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152 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fortuna, Luigi; Scibilia, Adriano;
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    Questo scritto è finalizzato a discutere, da una prospettiva giuridica, i problemi derivanti dalla concentrazione di potere di controllo ed elaborazione dei dati e delle informazioni nelle mani di monopoli e oligopoli commerciali che forniscono ai produttori agricoli macchine (ad es., trattori), sementi, prodotti chimici (ad es. fertilizzanti e diserbanti) nonché servizi di agricoltura di precisione e smart farming. Tali monopoli e oligopoli traggono, almeno in parte, la loro forza dalla proprietà intellettuale e dalla pseudo-proprietà intellettuale. La pseudo-proprietà intellettuale consiste in quelle forme anomale di esclusiva che si basano, ad esempio, su contratto e misure tecnologiche di protezione nonché sul potere di fatto che deriva dal controllo dell’infrastruttura tecnologica su cui i dati vengono memorizzati, elaborati e trasmessi sulle reti telematiche. Nel settore dello smart farming e dell’agricoltura di precisione il potere delle imprese che forniscono fattori di produzione può determinare effetti anticoncorrenziali e abusi di dipendenza economica. Più in generale il potere dei monopoli intellettuali diminuisce il grado di autonomia e libertà degli agricoltori: non solo del singolo agricoltore di fronte all’impresa fornitrice del fattore di produzione, ma anche della categoria degli agricoltori di fronte a quella dei fornitori dei fattori di produzione all’interno della filiera agroalimentare. Tra gli strumenti giuridici che sono stati immaginati per contrastare tale potere merita attenzione il c.d. right to repair, il diritto dell’utente di un dispositivo di poterlo riparare senza sottostare alle restrizioni imposte dal produttore del dispositivo. Tale diritto, per essere efficace, deve limitare la proprietà intellettuale e la pseudo-proprietà intellettuale. The scope of this paper is to discuss from a legal perspective the problems arising from the concentration of data and information control and processing power in the hands of commercial monopolies and oligopolies that supply farmers with machines (e.g., tractors), seeds, chemicals (e.g., fertilizers and herbicides) as well as precision farming and smart farming services. Such monopolies and oligopolies derive, at least in part, their strength from intellectual property and pseudo-intellectual property. Pseudo-intellectual property consists of those anomalous forms of exclusivity that are based, for example, on contract and technological protection measures as well as the de facto power that comes from controlling the technological infrastructure on which data are stored, processed, and transmitted. In smart farming and precision agriculture, the power of input-supplying firms can lead to anticompetitive effects and abuses of economic dependence. More generally, the power of intellectual monopolies diminishes the degree of autonomy and freedom of farmers: not only of the individual farmer vis-à-vis the input-supplying firm, but also of the category of farmers vis-à-vis the category of input suppliers within the value chain. Among the legal instruments that have been imagined counteracting such power, the so-called “right to repair”, the right of the user of a device to be able to repair it without being subject to the restrictions imposed by the device manufacturer, deserves attention. Such a right, to be effective, must restrict intellectual property and pseudo-intellectual property.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scarlato, Rosa Candida;

