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27 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Other research products
  • Recolector de Ciencia Abierta, RECOLECTA
  • CemOA
  • Aurora Universities Network

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Castelló, Enric;
    Country: Spain

    This article discusses the concept of terroir in the light of the communication practices. It provides a literature review illustrated with a case observation. The author identifies three key stages in the constitution of the terroir through communication: organizational norms and interaction; the circulation of public relations, marketing and media messages, and promotion; and a meaningful consumer experience that closes the circle of a terroir-based storytelling. Here, communication processes play a leading role, which includes the agency of diverse stakeholders. The author argues that, among these stakeholders, geographical indication (GI) organizations are leading agents that build symbolic terroir practices. One of the text's principal theses is that terroir is a socio-cultural construction embedded in storytelling practices with a broad scientific, economic, social and cultural exchange. For this terroir to exist, there must be a collective will, driven by the interests of a wide range of stakeholders such as policymakers, local communities, vine growers, winemakers, marketers and consumers. The practice of defining, communicating and circulating this storytelling is what finally transfers agency to the narrative itself in what the author refers to as the will for terroir. The article illustrates the process with a case study of a wine GI in Catalonia (Spain) and discusses how the will for terroir is relevant at each stage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hermansen, John E.; Anton, Assumpcio; Fantke, Peter; Knudsen, Marie T.; Pena, Nancy;
    Country: Spain

    Pesticides help to control weeds, pests, and diseases contributing, therefore, to food availability. However, pesticide fractions not reaching the intended target may have adverse effects on the environment and the field ecosystems. Modeling pesticide emissions and the link with characterizing associated impacts is currently one of the main challenges in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of agricultural systems. To address this challenge, this study takes advantage of the latest recommendations for pesticide emission inventory and impact assessment and frames a suitable interface for those LCA stages and the related mass distribution of pesticide avoiding a temporal overlapping. Here, freshwater ecotoxicity impacts of the production of feed crops (maize, grass, winter wheat, spring barley, rapeseed, and peas) in Denmark were evaluated during a 3-year period, testing the effects of inventory modeling and the recent updates of the characterization method (USEtox). Potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts were calculated in two functional units reflecting crop impact profiles per ha and extent of cultivation, respectively. Ecotoxicity impacts decreased over the period, mainly because of the reduction of insecticides use (e.g., cypermethrin). Three different emission modeling scenarios were tested; they differ on the underlining assumptions and data requirements. The main aspects influencing impact results are the interface between inventory estimates and impact assessment, and the consideration of intermedia processes, such as crop growth development and pesticide application method. Impact scores for AS2 were higher than RS and AS1, but the differences in the crops ranking was less apparent. On the other hand, the influence on the estimation of impacts for individual Als was co

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Viejo A, Sánchez D;
    Country: Spain

    © 2018 Elsevier B.V. Fog-enabled IoT applications are the next step in the deployment of cloud computing backed services through the Internet. The use of fog nodes at the edge of the network reduces traffic to cloud servers, decreases latency of services and improves ubiquity. Security is, however, a fundamental challenge of fog computing because both fog and IoT nodes may be deployed in disperse non-secure locations. Solutions to this challenge rely on expensive cryptography, such as attribute-based encryption of homomorphic encryption, which significantly degrades the response time of the service delivery due to the limited resources of IoT nodes. In this paper, we tackle this issue by relying on the novel concept of fog orchestration. Through orchestration, the network is self-tailored to the service to be delivered, and we use this possibility to enable a secure and efficient service delivery. Specifically, we propose several secure and privacy-by-design protocols for the orchestration and delivery fog-enabled IoT services. We also assume the most challenging scenario in which nodes exchange data in open and potential unsecured networks and they can be subjected to a wide range of active attacks. The feasibility of our proposal and the improvements it brings over related works are discussed through a set of theoretical and empirical evaluations of its performance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sandoval-Ramírez BA, Catalán Ú, Fernández-Castillejo S, Rubió L, Macià A, Solà R.;
    Country: Spain

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are promising health-enhancing phenolic compounds. We focus on ACN animal tissue bioavailability to provide an evidentiary link between tissue ACNs and their associated health properties. We performed a systematic review of electronic libraries; 279 results were retrieved, and 13 publications met inclusion criteria. Extracted information included animal model employed, administration route, doses, analysis method, and ACN concentration values in tissues. Total ACN concentrations were detected in mice kidney (2.17 × 105 pmol/g), liver (1.73 × 105 pmol/g), heart (3.6 × 103 pmol/g), and lung (1.16 × 105 pmol/g); and in pig brain (6.08 × 103 pmol/g). ACNs showed a predominance of parent ACNs in long-term experiments versus an ACN metabolite predominance in short-term experiments. ACNs detected in animal tissues, such as cyanidin-3-glucoside, suggest it may have an important role in human health. This information could be useful to determine proper ACN-intake biomarkers in biological samples in futures studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Deusdad B., Riccò I.;
    Country: Spain

