Nowadays, assessing geo-hazards in cultural heritage sites in most cases takes place after the hazard has occurred. Monitoring structural and ground deformation resulting from geo-hazards facilitates the early recognition of potential risks and encourages effective conservation planning. This paper presents an integrated ground deformation monitoring approach based on the combined use of satellite SAR data, campaign-based GPS/GNSS observations, and aerial images from UAVs within the Choirokoitia UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cyprus. The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the Eastern Mediterranean. The site is located on a steep hill, which makes it vulnerable to rock falls and landslides. As part of the PROTHEGO project, a series of field measurements were collected at the Choirokoitia site and compared against satellite SAR data to verify kinematic behavior of the broader area and to assist in monitoring potential geo-hazards over time. The results obtained indicate displacement rates of the order of 0.03 m/year. These results indicate that ground deformation should be monitored in the area surrounding the Choirokoitia using long-term, low-impact monitoring systems such as SAR images and UAV-based and geodetic techniques. The combination of such monitoring technologies can be compared to monitor and assess potential geo-hazards on archeological sites with increased accuracy.
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