    A partire dal XVII secolo, le riviste si sono affermate come canale prediletto della moderna comunicazione scientifica: con la sua forma agile e sintetica, l’articolo ha costituito il veicolo ideale attraverso il quale diffondere rapidamente e in modo capillare i risultati della ricerca nei campi delle STM, permettendo al contempo alla propria comunità di riferimento di verificare la qualità e la veridicità delle scoperte riportate – attraverso la peer-review – nonché assicurando, in termini di tempo, il primato delle scoperte. Questa modalità di comunicazione, ancora oggi in vigore, è stata interessata nel corso del Novecento da una serie di cambiamenti, che hanno finito per consolidarsi come prassi disfunzionali e ostacoli alla diffusione stessa del sapere scientifico, rendendo le riviste scientifiche degli strumenti di controllo dell’accesso alla scienza e di valutazione dei ricercatori piuttosto che dispositivi volti alla diffusione delle scoperte in grado di produrre benessere collettivo. Spinte non concertate di opposizione a tale paradigma, mosse soprattutto dalla serial crisis pricing e dalla volontà di opporsi all'oligopolio degli editori commerciali andatosi a creare, hanno finito per convergere all’inizio del nuovo millennio, concretizzandosi formalmente con la nascita e con la diffusione del movimento Open Access (OA), per l’accesso aperto alle pubblicazioni scientifiche. Il movimento OA ha interessato il paradigma concettuale alla base della produzione scientifica, ripensando strutturalmente tutto il processo di comunicazione e diffusione dei risultati scientifici, riscoprendo l’antica tradizione che muoveva la condivisione delle scoperte senza la segretezza attraverso un nuovo mezzo: Internet. Le possibilità offerte dal digitale, infatti, hanno permesso di trasformare radicalmente le modalità di comunicazione della conoscenza scientifica, di amplificarne la portata e di elaborare due nuove strategie per la disseminazione dei risultati, come esplicitato nel 2002 all’interno della Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), il manifesto fondante dell’accesso aperto: attraverso l’(auto)archiviazione all’interno degli archivi elettronici aperti (i repository) dei prodotti della ricerca, a seguito della loro pubblicazione entro periodici scientifici (la cosiddetta green road), e con la creazione di riviste open access (la gold road), che permettessero a chiunque di accedere ai risultati della ricerca finanziata con fondi pubblici senza dover pagare. L’applicazione sinergica delle due strategie delineate da BOAI ha coinvolto il mondo editoriale e il mondo accademico: all’interno della presente trattazione, si vuole evidenziare come il progetto promosso dal Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (DeFENS) dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, volto a digitalizzare il pregresso cartaceo delle due riviste scientifiche Annali di Microbiologia e Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura, risponda nelle intenzioni, nelle azioni e nelle prospettive ai principi dell’Open Access. Il capitolo d’apertura - prendendo spunto da una letteratura già sterminata - vuole fornire una panoramica teorica sull’Open Access, ripercorrendone la genesi e l’articolazione, mostrando la diffusione del movimento, le parti in gioco (editori, atenei, biblioteche, ricercatori) e le novità, sia concettuali sia strumentali, introdotte dal nuovo paradigma all’interno del sistema di produzione e comunicazione del sapere scientifico. Si evidenzieranno, altresì, i limiti materiali e concettuali che ancora oggi ostacolano la piena affermazione dell’Open Access. Nel secondo capitolo, invece, si vedrà come l’Open Access è stato attuato e integrato all’interno del mondo accademico. Ci si concentrerà sul caso specifico dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, ripercorrendo le tappe principali dell’accesso aperto all’interno dell’ateneo meneghino: l’adesione ai principi della Berlin Declaration con la Dichiarazione di Messina (2004), la creazione del repository istituzionale AIR (Archivio Istituzionale della Ricerca), la nascita della Milano University Press (MilanoUP) e, in particolare, della piattaforma di riviste diamond open access Riviste UNIMI. L’attenzione verterà sull’analisi della Policy Open Access, della Policy di AIR e dei regolamenti della Statale, osservando come – a livello programmatico e di azione – l’ateneo abbia recepito quanto previsto all’interno delle diverse Linee Guida emanate negli anni dal Gruppo Open Access della CRUI e dalla Raccomandazione 2012/417/UE del 17 luglio 2012 (sull’accesso all’informazione scientifica e sulla sua conservazione) in merito ai principi dell’Open Access e dell’Open Science. Le azioni saranno lette anche attraverso la lente delle Relazioni Annuali prodotte dal 2017 al 2022 dalla Commissione Open Science della Statale. Nella terza parte, si presenterà il progetto di digitalizzazione del DeFENS, chiarendo come tale lavoro risponda alla precipua intenzione del Dipartimento di contribuire alle politiche Open Science e Open Access dell’università e specificando il ruolo svolto delle pratiche di digitalizzazione come supporto all’accesso aperto, per assicurare la disseminazione, la conservazione e la preservazione di manufatti analogici in ambiente digitale. Il case study verrà descritto nelle fasi in cui è stato articolato il workflow: il progetto di digitalizzazione nelle sue premesse e nella sua progettazione in termini di risorse umane, economiche e di tempo; la storia delle due riviste interessate dalla digitalizzazione e i motivi che hanno portato al loro inserimento all’interno delle politiche open access; le azioni concrete compiute sul corpus cartaceo, nello specifico nelle fasi di scelta, scansione e applicazione dell’OCR compiute sui volumi, con riguardo anche alle criticità; l’archiviazione digitale dei prodotti ottenuti, compiuta di concerto con l’Ufficio di Supporto alle Politiche Open Science; lo stato attuale del progetto e le prospettive future che andranno a interessarlo, in termini di conclusione del processo, di disseminazione e di implicazioni a fronte della liberazione degli articoli contenuti nei due periodici scientifici. --- Since the seventeenth century, journals have established themselves as the favorite channel of modern scientific communication: the article has been the ideal vehicle through which to disseminate rapidly and in a capillary way the results of research in the fields of the STMs, while allowing its reference community to verify the quality and veracity of the reported discoveries - through peer-review - as well as ensuring, in terms of time, the primacy of the discoveries. This mode of communication, still in force today, was affected during the twentieth century by a series of changes, which ended up consolidating themselves as dysfunctional practices and obstacles to the very diffusion of scientific knowledge, making scientific journals tools for controlling the access to science and evaluation of researchers rather than devices aimed at disseminating discoveries capable of producing collective wellness. Unconcerted pushes of opposition to this paradigm, moved above all by the serial crisis pricing and by the desire to oppose the oligopoly of commercial publishers that had arisen, ended up converging at the beginning of the new millennium, formally materializing with the birth and diffusion of the Open Access (OA) movement, for open access to scientific publications. The OA movement has involved the conceptual paradigm at the basis of scientific production, structurally rethinking the whole process of communication and dissemination of scientific results, rediscovering the ancient tradition that moved the sharing of discoveries without secrecy through a new medium: Internet. The possibilities offered by digital technology have made it possible to radically transform the methods of communicating scientific knowledge, to amplify its scope and to develop two new strategies for the dissemination of results, as made explicit in 2002 within the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), the founding statement of Open Access: through (self) archiving within open electronic archives (repositories) of research products, following their publication in scientific periodicals (the so-called green road), and with the creation of open access journals (the gold road), which would allow anyone to access the results of publicly funded research without paying. The synergistic application of the BOAI's two strategies has involved the publishing world and the academic world: within the present discussion, we want to highlight how the project promoted by the Department of Food and Nutrition Sciences (DeFENS) of the University of Studi di Milano, aimed at digitizing the previous analogic copies of the two scientific journals Annali di Microbiologia (now Annals of Microbiology) and Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura (now Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research), responds in intentions, actions and perspectives to the principles of Open Access. The opening chapter aims to provide a theoretical overview of Open Access, retracing its genesis and articulation, showing the diffusion of the movement, the parties involved (publishers, universities, libraries, researchers) and the innovations, both conceptual and instrumental, introduced by the new paradigm within the system of production and communication of scientific knowledge. The material and conceptual limits that still today hinder the full affirmation of Open Access will also be highlighted. In the second chapter, we will see how Open Access has been implemented and integrated within the academic world. We will focus on the specific case of the University of Milan, retracing the main stages of Open Access within this university: adherence to the principles of the Berlin Declaration with the Messina Declaration (2004), the creation of the repository AIR (Institutional Research Archive), the birth of the Milano University Press (MilanoUP) and, in particular, of the diamond open access e-journals platform Riviste UNIMI. Attention will focus on the analysis of the Open Access Policy, the AIR Policy and the regulations of the university, observing how - at a programmatic and action level - the University of Milan has implemented the provisions of the various Guidelines issued over the years by the Open Access Group of the CRUI and by Recommendation 2012/417/EU of 17 July 2012 (on access to scientific information and its conservation) regarding the principles of Open Access and Open Science. The actions will also be read through the lens of the Annual Reports produced from 2017 to 2022 by the University of Milan's Open Science Commission. In the last chapter, the DeFENS digitization project will be presented, clarifying how this work responds to the main intention of the Department to contribute to the University of Milan's Open Science and Open Access policies and specifying the role played by digitization practices in supporting Open Access, to ensure the dissemination, conservation and preservation of analog artefacts in a digital environment. The case study will be described in the stages in which the workflow was articulated: the digitization project in its premises and in its planning in terms of human, economic and time resources; the history of the two journals affected by digitization and the reasons that led to their inclusion in open access policies; the concrete actions carried out on the paper corpus, specifically in the phases of selection, scanning and application of the OCR carried out on the volumes, also with regard to critical issues; the digital archiving of the products obtained, carried out in concert with the Open Science Policy Support Office; the current state of the project and the future prospects that will affect it, in terms of conclusion of the process, dissemination and implications in view of the release of the articles contained in the two scientific periodicals. I riferimenti bibliografici sono quasi interamente ad accesso aperto. -- The bibliographic references are mostly open access.

