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23 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Publications
  • 2018-2022
  • DSpace at Tartu University Library

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vahter, Tanel;
    Country: Estonia

    This doctoral thesis provides a deeper understanding of the ecology of soil fungi that form mycorrhizas in arable landscapes. These fungi provide plants with much needed soil nutrients and are therefore a vital part of sustainable food production. One of the central aims was to understand how the common agricultural practices used in the fields affect these key fungi. In our studies we found that much like in the rest of Europe, there are large differences in the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in arable field soils. Differences in mycorrhizal fungal richness between the most and least diverse fields were sixfold. The major factors decreasing mycorrhizal fungal diversity were the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides but also biodiversity impoverished agricultural landscapes. In addition, we learned that temporary grasslands within the crop rotations have important implications for sustaining soil fungal biodiversity. Furthermore, we found that the crop varieties sown can have an impact on mycorrhizal fungi, with some older varieties faring better in organically managed soils than newer breeds. Although the plants’ affinity to mycorrhizal fungi was not clearly dependant on the era a variety was bred, it does show that we should bear mycorrhizal associations in mind when breeding crops of the future. We also experimented with creating diverse vegetation assemblages in biodiversity impoverished landscapes, using depleted oil-shale quarries as a model system. We used native plants and sowed them onto the restoration sites together with the mycorrhizal fungi they naturally grow with. Using this methodology, we were able to bring dosens of plant species into a former biodiversity desert, highlighting the possibilities of restoring biodiversity hot-spots also in other areas. To conclude, we emphasize that safeguarding the biodiversity of vital mycorrhizal fungi is possible even with the measures available to farmers today. More organic fertilizers with diverse crop rotations for disease and weed control, accompanied by the biodiversity support of diverse landscapes is something that would pave the way for sustainable food production. Doktoritöö käigus uuriti taimede ja seente vahelist vastastikku kasulikku kooselu, mükoriisat, moodustavate mullaseente ökoloogiat põllumajandusmaastikes. Kuna nende seente abil saavad taimed mullast vajaminevaid toitaineid, on nad oluline osa mulla elustikust ning panustavad ka põllumajanduse jätkusuutlikkusse. Töö üks põhieesmärke oli uurida, kuidas levinud põlluharimise praktikad mükoriisaseeni mõjutavad ning millised praktikad võiksid nende elurikkust suurendada. Uuringutes leidsime, et sarnaselt Lääne-Euroopaga on ka Eestis olenevalt põlluharimise viisidest mükoriisaseente elurikkuses suured erinevused – mitmekesisemate ja vaesemate põldude mükoriisaseente liigirikkuse vahe oli koguni kuuekordne. Olulisteks negatiivseteks teguriteks olid sünteetiliste väetiste ja pestitsiidide kasutamine, kuid positiivselt mõjusid orgaaniliste väetiste kasutamine ja maastikuelementide rohkus. Lisaks saime teada, et lühiajaliste rohumaade lisamine külvikorda soodustab mullaseeni ning külvikorra planeerimisel tasuks mõelda kasvatatavate sortide valiku peale. Näiteks selgus, et mõned ajaloolised nisusordid kasvavad paremini koos mahetootmise põllu mullast pärit seentega, samas kui mõni kaasaegne sort jällegi intensiivtootmise mulla seentega. Selle teadmise baasilt oleks võimalik tulevikus aretada näiteks mükoriisasõbralikke sorte nii mahe- kui tavaviljelusse. Lisaks eksperimenteerisime ka liigirikaste taimekoosluste taastamisega, luues liigivaestesse põlevkivikarjääridesse mükoriisaseente abiga kõigest mõne aastaga rohelised niidud. Sama metoodikat kasutades võiks tekitada elurikkuse tugipunkte ka intensiivselt majandatud põllumajandusmaastikesse, kus taimede, putukate ja mükoriisaseente elustik põllumajandustootjale kasu saaks tuua. Seega, kasutades rohkem orgaanilisi väetisi ja tõrjudes haiguseid ning kahjureid mitmekesise külvikorraga saab luua mükoriisaseeni soodustavad tingimused. Lisades maastikesse veel uusi ja hoides olemasolevaid elurikkuse tugipunkte, võiksime olla eeskujuks oma kodukandi kõrge elurikkuse ja sellega arvestava toidutootmisega. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5449439

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Draheim, Dirk; Krimmer, Robert; Tammet, Tanel;
    Publisher: Unpublished
    Country: Estonia