    Demographic change in Europe has resulted in an aging population, which presents new challenges for implementing and managing long-term care (LTC) systems. One solution aims to increase the efficiency of LTC by using digital technologies. This article focuses on professionals' opinions of the use of digital technologies in the administration of Spain's long-term care law (Law 39/2006, December 14, LAPAD). This qualitative research is part of SoCaTel, an H2020 project on the co-creation of LTC services in Europe. Ten focus groups were held with health professionals, care-taking relatives, and care workers, and six semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with care recipients in Catalonia, Spain. This article presents the data collected from professionals. Professionals reacted positively to the use of digital technologies, in contrast to some previous studies that highlight professionals' strong resistance to digitalization. Professionals saw digitalization as a way to speed up and simplify administrative processes. However, they also identified serious obstacles to efficient digitalization.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tomas-Hernandez S, Garcia-Vallvé S, Pujadas G, Valls C, Ojeda-Montes M, Gimeno A, Cereto-Massagué A, Roca-Martinez J, Suárez M, Arola L, Blanco J, Mulero M, Beltran-Debón R;
    Country: Spain

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of medical conditions that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation is directly involved in the onset of metabolic syndrome and related pathologies. In this study, in silico techniques were applied to a natural products database containing molecules isolated from mushrooms from the Catalan forests to predict molecules that can act as human nuclear-factor κβ kinase 2 (IKK-2) inhibitors. IKK-2 is the main component responsible for activating the nuclear-factor κβ transcription factor (NF-κβ). One of these predicted molecules was o-orsellinaldehyde, a molecule present in the mushroom Grifola frondosa. This study shows that o-orsellinaldehyde presents anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties by acting as IKK-2 inhibitor. Additionally, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of Grifola frondosa mushroom could partially be explained by the presence of o-orsellinaldehyde on its composition.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gutierrez, Aaron Arauzo-Carod, Josep-Maria;
    Country: Spain

    This paper uses data on housing stock owned by financial entities as a result of foreclosures to analyze (1) the spatial logic of Spain's mortgage crisis in urban areas, and (2) the characteristics of the types of housing most affected by this phenomenon. Nearest-Neighbor Index and Ripley's K function analyses were applied in two Catalan cities (Tarragona and Terrassa). The results obtained show that foreclosures tend to be concentrated in the most deprived neighborhoods. The general pattern of clustering also tends to be most intense for smaller and cheaper housing. Our findings show that home foreclosures have been concentrated in only a few neighborhoods and precisely in those containing the poorest-quality housing stock. They also provide new evidence of the characteristics and spatial patterns of the housing stock accumulated by banks in Catalonia as a result of the recent wave of evictions associated with foreclosures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ginés I, Gil-Cardoso K, Robles P, Arola L, Terra X, Blay M, Ardévol A, Pinent M.;
    Country: Spain

    The enteroendocrine system coordinates gastrointestinal (GI) tract functionality and the whole organism. However, the scarcity of enteroendocrine cells and their scattered distribution make them difficult to study. Here, we glued segments of the GI wall of pigs to a silicon tube, keeping the apical and the basolateral sides separate. The fact that there was less than 1% of 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran on the basolateral side proved that the gluing was efficient. Since the lactate dehydrogenase leakage at basolateral side was lower than 0.1% (1.40 ± 0.17 nKatals) it proved that the tissue was viable. The intestinal barrier function was maintained as it is in segments mounted in Ussing chambers (the amount of Lucifer Yellow crossing it, was similar between them; respectively, % LY, 0.48 ± 0.13; 0.52 ± 0.09; p > 0.05). Finally, apical treatments with two different extract produced differential basolateral enterohormone secretions (basolateral PYY secretion vs control; animal extract, 0.35 ± 0.16; plant extract, 2.5 ± 0.74; p < 0.05). In conclusion, we report an ex vivo system called "Ap-to-Bas" for assaying vectorial transepithelial processes that makes it possible to work with several samples at the same time. It is an optimal device for enterohormone studies in the intestine.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Domenech, Antoni Gutierrez, Aaron;
    Country: Spain

    This article develops a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness and spatial coverage of public transport in tourist cities. The proposed methodology is applied and validated in Cambrils municipality, in the central part of the Costa Daurada in Catalonia, a coastal destination characterised by the concentration of tourism flows during summer. The application of GIS spatial analysis tools allows for the development of a system of territorial indicators that spatially correlate the public transport network and the distribution of the population. The main novelty of our work is that this analysis not only includes the registered resident population, but also incorporates the population that temporarily inhabits the municipality (tourists). The results of the study firstly permit the detection of unequal spatial accessibility and coverage in terms of public transport in the municipality, with significant differences between central neighbourhoods and peripheral urban areas of lower population density. Secondly, they allow observation of how the degree of public transport coverage differs significantly in areas with a higher concentration of tourist accommodation establishments.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Domingo J., Nadal M.;
    Country: Spain

    Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds. In 2012, we published a wide revision on the state of the science regarding the concentrations of PFASs in foodstuffs, the human dietary exposure to these compounds, and their health risks. In the present review, we have updated the information recently (2011-2016) published in the scientific literature. As in our previous review, we have also observed considerable differences in the PFASs detected-and their concentrations-in the food items analyzed in samples from a number of regions and countries However, fish and other seafood seem to be the food group in which more PFASs are detected and where the concentrations of these compounds are higher. On the basis of the recommendations of the EFSA on the maximum dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA, human health risks would not be of concern for nonoccupationally exposed populations, at least in the very limited countries for which recent data are available.