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    Authors: Anna Maria Marras; Andrea Bolioli;

    Between 2017 and 2018, a project for the restoration and redevelopment of the library of Charles Albert of Savoy at the Royal Castle of Racconigi, financed by the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation, was carried out under the title "The recovery of the Carlo-Albertine Library, a meeting place between the public and private life of the sovereign" conceived and implemented by the Association Le Terre dei Savoia, in collaboration with the management of the Castle of Racconigi and the Piedmont Regional Museums Directorate (formerly Polo Museale del Piemonte). In addition to the restoration of the physical library, the project included the creation of a small digital library called the 'Library of Carlo Alberto', whose website can be consulted at https://www.bibliocarloalberto.it/. Tra il 2017 e il 2018 è stato realizzato un progetto di restauro e riqualificazione della biblioteca di Carlo Alberto di Savoia presso il Castello Reale di Racconigi, finanziato dalla Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo, dal titolo “Il recupero della Biblioteca carloalbertina, luogo d’incontro tra vita pubblica e privata del sovrano” ideato e realizzato dall’Associazione Le Terre dei Savoia, in collaborazione con la direzione del Castello di Racconigi e la Direzione Regionale Musei Piemonte (precedentemente Polo Museale del Piemonte). Oltre al restauro della biblioteca fisica, il progetto ha incluso la creazione di una piccola digital library denominata la “Biblioteca di Carlo Alberto”, il cui sito web è consultabile all’indirizzo https://www.bibliocarloalberto.it/.

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    Authors: Maugeri, Anna Maria; Maglione, PIETRO STEFANO;
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    Authors: Marchetti, Marco; Lasserre, Bruno; Vangi, Elia;
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    Authors: Smojver, Valentina;

    Il mondo digitale è un ambiente ricco di informazioni disponibili a ogni individuo, uno spazio in cui vengono rimosse le barriere spazio-temporali che ostruiscono la ricerca e l’estrazione di dati. In tal senso, la digitalizzazione – il passaggio dal fisico al virtuale – diventa un mezzo che permette a ogni istituzione, specie quella scolastica, di raccogliere informazioni di diversi artisti, poeti e delle loro opere, assicurando un’indagine, una ricerca molto più ampia e, al contempo, più sistematica e rapida. Lo scopo della digitalizzazione è di facilitare l’esperienza semantica digitale e la comunicazione tra il messaggio e l’utente, una comunicazione che è spesso ostacolata da ragioni amministrative. L’iniziativa della digitalizzazione di opere letterarie prevede una rivoluzione digitale, una creazione di uno spazio utopistico, di un ‘cyber utopismo’ che stabilisca nuove frontiere nel settore scolastico. La presente tesi ha per oggetto la digitalizzazione di parte dell’archivio di Osvaldo Ramous, poligrafo fiumano considerato cittadino del mondo in quanto sostenitore della multiculturalità e della multietnicità. Lo scrittore, autore studiato nel corso di laurea magistrale a lui dedicato, è uno degli scrittori che ha subito una trasformazione nel contesto digitale per cui si può sostenere che la digitalizzazione del suo opus potrà contribuire, in futuro, a un’innovazione didattica, intesa anche come educazione digitale. Lo scrittore fiumano non smise mai di promuovere e di esaltare la propria città natale e la propria cultura, una cultura mondiale che celebrava la diversità e l’unicità di ogni individuo. La digitalizzazione e la conservazione di parte del suo cospicuo patrimonio letterario è stata svolta in ambito progettuale dal Dipartimento di Italianistica di Fiume. Il progetto in questione si intitola Implementazione dell’umanistica digitale nelle attività scientifico-didattiche del Dipartimento di Italianistica di Fiume ed è stato realizzato nel corso del semestre estivo del 2021 con il patrocinio dell’Unione Italiana, dell’Università Popolare di Trieste e del Ministero degli Affari Esteri della Repubblica d’Italia e include sia traduzioni di opere ramousiane (Ramous tradotto) sia traduzioni ramousiane di vari autori (Ramous traduttore). Il progetto consentirà in futuro la diffusione della conoscenza dell’opera e della cultura del poligrafo fiumano oltre i confini, avvicinandola a un pubblico sempre più vasto. La messa in rete delle sue opere promuoverà, inoltre, concetti quali connettività, disponibilità e diffusione globale di idee, pensieri ed emozioni universali. The digital world is a space full of information accessible to every individual. A place where the space-time barriers, which obstruct data research and extraction, are removed. In this regard, digitisation – the conversion from physical to virtual – becomes a means for institutions (especially the educational one) to collect information about various artists, poets, and their works, by ensuring a more detailed, as well as more systematic and rapid online research. The purpose of digitisation is to simplify the semantic data search experience and to improve the communication between the message and the user, which is often hindered due to administrative reasons. The digitisation project, intended to digitise literary works, implies a digital transformation, a creation of a utopian space, i.e. a cyber-utopianism that is meant to set up new frontiers within the educational sector. One of the authors who has undergone a transformation within the digital context and who will contribute to didactic innovation, i.e. digital education, is Osvaldo Ramous (whose works are studied within the master’s degree programme), a citizen of the world and a proponent of multiculturalism and multi-ethnicity. The writer, a native of Fiume (fiumano), continuously promoted and praised his hometown and his universal culture that celebrated the diversity and uniqueness of each individual. The digitisation and conservation of a fraction of his remarkable literary heritage – led by the Department of Italian Language and Literature in Fiume / Rijeka and titled Implementazione dell’umanistica digitale nelle attività scientifico-didattiche del Dipartimento di Italianistica di Fiume – includes both translations of his works (Ramous tradotto) and his translations of works of various authors (Ramous traduttore). The project was carried out during the summer semester 2021 in collaboration with the Italian Union, the University of Trieste, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Italian Republic). The project’s aim is to disseminate knowledge beyond borders, both in regards to the literary pieces and the culture of the Italian writer, bringing it closer to an ever-growing audience. The creation of a digital collection of his opus will further the idea of connectivity, availability, and global dissemination of universal thoughts and emotions.