    The \digital transformation" is perceived as the key enabler for increasing wealth and well-being by politics, media and the citizens alike. In the same vein, digital government steadily receives more and more attention. Digital government gives rise to complex, large-scale state-level system landscapes consisting of many players and technological systems { and we call such system landscapes digital government ecosystems. In this paper, we systematically approach the state-level architecture of digital government ecosystems.We will discover the primacy of the state's institutional design in the architecture of digital government ecosystems, where Williamson's institutional analysis framework supports our considerations as theoretical background. Based on that insight, we will establish the notion of data governance architecture, which links data assets with accountable organizations. Our investigation results into a digital government architecture framework that can help in large-scale digital government design e_orts through (i) separation of concerns in terms of appropriate categories, and (ii) a better assessment of the feasibility of envisioned digital transformations. With its focus on data, the proposed framework perfectly _ts the current discussion on moving from ICT-driven to data-centric digital government.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Kmoch; Arno Kanal; Alar Astover; Ain Kull; Holger Virro; Aveliina Helm; Meelis Pärtel; Ivika Ostonen; Evelyn Uuemaa;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | GLOMODAT (795625)

    To understand, model, and predict landscape evolution, ecosystem services, and hydrological processes, the availability of detailed observation-based soil data is extremely valuable. For the EstSoil-EH dataset, we synthesized more than 20 eco-hydrological variables on soil, topography, and land use for Estonia (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3473289, Kmoch et al., 2019a) as numerical and categorical values from the original Soil Map of Estonia, the Estonian 5 m lidar DEM, Estonian Topographic Database, and EU-SoilHydroGrids layers. The Soil Map of Estonia maps more than 750 000 soil units throughout Estonia at a scale of 1:10 000 and forms the basis for EstSoil-EH. It is the most detailed and information-rich dataset for soils in Estonia, with 75 % of mapped units smaller than 4.0 ha, based on Soviet-era field mapping. For each soil unit, it describes the soil type (i.e. soil reference group), soil texture, and layer information with a composite text code, which comprises not only the actual texture class, but also classifiers for rock content, peat soils, distinct compositional layers, and their depths. To use these as eco-hydrological process properties in modelling applications we translated the text codes into numbers. The derived parameters include soil layering, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand contents), coarse fragments, and rock content of the soil layers within the soil profiles. In addition, we aggregated and predicted physical variables related to water and carbon cycles (bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, organic carbon content, available water capacity). The methodology and dataset developed will be an important resource for the Baltic region, but possibly also for all other regions where detailed field-based soil mapping data are available. Countries like Lithuania and Latvia have similar historical soil records from the Soviet era that could be turned into value-added datasets such as the one we developed for Estonia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hartmann, Dennis;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikool
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kustavus, Allan;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikool
    Country: Estonia

    Autonomous robots are utilized in a wide range of domains, combining a large number of resources like sensors, actuators and algorithms to form a self-acting robotic system. Tools, such as ROS and TeMoto, have been developed to allow for handling and managing of resources composing such systems. While TeMoto is meant to handle dynamic and changing situations the current implementation of its Resource Registrar, a core TeMoto component tasked with allocating, deallocating and tracking of resources, is tightly coupled to ROS, making it difficult to modify and improve. As a result of this thesis, the Resource Registrar (RR) of TeMoto was completely redesigned to be extendable to other robotic middleware, such as ROS2, and to improve TeMoto’s robustness with features, e.g., full recovery of the RR, that were unattainable with the previous design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milyakina, Alexandra;
    Country: Estonia

