo oddajanja in sprejemanja signala (treh sider) na znanih lokacijah je bilo s tekočim povprečenjem rezultatov in trilateracijo mogoče točno (na manj kot 14 m v 95 % meritev) določiti lokacijo LoRa naprave v primeru neposredno vidnih sider. Pri zasenčenju vidne linije z rastjem in možnih odbojih zaradi reliefa in stavb se je točnost poslabšala na 93 m v 95 % meritev, v izjemnih primerih do 400 m. The rise of digitalization and the Internet of Things is accompanied by the rise in use of LoRa, a technology that with its low power usage enables the use of mobile, battery-powered devices that also take into account their location. LoRa technology enables the use of ranging – measuring the distance between two LoRa nodes. With support for 2.4 GHz operating band also come a higher bandwidth and spreading factor, which increases the ranging accuracy. One solution would be to use a GPS receiver in conjunction with the LoRa transceiver in order to obtain location information. However, this increases the device complexity and power consumption. The thesis addresses the use of LoRa technology on 2.4 GHz for localization of a LoRa transceiver. With the usage of three transceivers (anchors) on known locations, processing the data with a moving average and trilateration, the unknown location could be estimated precisely (under 14 m in 95 % of measurements) in the line-of- sight scenario. However, in case of shading by foliage and multi-path fading by obstacles, the precision decreased – under 93 m in 95 % of measurements and up to 400 m in extreme cases.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2022
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Babić, Vedrana;
    Publisher: Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku. Akademija za umjetnost i kulturu u Osijeku.
    Country: Croatia

    Glavna su tema rada radikalne inovacije. Radikalne inovacije, kako i sam naziv kaže, donose radikalne promjene, tj. predstavljaju visoki stupanj novosti. One određujurazmišljanje o nekom proizvodu te načine na koje se taj proizvod može koristiti. Radikalne inovacije znaju izazivati promjene koje utječu na cijelo društvo. Prema nekim autorima samo 25% inovacija koje tvrtke plasiraju,na tržištu dožive uspjeh, dok 75% novih proizvoda propada. Od tih 25%, tek 6-10% inovacija postanu radikalne. Radikalne inovacije koje su promijenile svijet osobna su računala i internet koje su se dogodile u novijoj povijesti, a nove su radikalne inovacije koje se svakodnevno usavršavaju robotika, umjetna inteligencija, blockchain tehnologije, sekvencije genoma i skupljanja energije. The elementary theme of the work is radical innovation. Radical innovations, as the name suggests, bring radical changes that pass a high degree of novelty. They change the thinking about a product and the way that products were used. Radical innovations sometimes cause changes at the level of the whole society. According to some authors, only 25% of innovations that companies launch on the market experience success, while 75% of new products end up unsuccessful. Out of these 25% of the prosperous article, only 6-10% can be considered to be radical innovations. Radical innovations that have changed the world are personal computers as well as the Internet have occurred in recent history. New radical innovations that are improving every day are robotics, artificial intelligence, blockchain technologies, genome sequencing, and energy harvesting.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    CJUHA, VOJKA;
    Country: Slovenia

    Digitalizacija je širok pojem. Lahko rečemo, da gre tako za avtomatizacijo in informatizacijo operacij, ki jih je človek izvajal ročno za širšo in celovito uporabo informacijsko komunikacijske tehnologije ter prenos podatkov in informacij v elektronski obliki. Digitalizacija poslovanja za organizacije predstavlja velik organizacijski in finančni zalogaj, zato je smiselno, da se je lotimo postopoma. Kljub dokazanim prednostim digitalizacije dokumentacija v papirni obliki predstavlja velik del poslovanja pri mnogih organizacijah. S tem se kopičijo materialni stroški, zmanjšana pa sta tudi učinkovitost in ažurnost dela. Organizacije pri velikih količinah papirne dokumentacije niso več sposobne obvladovati in nadzorovati življenjskega cikla dokumentov. Organizacije bi vse to lahko reševale z digitalizacijo in se zanjo zato odločale bolj pospešeno. V diplomskem delu smo proučevali izzive, s katerimi se je in se še izbrana organizacija, to je Urad Republike Slovenije za intelektualno lastnino (URSIL), spopada pri digitalizaciji dokumentarnega gradiva, ter izpostavili prednosti in težave, ki jih prinaša proces digitalizacije. Pri pripravi diplomskega dela je bila uporabljena raziskovalna metoda študija primera. Rezultati raziskave so pokazali, da se naložba kljub številnim izzivom ter potrebnim organizacijskim in finančnim vložkom srednjeročno povrne. Digitalizacija dokumentarnega gradiva je namreč prinesla številne prednosti, ki so se pokazale v povečanju učinkovitosti dela in zmanjšanju stroškov. To potrjuje, da URSIL prehod na brezpapirno poslovanje razvija v pravi smeri. Dokazali smo tudi, da izvajanje e-hrambe na lastni infrastrukturi, dolgoročno gledano, lahko pomeni prihranek. Ker se je URSIL odločil za postopno prehajanje na brezpapirno poslovanje, se učinki digitalizacije še niso pokazali v polni meri. Digitization is a broad concept. We can say that it is about the automation of operations that are now performed manually by humans and the transfer of data and information in electronic form. Digitization of business for organizations represents a large organizational as well as financial burden, so it makes sense to tackle it gradually. However, despite the proven advantages of digitization, documentation in paper form represents a large part of business in many organizations. This accumulates material costs and reduces the efficiency and timeliness of work. With large amounts of paper documentation, organizations are no longer able to manage and control the lifecycle of documents. Organizations could solve all this with digitization and therefore make decisions about it more quickly. In the diploma work, we studied the challenges with which the selected organization, i.e. the Office of the Republic of Slovenia for Intellectual Property (URSIL), is dealing with the digitization of documentary material, and highlighted both the advantages and the problems that the digitization process brings. The case study research method was used in the preparation of the thesis. The results of the research showed that despite the many challenges and the necessary organizational and financial inputs, the investment will pays off in the medium term. The digitization of documentary material has brought many advantages, which have been shown both in increasing efficiency and in reducing costs, which confirms that URSIL is developing the transition to paperless business in the right direction. We have also proved that implementing e-storage on our own infrastructure can mean savings in the long term. Because URSIL decided to gradually transition to paperless operations, the effects of digitization have not yet fully manifested themselves.