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    Authors: Smojver, Katarina;

    Nella tesi verrà discussa la questione dell’archiviazione e digitalizzazione della rivista «La battana» per affrontare, di seguito, il suo ruolo, gli indirizzi programmatici delle varie redazioni, i collaboratori, gli autori e i temi trattati nelle varie redazioni ed edizioni. La rivista culturale, fondata nel 1964 ed edita dalla casa editrice EDIT di Fiume, rappresenta l’attività della Comunità Nazionale Italiana che deve venir conservata come tale. La prima parte della ricerca si basa sull’evoluzione dell’archivistica e degli archivi. La parte teorica è necessaria per spiegare lo sviluppo e l’importanza che ha la conservazione di documenti nell’epoca moderna. Dalla nascita degli archivi, in origine luoghi destinati alla preservazione di epistole e documenti di grande importanza, scritti da sovrani e funzionari del governo, alla loro evoluzione in enti pubblici, dotati di strutture, norme e regolamenti che tengono viva la memoria storica, la conservano e trasmettono le testimonianze dell’umanità. In seguito viene delineata l’evoluzione di Internet, nonché la sua espansione, che favorisce e facilita la nascita della digitalizzaione, del nuovo metodo di conservazione di documenti, fotografie e non solo. La digitalizzazione permette di archiviare dati sottoforma di documenti memorizzati, trasformati in caratteri che, a sua volta, vengono convertiti in documenti informatici. Tali procedimenti garantiscono la creazione e l’accesso immediato agli archivi digitali. Tra questi si colloca il materiale digitalizzato dal Dipartimento di Italianistica nell’anno accademico 2020/2021 e relativo alla rivista «La battana» (nn. 1-199). Il progetto di digitalizzazione realizzato dal Dipartimento di Italianistica della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di Fiume, con il contributo del professor Tommaso Mazzoli dell’Università degli Studi di Trieste e l’attività laboratoriale di docenti e studenti dell’Università di Fiume, ha favorito il mantenimento in forma digitale della rivista «La battana», nonché di parte del fondo dello scrittore fiumano Osvaldo Ramous. Nella seconda parte verranno presentati i contenuti della rivista disponibile online, verrà sottolineata l’importanza che la stessa ha oggi ed ha avuto in passato per la Comunità Nazionale Italiana dell’Istria e di Fiume, per la diffusione degli autori connazionali e delle rispettive opere letterarie ed artistiche in genere. Si affronteranno i temi centrali e il ruolo di ponte che la rivista ha assunto nei vari decenni. Verranno considerati i cambiamenti nella politica culturale delle varie redazioni che, in sintonia con i tempi e in precise circostanze storiche, hanno sempre seguito le mode, le correnti, le problematiche etiche ed estetiche. The thesis discusses the archiving and digitization of the magazine «La battana», its role, the programmatic guidelines of the various editorial offices, collaborators, authors and the issues addressed in the various editorial offices and editions. The magazine of culture, founded in 1964 and published by the publishing house in Rijeka, EDIT, represents the activity of the Italian National Community, and must be preserved as such. The first part of the research is based on the evolution of archivistics and archives. The theoretical part is necessary to explain the development and importance of document preservation in the modern era. From the advent of the archives, originally seen as places destined for the preservation of epistles and documents of great importance, written by sovereigns and goverment officials, to their evolution in public bodies, equipped with structures, rules and regulations that keep alive the historical memory, preserve it and transmit the testimonies of humanity. What follows is the outline of the evolution of the Internet, its expansion, which favors and facilitates the rise of the digitization, the new method of preserving documents, photographs and more. Digitization allows storing data in the form of stored documents, converted into characters, which are then modified into computer documents. These procedures guarantee the creation and immediate access to digital archives, including digitized material, conducted by the Department of Italian Studies, in the academic year 2020/2021 and relating to the magazine «La battana» (numbers 1-199). The digitization project carried out by the Department of Italian Studies of the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy of Rijeka, with the contribution of Professor Tommaso Mazzoli, of the University of Trieste and the laboratorial activity of professors and students of the University of Rijeka, has favored the maintenance in digital form of the magazine «La battana», as well as part of the fund of the writer Osvaldo Ramous from Rijeka. The second part focuses on the contests of the magazine available online and underlines the importance that the magazine has today and has had in the past for the Italian National Community of Istria and Rijeka. The work will address the dissemination of national authors and their literary and artistic works, the themes, and the bridge role that the magazine has assumed over the decades. What will be considered are the changes in the cultural policy of the various editorial offices that, in tune with the times, have always followed the trends, currents, ethical and aesthetic issues, as well as the historical circumstances that they have faced.