    Despite the common concern, young people today are engaging with literature more than ever, albeit in the ways that are not always recognized. Literary education in the digital age implies navigating a heterogeneous world of metatexts in different media and integrating them into a coherent whole. Rather than reading the original versions of literary texts, people often gain information from elsewhere, i.e. by watching film adaptations, scrolling through memes, playing video games, or reading comments on Youtube. In contrast to printed books that are mostly verbal, linear and created by a single author, digital texts are becoming increasingly multimodal, non-linear and collaborative. Apart from a qualitative and quantitative change in the nature of texts, digitalization entails a shift in social relations: producers and consumers merge into prosumers, while teachers turn into knowledge facilitators rather than all-knowing others. While the current situation can be certainly considered as a moment of explosion, this work mostly focuses on its opposite – the stage of gradual development. The thesis explores the transformation of literary education from different angles. At first, it discusses the applicability of different forms of texts and practices to teaching literature, such as digital and film adaptations, games, and project development workshops. Secondly, it synthesizes the ideas of the Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School and the multimodal approach, in order to analyze literary education in the context of cultural autocommunication as well as through the prism of social relations. Finally, it suggests pedagogical and technological solutions for bridging the gap between formal literary education and vernacular digital practices. The thesis aims to answer research questions by means of experimentation rather than by a theoretical argument: the findings are based on the empirical material gathered while working on the Education on Screen project. Vaatamata levinud arvamusele on noorte inimeste kirjanduselu aktiivsem kui kunagi varem. Kirjandusega suheldakse lihtsalt viisidel, mis ei pruugi alati laiemat tunnustamist leida. Digiajastul hõlmab kirjandusharidus erinevates meediumites loodud metatekstide mitmekesises võrgustikus navigeerimist ja nende pinnalt terviku integreerimist. Algtekstide esialgsel kujul lugemise asemel hangitakse selle kohta teadmisi nt ekraniseeringute, meemide, videomängude või isegi YouTube’i kommentaaride vahendusel. Verbaalsele, lineaarsele ja üksikautorluses trükiraamatule vastukaaluks on digitaalsed tekstid multimodaalsed, mittelineaarsed ja koosloomelised. Tekstide kvantitatiivsete ja kvalitatiivsete omaduste muutuste kõrval on digitaliseerumine kaasa toonud nihked ka kirjandusharidust puudutavates sotsiaalsetes suhetes - loojad ja vastuvõtjad segunevad, kõike teadvatest õpetajatest saavad juhendajad iseseisvas teadmiste omandamise protsessis. Sellist olukorda võib vaadelda kultuurilise plahvatushetkena, kuid käesolev töö keskendub vastasküljele -- pidevale muutusele. Väitekiri käsitleb kirjandushariduse muutumist erinevate nurkade alt. Esiteks vaadeldakse eelnimetatud metatekstide rakendatavust kirjanduse õpetamisel. Teiseks sünteesitakse Tartu-Moskva semiootikakoolkonna ning multimodaalsuse uuringuid analüüsimaks kirjandusharidust nii kultuurilise autokommunikatsiooni kontekstis kui läbi sotsiaalsete suhete prisma. Viimaseks pakutakse välja pedagoogilisi ja tehnoloogilisi lahendusi, et ületada formaalse kirjandushariduse ja igapäevaste digitaalsete praktikate vahelist lõhet. Väitekirjas lähenetakse uurimisküsimustele eksperimentaalselt ning töö aluseks olev empiiriline materjal pärineb autori osalusel valminud digitaalselt õppeplatvormilt Haridus Ekraanil ja selle kasutamiskogemustest. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5383228

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evelyn Uuemaa; Sander Ahi; Bruno Montibeller; Merle Muru; Alexander Kmoch;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Estonia
    Project: EC | GLOMODAT (795625)

    Freely available global digital elevation models (DEMs) are important inputs for many research fields and applications. During the last decade, several global DEMs have been released based on satellite data. ASTER and SRTM are the most widely used DEMs, but the more recently released, AW3D30, TanDEM-X and MERIT, are being increasingly used. Many researchers have studied the quality of these DEM products in recent years. However, there has been no comprehensive and systematic evaluation of their quality over areas with variable topography and land cover conditions. To provide this comparison, we examined the accuracy of six freely available global DEMs (ASTER, AW3D30, MERIT, TanDEM-X, SRTM, and NASADEM) in four geographic regions with different topographic and land use conditions. We used local high-precision elevation models (Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Pleiades-1A) as reference models and all global models were resampled to reference model resolution (1m). In total, 608 million 1x1 m pixels were analyzed. To estimate the accuracy, we generated error rasters by subtracting each reference model from the corresponding global DEM and calculated descriptive statistics for this difference (e.g., median, mean, root-mean-square error (RMSE)). We also assessed the vertical accuracy as a function of the slope, slope aspect, and land cover. We found that slope had the strongest effect on DEM accuracy, with no relationship for slope aspect. The AW3D30 was the most robust and had the most stable performance in most of the tests and is therefore the best choice for an analysis of multiple geographic regions. SRTM and NASADEM also performed well where available, whereas NASADEM, as a successor of SRTM, showed only slight improvement in comparison to SRTM. MERIT and TanDEM-X also performed well despite their lower spatial resolution.