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    Authors: Blatti, Andrea;

    This work aims to investigate the adequacy of accountability and civil liability systems in the context of the Internet of Things. In order to carry out this examination, different approaches have been used: in particular, the benefits of historical, sociological and technical analysis have been relied upon, to be integrated with the study of norms, decisions and practices typical of the jurist. The first chapter aims to provide the main coordinates for understanding the phenomenon of the Internet of Things: this required a historical and technical approach, albeit minimal. Today's state of the art is in fact the result of the development of fundamental technologies such as cloud computing, and the more modern edge computing and fog computing. These, in turn, required an introduction to how they work. In the second chapter, the focus shifted to the relationship between law and technology, with a focus on digital technologies. The protection of personal data, that is the subject of this thesis can in fact be traced back to the vast field of studies known as Law&Tech, characterised by the influence that technology exerts on law. In addition to this, the second chapter was dedicated to the framing of personal data, the object of the protection of the discipline under examination. The main reference was Article 4 of the GDPR and Opinion No. 4 of 2007 of the Article 29 Working Party. The latter, by issuing soft law acts (opinions and guidelines) plays a key role in the interpretation of data protection provisions. A great importance was attached to soft law in the course of the thesis: the acts of the European Data Protection Board, of the Italian Data Protection Authority, of the European Data Protection Supervisory, and the European agencies (such as Enisa) constitute first-rate references for the analysis of regulatory texts and for the evaluation of technological implementation practices. The third chapter was devoted to the accountability principle. This has been considered by important commentators as the element on which the modernisation of the data protection discipline was based: it was in fact introduced by the GDPR, and in contrast to the former Directive 95/46/EC, it imports a series of obligations aimed to making the main figures accountable for processing: the controller and the processor. This paradigm shift is analysed by retracing the main stages that led to today's accountability principle, with particular emphasis on the minimum security measures provided for in Article 33 of the former Italian privacy code. The fourth chapter focuses instead on civil liability for unlawful processing of personal data. The reference provision is Article 82 of the GDPR, and starting from it, the active and passive subjective profiles, the objective profiles, the nature of the criterion of imputation of liability, and the relationship between the injured party and the damaging party were examined. The protracted study took into consideration the unresolved problems of Italian civil liability, especially as regards the criterion of imputation of liability and the relationship between the injured party and the damaged party. This analysis was supplemented by a systematic reading of the Regulation, with the consequence of finding the minimum and maximum limits of civil liability in the compliance with the principle of accountability. In particular, the balance set by the GDPR between the circulation and protection of personal data, the principle of adequacy, and finally the limits of the state of the art and implementation costs were examined. The results obtained in the third and fourth chapters on accountability and civil liability systems were then tested in the context of the Internet of Things. This necessitated an introduction on the circulation model of personal data, and the risks arising from it: in particular, algorithmic discrimination and influences on personal self-determination were examined. Algorithms were taken into consideration, by virtue of their great inferential capacity, as tools for the extraction of new data, sometimes burdened by biases imprinted at the time of design, and at other times vitiated by biases that emerged later than the time of programming. Respecting the principle of accountability in the IoT, so as not to be condemned for damages under Article 82 GDPR, is very complex. The technological phenomenon in question is very intricate, characterised by great opacity and chains of processing. The lack of transparency makes it complex to be accountable, while the concatenation of accountable treatments, in certain cases, can lead to the inconsistency of personal data protection. Finally, some problematic liability profiles linked to the industrialisation of relations were compared to those arising from their digitalisation. https://lawtech.jus.unitn.it/main-menu/paper-series/student-paper-series-of-the-trento-lawtech-research-group/2/

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    Authors: Smojver, Katarina;

    Nella tesi verrà discussa la questione dell’archiviazione e digitalizzazione della rivista «La battana» per affrontare, di seguito, il suo ruolo, gli indirizzi programmatici delle varie redazioni, i collaboratori, gli autori e i temi trattati nelle varie redazioni ed edizioni. La rivista culturale, fondata nel 1964 ed edita dalla casa editrice EDIT di Fiume, rappresenta l’attività della Comunità Nazionale Italiana che deve venir conservata come tale. La prima parte della ricerca si basa sull’evoluzione dell’archivistica e degli archivi. La parte teorica è necessaria per spiegare lo sviluppo e l’importanza che ha la conservazione di documenti nell’epoca moderna. Dalla nascita degli archivi, in origine luoghi destinati alla preservazione di epistole e documenti di grande importanza, scritti da sovrani e funzionari del governo, alla loro evoluzione in enti pubblici, dotati di strutture, norme e regolamenti che tengono viva la memoria storica, la conservano e trasmettono le testimonianze dell’umanità. In seguito viene delineata l’evoluzione di Internet, nonché la sua espansione, che favorisce e facilita la nascita della digitalizzaione, del nuovo metodo di conservazione di documenti, fotografie e non solo. La digitalizzazione permette di archiviare dati sottoforma di documenti memorizzati, trasformati in caratteri che, a sua volta, vengono convertiti in documenti informatici. Tali procedimenti garantiscono la creazione e l’accesso immediato agli archivi digitali. Tra questi si colloca il materiale digitalizzato dal Dipartimento di Italianistica nell’anno accademico 2020/2021 e relativo alla rivista «La battana» (nn. 1-199). Il progetto di digitalizzazione realizzato dal Dipartimento di Italianistica della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di Fiume, con il contributo del professor Tommaso Mazzoli dell’Università degli Studi di Trieste e l’attività laboratoriale di docenti e studenti dell’Università di Fiume, ha favorito il mantenimento in forma digitale della rivista «La battana», nonché di parte del fondo dello scrittore fiumano Osvaldo Ramous. Nella seconda parte verranno presentati i contenuti della rivista disponibile online, verrà sottolineata l’importanza che la stessa ha oggi ed ha avuto in passato per la Comunità Nazionale Italiana dell’Istria e di Fiume, per la diffusione degli autori connazionali e delle rispettive opere letterarie ed artistiche in genere. Si affronteranno i temi centrali e il ruolo di ponte che la rivista ha assunto nei vari decenni. Verranno considerati i cambiamenti nella politica culturale delle varie redazioni che, in sintonia con i tempi e in precise circostanze storiche, hanno sempre seguito le mode, le correnti, le problematiche etiche ed estetiche. The thesis discusses the archiving and digitization of the magazine «La battana», its role, the programmatic guidelines of the various editorial offices, collaborators, authors and the issues addressed in the various editorial offices and editions. The magazine of culture, founded in 1964 and published by the publishing house in Rijeka, EDIT, represents the activity of the Italian National Community, and must be preserved as such. The first part of the research is based on the evolution of archivistics and archives. The theoretical part is necessary to explain the development and importance of document preservation in the modern era. From the advent of the archives, originally seen as places destined for the preservation of epistles and documents of great importance, written by sovereigns and goverment officials, to their evolution in public bodies, equipped with structures, rules and regulations that keep alive the historical memory, preserve it and transmit the testimonies of humanity. What follows is the outline of the evolution of the Internet, its expansion, which favors and facilitates the rise of the digitization, the new method of preserving documents, photographs and more. Digitization allows storing data in the form of stored documents, converted into characters, which are then modified into computer documents. These procedures guarantee the creation and immediate access to digital archives, including digitized material, conducted by the Department of Italian Studies, in the academic year 2020/2021 and relating to the magazine «La battana» (numbers 1-199). The digitization project carried out by the Department of Italian Studies of the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy of Rijeka, with the contribution of Professor Tommaso Mazzoli, of the University of Trieste and the laboratorial activity of professors and students of the University of Rijeka, has favored the maintenance in digital form of the magazine «La battana», as well as part of the fund of the writer Osvaldo Ramous from Rijeka. The second part focuses on the contests of the magazine available online and underlines the importance that the magazine has today and has had in the past for the Italian National Community of Istria and Rijeka. The work will address the dissemination of national authors and their literary and artistic works, the themes, and the bridge role that the magazine has assumed over the decades. What will be considered are the changes in the cultural policy of the various editorial offices that, in tune with the times, have always followed the trends, currents, ethical and aesthetic issues, as well as the historical circumstances that they have faced.

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    Authors: Fortuna, Luigi; Scibilia, Adriano;
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    Questo scritto è finalizzato a discutere, da una prospettiva giuridica, i problemi derivanti dalla concentrazione di potere di controllo ed elaborazione dei dati e delle informazioni nelle mani di monopoli e oligopoli commerciali che forniscono ai produttori agricoli macchine (ad es., trattori), sementi, prodotti chimici (ad es. fertilizzanti e diserbanti) nonché servizi di agricoltura di precisione e smart farming. Tali monopoli e oligopoli traggono, almeno in parte, la loro forza dalla proprietà intellettuale e dalla pseudo-proprietà intellettuale. La pseudo-proprietà intellettuale consiste in quelle forme anomale di esclusiva che si basano, ad esempio, su contratto e misure tecnologiche di protezione nonché sul potere di fatto che deriva dal controllo dell’infrastruttura tecnologica su cui i dati vengono memorizzati, elaborati e trasmessi sulle reti telematiche. Nel settore dello smart farming e dell’agricoltura di precisione il potere delle imprese che forniscono fattori di produzione può determinare effetti anticoncorrenziali e abusi di dipendenza economica. Più in generale il potere dei monopoli intellettuali diminuisce il grado di autonomia e libertà degli agricoltori: non solo del singolo agricoltore di fronte all’impresa fornitrice del fattore di produzione, ma anche della categoria degli agricoltori di fronte a quella dei fornitori dei fattori di produzione all’interno della filiera agroalimentare. Tra gli strumenti giuridici che sono stati immaginati per contrastare tale potere merita attenzione il c.d. right to repair, il diritto dell’utente di un dispositivo di poterlo riparare senza sottostare alle restrizioni imposte dal produttore del dispositivo. Tale diritto, per essere efficace, deve limitare la proprietà intellettuale e la pseudo-proprietà intellettuale. The scope of this paper is to discuss from a legal perspective the problems arising from the concentration of data and information control and processing power in the hands of commercial monopolies and oligopolies that supply farmers with machines (e.g., tractors), seeds, chemicals (e.g., fertilizers and herbicides) as well as precision farming and smart farming services. Such monopolies and oligopolies derive, at least in part, their strength from intellectual property and pseudo-intellectual property. Pseudo-intellectual property consists of those anomalous forms of exclusivity that are based, for example, on contract and technological protection measures as well as the de facto power that comes from controlling the technological infrastructure on which data are stored, processed, and transmitted. In smart farming and precision agriculture, the power of input-supplying firms can lead to anticompetitive effects and abuses of economic dependence. More generally, the power of intellectual monopolies diminishes the degree of autonomy and freedom of farmers: not only of the individual farmer vis-à-vis the input-supplying firm, but also of the category of farmers vis-à-vis the category of input suppliers within the value chain. Among the legal instruments that have been imagined counteracting such power, the so-called “right to repair”, the right of the user of a device to be able to repair it without being subject to the restrictions imposed by the device manufacturer, deserves attention. Such a right, to be effective, must restrict intellectual property and pseudo-intellectual property.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scarlato, Rosa Candida;