  • Publication . Master thesis . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Oidekivi, Maarika;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikool
    Country: Estonia

    Robotite ning inimeste ruumi jagamiseks ning koostöö jaoks on vajalik omavaheline suhtlus. Roboti ja inimese vahelises suhtluses on tähtis nii masinapoolne inimese mõistmine kui ka see, et inimene mõistaks roboti poolt edastatut. Selleks on vaja, et robot suudaks end inimesele arusaadaval viisil selgeks teha. Käesoleva magistritöö eesmärgiks oli uurida erinevaid võimalusi roboti kavatsuse väljendamiseks ning selle raames koostati kirjanduse kokkuvõte erinevatest juba välja pakutud kavatsuse väljendamise variantidest, viidi läbi küsitlus Eesti inimeste seas, et analüüsida nende arusaamist masina kavatsusest ning loodi masina mudel, mida visualiseeriti simulatsioonikeskkonnas. Küsimustikust selgus, et Eesti inimesed ei pruugi masina poolt edastatavaid emotsioone mõista, kui kasutatakse ainult roboti silmi. Samuti selgus, et ilma eelnevate teadmisteta ei olnud inimesed võimelised sõidukite kavatsusi ära tundma, kui kasutuses olid LED-ribad või -ekraanid, projektsioonide puhul said inimesed sõiduki kavatsusest aru. In english: For humans and robots to share space and cooperate, it is necessary to communicate with each other. In the communication between a human and a robot it is important for the machine to understand the human and also for the human to understand the information transmitted by the robot. This requires, that the robot would be able to make itself clear to humans in an understandable way. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate different approaches to communicate the intent of a machine. During the master’s thesis, an overview of various options already proposed to express intent was given, a suvery was conducted among Estonian people to analyze their understanding of machine intent and a model of an autonomous car capable of communicating intent was proposed and visualised in a simulator. The survey revealed that Estonians may not understand the emotions of a machine if only robot’s eyes are used. It was also found that without prior knowledge, people were not able to understand vehicle intent when LED strips and displays were used, people recognized the intent when projections were used.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Lillipuu, Epp Maria;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikool
    Country: Estonia

    Arbuskulaar-mükoriissed (AM) seened aitavad taimedel mullast toitaineid omastada, pakuvad kaitset stressi vastu ning parandavad mulla struktuuri. Tavapõllumajanduse praktikad mõjuvad AM seenekooslustele negatiivselt. AM seeni sisaldavaid inokulaate kasutades soovitakse inokulatsiooniga taimede kasvu ja saagist parandada, kuid inokulaate uurinud tööd on leidnud nende efektiivsuse kohta vastakaid tulemusi. Oma magistritöös uurin potikatses 11 tööstusliku inokulaadi võimet taimejuuri koloniseerida, neis sisalduvate AM seente ja muude mikroorganismide mõju taime biomassile ning tootekirjelduses olevate AM seeneliikide vastavust tegelikule koostisele. Leidsin, et vaid kaks inokulaati tekitasid taimedel juurte kolonisatsiooni ning inokulaatides olevate AM seened ja muud mikroorganismid ei omanud olulist positiivset mõju taimede biomassidele. Inokulaate sekveneerides tuli välja, et tootekirjelduses olevad AM seene liigid ei vasta suures osas neist leitud liikidele ning mitmes tootes oli AM seeni väga vähe või puudusid nad sootuks. Seega tuleks AM seeni sisaldavate inokulaatide tulemuslikuks rakendamiseks pöörata senisest suuremat tähelepanu inokulaatide kvaliteedikontrollile.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Sein, Karina;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikool
    Country: Estonia

    Eestis tegeletakse aktiivselt eestikeelsete kõnesüntesaatorite arendamisega. Sellest hoolimata on nende rakendamine robotitele olnud minimaalne. Tõenäoliseks põhjuseks on tehnoloogia ebaküpsus ning robootikasse rakendamise tehniline keerukus. Lõputöö eesmärk on luua modulaarne lahendus, mis võimaldaks võimalikult paljudele robotitele eestikeelne kõnesüntees kättesaadavaks teha. Selleks luuakse maailmas laialdaselt levinud robotite arendusplatvormi ROS tugi eestikeelsele kõnesüntesaatorile. Lõputöö tulemusena valmis ROSi kimp synthts_et_ros, mis tagab teksti heliks konverteerimise ja kõne ettemängimise funktsionaalsuse. Seega on loodud modulaarne lahendus, mis võimaldab arendajatel lisada robotile eestikeelse kõne võimekuse. In English: Despite Estonian speech synthesisers being actively developed in Estonia, their implementation on robots has been minimal. The probable cause for this might be the immaturity of the available technologies and technical complexity of implementation to robots. This bachelor’s thesis proposes to create a modular solution to make Estonian speech synthesisers available to as many robots as possible. For this purpose, ROS support (ROS being a widespread development platform for robots) was created to an existing Estonian speech synthesiser software. As a result of the thesis, a ROS package named synthts_et_ros has been created. This provides the functionalities of text-to-speech synthesis and playing back the speech to the user. Therefore, a modular solution was created which enables developers to add Estonian speech synthesis to ROS-enabled robots.