    A partire dal XVII secolo, le riviste si sono affermate come canale prediletto della moderna comunicazione scientifica: con la sua forma agile e sintetica, l’articolo ha costituito il veicolo ideale attraverso il quale diffondere rapidamente e in modo capillare i risultati della ricerca nei campi delle STM, permettendo al contempo alla propria comunità di riferimento di verificare la qualità e la veridicità delle scoperte riportate – attraverso la peer-review – nonché assicurando, in termini di tempo, il primato delle scoperte. Questa modalità di comunicazione, ancora oggi in vigore, è stata interessata nel corso del Novecento da una serie di cambiamenti, che hanno finito per consolidarsi come prassi disfunzionali e ostacoli alla diffusione stessa del sapere scientifico, rendendo le riviste scientifiche degli strumenti di controllo dell’accesso alla scienza e di valutazione dei ricercatori piuttosto che dispositivi volti alla diffusione delle scoperte in grado di produrre benessere collettivo. Spinte non concertate di opposizione a tale paradigma, mosse soprattutto dalla serial crisis pricing e dalla volontà di opporsi all'oligopolio degli editori commerciali andatosi a creare, hanno finito per convergere all’inizio del nuovo millennio, concretizzandosi formalmente con la nascita e con la diffusione del movimento Open Access (OA), per l’accesso aperto alle pubblicazioni scientifiche. Il movimento OA ha interessato il paradigma concettuale alla base della produzione scientifica, ripensando strutturalmente tutto il processo di comunicazione e diffusione dei risultati scientifici, riscoprendo l’antica tradizione che muoveva la condivisione delle scoperte senza la segretezza attraverso un nuovo mezzo: Internet. Le possibilità offerte dal digitale, infatti, hanno permesso di trasformare radicalmente le modalità di comunicazione della conoscenza scientifica, di amplificarne la portata e di elaborare due nuove strategie per la disseminazione dei risultati, come esplicitato nel 2002 all’interno della Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), il manifesto fondante dell’accesso aperto: attraverso l’(auto)archiviazione all’interno degli archivi elettronici aperti (i repository) dei prodotti della ricerca, a seguito della loro pubblicazione entro periodici scientifici (la cosiddetta green road), e con la creazione di riviste open access (la gold road), che permettessero a chiunque di accedere ai risultati della ricerca finanziata con fondi pubblici senza dover pagare. L’applicazione sinergica delle due strategie delineate da BOAI ha coinvolto il mondo editoriale e il mondo accademico: all’interno della presente trattazione, si vuole evidenziare come il progetto promosso dal Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (DeFENS) dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, volto a digitalizzare il pregresso cartaceo delle due riviste scientifiche Annali di Microbiologia e Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura, risponda nelle intenzioni, nelle azioni e nelle prospettive ai principi dell’Open Access. Il capitolo d’apertura - prendendo spunto da una letteratura già sterminata - vuole fornire una panoramica teorica sull’Open Access, ripercorrendone la genesi e l’articolazione, mostrando la diffusione del movimento, le parti in gioco (editori, atenei, biblioteche, ricercatori) e le novità, sia concettuali sia strumentali, introdotte dal nuovo paradigma all’interno del sistema di produzione e comunicazione del sapere scientifico. Si evidenzieranno, altresì, i limiti materiali e concettuali che ancora oggi ostacolano la piena affermazione dell’Open Access. Nel secondo capitolo, invece, si vedrà come l’Open Access è stato attuato e integrato all’interno del mondo accademico. Ci si concentrerà sul caso specifico dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, ripercorrendo le tappe principali dell’accesso aperto all’interno dell’ateneo meneghino: l’adesione ai principi della Berlin Declaration con la Dichiarazione di Messina (2004), la creazione del repository istituzionale AIR (Archivio Istituzionale della Ricerca), la nascita della Milano University Press (MilanoUP) e, in particolare, della piattaforma di riviste diamond open access Riviste UNIMI. L’attenzione verterà sull’analisi della Policy Open Access, della Policy di AIR e dei regolamenti della Statale, osservando come – a livello programmatico e di azione – l’ateneo abbia recepito quanto previsto all’interno delle diverse Linee Guida emanate negli anni dal Gruppo Open Access della CRUI e dalla Raccomandazione 2012/417/UE del 17 luglio 2012 (sull’accesso all’informazione scientifica e sulla sua conservazione) in merito ai principi dell’Open Access e dell’Open Science. Le azioni saranno lette anche attraverso la lente delle Relazioni Annuali prodotte dal 2017 al 2022 dalla Commissione Open Science della Statale. Nella terza parte, si presenterà il progetto di digitalizzazione del DeFENS, chiarendo come tale lavoro risponda alla precipua intenzione del Dipartimento di contribuire alle politiche Open Science e Open Access dell’università e specificando il ruolo svolto delle pratiche di digitalizzazione come supporto all’accesso aperto, per assicurare la disseminazione, la conservazione e la preservazione di manufatti analogici in ambiente digitale. Il case study verrà descritto nelle fasi in cui è stato articolato il workflow: il progetto di digitalizzazione nelle sue premesse e nella sua progettazione in termini di risorse umane, economiche e di tempo; la storia delle due riviste interessate dalla digitalizzazione e i motivi che hanno portato al loro inserimento all’interno delle politiche open access; le azioni concrete compiute sul corpus cartaceo, nello specifico nelle fasi di scelta, scansione e applicazione dell’OCR compiute sui volumi, con riguardo anche alle criticità; l’archiviazione digitale dei prodotti ottenuti, compiuta di concerto con l’Ufficio di Supporto alle Politiche Open Science; lo stato attuale del progetto e le prospettive future che andranno a interessarlo, in termini di conclusione del processo, di disseminazione e di implicazioni a fronte della liberazione degli articoli contenuti nei due periodici scientifici. --- Since the seventeenth century, journals have established themselves as the favorite channel of modern scientific communication: the article has been the ideal vehicle through which to disseminate rapidly and in a capillary way the results of research in the fields of the STMs, while allowing its reference community to verify the quality and veracity of the reported discoveries - through peer-review - as well as ensuring, in terms of time, the primacy of the discoveries. This mode of communication, still in force today, was affected during the twentieth century by a series of changes, which ended up consolidating themselves as dysfunctional practices and obstacles to the very diffusion of scientific knowledge, making scientific journals tools for controlling the access to science and evaluation of researchers rather than devices aimed at disseminating discoveries capable of producing collective wellness. Unconcerted pushes of opposition to this paradigm, moved above all by the serial crisis pricing and by the desire to oppose the oligopoly of commercial publishers that had arisen, ended up converging at the beginning of the new millennium, formally materializing with the birth and diffusion of the Open Access (OA) movement, for open access to scientific publications. The OA movement has involved the conceptual paradigm at the basis of scientific production, structurally rethinking the whole process of communication and dissemination of scientific results, rediscovering the ancient tradition that moved the sharing of discoveries without secrecy through a new medium: Internet. The possibilities offered by digital technology have made it possible to radically transform the methods of communicating scientific knowledge, to amplify its scope and to develop two new strategies for the dissemination of results, as made explicit in 2002 within the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), the founding statement of Open Access: through (self) archiving within open electronic archives (repositories) of research products, following their publication in scientific periodicals (the so-called green road), and with the creation of open access journals (the gold road), which would allow anyone to access the results of publicly funded research without paying. The synergistic application of the BOAI's two strategies has involved the publishing world and the academic world: within the present discussion, we want to highlight how the project promoted by the Department of Food and Nutrition Sciences (DeFENS) of the University of Studi di Milano, aimed at digitizing the previous analogic copies of the two scientific journals Annali di Microbiologia (now Annals of Microbiology) and Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura (now Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research), responds in intentions, actions and perspectives to the principles of Open Access. The opening chapter aims to provide a theoretical overview of Open Access, retracing its genesis and articulation, showing the diffusion of the movement, the parties involved (publishers, universities, libraries, researchers) and the innovations, both conceptual and instrumental, introduced by the new paradigm within the system of production and communication of scientific knowledge. The material and conceptual limits that still today hinder the full affirmation of Open Access will also be highlighted. In the second chapter, we will see how Open Access has been implemented and integrated within the academic world. We will focus on the specific case of the University of Milan, retracing the main stages of Open Access within this university: adherence to the principles of the Berlin Declaration with the Messina Declaration (2004), the creation of the repository AIR (Institutional Research Archive), the birth of the Milano University Press (MilanoUP) and, in particular, of the diamond open access e-journals platform Riviste UNIMI. Attention will focus on the analysis of the Open Access Policy, the AIR Policy and the regulations of the university, observing how - at a programmatic and action level - the University of Milan has implemented the provisions of the various Guidelines issued over the years by the Open Access Group of the CRUI and by Recommendation 2012/417/EU of 17 July 2012 (on access to scientific information and its conservation) regarding the principles of Open Access and Open Science. The actions will also be read through the lens of the Annual Reports produced from 2017 to 2022 by the University of Milan's Open Science Commission. In the last chapter, the DeFENS digitization project will be presented, clarifying how this work responds to the main intention of the Department to contribute to the University of Milan's Open Science and Open Access policies and specifying the role played by digitization practices in supporting Open Access, to ensure the dissemination, conservation and preservation of analog artefacts in a digital environment. The case study will be described in the stages in which the workflow was articulated: the digitization project in its premises and in its planning in terms of human, economic and time resources; the history of the two journals affected by digitization and the reasons that led to their inclusion in open access policies; the concrete actions carried out on the paper corpus, specifically in the phases of selection, scanning and application of the OCR carried out on the volumes, also with regard to critical issues; the digital archiving of the products obtained, carried out in concert with the Open Science Policy Support Office; the current state of the project and the future prospects that will affect it, in terms of conclusion of the process, dissemination and implications in view of the release of the articles contained in the two scientific periodicals. I riferimenti bibliografici sono quasi interamente ad accesso aperto. -- The bibliographic references are mostly open access.

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    Authors: Anna Maria Marras; Andrea Bolioli;

    Between 2017 and 2018, a project for the restoration and redevelopment of the library of Charles Albert of Savoy at the Royal Castle of Racconigi, financed by the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation, was carried out under the title "The recovery of the Carlo-Albertine Library, a meeting place between the public and private life of the sovereign" conceived and implemented by the Association Le Terre dei Savoia, in collaboration with the management of the Castle of Racconigi and the Piedmont Regional Museums Directorate (formerly Polo Museale del Piemonte). In addition to the restoration of the physical library, the project included the creation of a small digital library called the 'Library of Carlo Alberto', whose website can be consulted at https://www.bibliocarloalberto.it/. Tra il 2017 e il 2018 è stato realizzato un progetto di restauro e riqualificazione della biblioteca di Carlo Alberto di Savoia presso il Castello Reale di Racconigi, finanziato dalla Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo, dal titolo “Il recupero della Biblioteca carloalbertina, luogo d’incontro tra vita pubblica e privata del sovrano” ideato e realizzato dall’Associazione Le Terre dei Savoia, in collaborazione con la direzione del Castello di Racconigi e la Direzione Regionale Musei Piemonte (precedentemente Polo Museale del Piemonte). Oltre al restauro della biblioteca fisica, il progetto ha incluso la creazione di una piccola digital library denominata la “Biblioteca di Carlo Alberto”, il cui sito web è consultabile all’indirizzo https://www.bibliocarloalberto.it/.

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    Authors: Maugeri, Anna Maria; Maglione, PIETRO STEFANO;
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    Authors: Marchetti, Marco; Lasserre, Bruno; Vangi, Elia;
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