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89 Research products, page 1 of 9

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Research data
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  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Zong, X.;
    Country: Netherlands

    The data set contains several tiles of ALS point cloud data which covers the scanning area of corresponding TLS point cloud data. This data set was used to estimate fine-scale visibility in a temperate forest landscape in the paper: "Estimating fine-scale visibility in a temperate forest landscape using airborne laser scanning" https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2021.102478

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Flores, N.Y.; Collas, F.P.L.; Leuven, ROB S.E.W.;
    Publisher: DANS EASY
    Country: Netherlands

    Dataset for the article 'Geomorphological development of aquatic mesohabitats in shore channels along longitudinal training dams' published in Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. Abstract Longitudinal training dams (LTDs) are novel hydraulic engineering structures in the river Waal intended to facilitate intensive navigation and safe discharges in the main channel while providing sheltered habitats for aquatic biota in shore channels. Monitoring data collected using light detection and ranging (LiDAR), multibeam echosounder (MBES) and aerial photography for the years during and after to construction of the LTDs were analyzed in order to determine patterns of erosion and deposition, the retreat rate of steep eroding banks and shoreline length change through time. The LTD shore channels and two traditional groyne fields (references) were divided into nine mesohabitats based on physical attributes. Net erosion was estimated for eight out of the nine mesohabitats for the 2015-2020 period. Generally, there is a pattern of riverbed aggradation towards the LTDs and degradation or bank erosion towards the littoral zones of the LTD shore channels. This kind of continuous behavior could be indicative of current or eminent channel and thus habitat stability. The bankline erosion in shore channels had mean retreat rates of 1.4-1.6 m/yr. The shorelines were longer in sand-dominated mesohabitats, which could be key for habitat heterogeneity. The LTD shore channels offered more complex relatively natural continuous littoral zones than the traditional groyne fields while maintaining the multifunctionality of the river. Thus, the development of sandy shorelines in the LTD shore channels should be encouraged through management in order to enhance biodiversity. Geomorphological monitoring of the shore channels should continue in the future in order to detect any long-term changes in the sedimentary processes and ecological functions. For detailed methods see the Readme.txt file.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Briechle, S.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    The zip archive contains two folders: - "MS_data" contains three orthomosaics generated from surveys using a drone-based multispectral camera (Micasense Rededge) in April 2018. The tiff files comprise five spectral channels (Blue, Green, Red, Rededge, NIR) with a ground resolution of 10 cm. - "YS_data" contains 15 ULS (= unmanned laserscanner) datasets from drone flights using a YellowScan Mapper I laserscanner in November 2017 and April 2018. Each dataset comprises four files (*.ahrs, *.gps, *.idc, and *.sbf). The point density is approximately 50 points per m?.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 23 Mar 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Höhler, Julia; Müller, Jörg;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Farmers often decide simultaneously on crop production or input use without knowing other farmers’ decisions. Anticipating the behavior of other farmers can increase financial performance. This paper investigates the role of other famers’ behaviors and other contextual factors in farmers’ simultaneous production decisions. Market entry games are a common method for investigating simultaneous production decisions. However, so far they have been conducted with abstract tasks and by untrained subjects. We extend market entry games by using three real contexts, pesticide use, animal welfare, and wheat production, in an incentivized framed field experiment with 323 German farmers. We find that farmers take different decision under identical incentive structures for the three contexts. While context plays a major role in their decisions, their expectations about the behavior of other farmers have little influence on their decision.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Zong, XIN;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    A dataset collected in an European temperate forest for developing and validating an approach to estimate fine-scale visibility in forested landscape. It consists of Terrestrial laser scanning data and Photographs of selected forest plots. This dataset is associated with the following paper: Zong, X., Wang, T., Skidmore, A.K., Heurich, M., 2021. The impact of voxel size, forest type, and understory cover on visibility estimation in forests using terrestrial laser scanning. GIScience & Remote Sensing, 1-17.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 16 Mar 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lubbers, M.; Koopman, P.; Ramsingh, A.; Singer, J.; Trinder, P.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Source code accompanying the paper: M. Lubbers, P. Koopman, A. Ramsingh, J. Singer, and P. Trinder, ‘Tiered versus Tierless IoT Stacks: Comparing Smart Campus Software Architectures’, presented at the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, Malmö, 2020, doi: 10.1145/3410992.3411002. Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) software stacks are notoriously complex, conventionally comprising multiple tiers/components and requiring that the developer not only uses multiple programming languages, but also correctly interoperate the components. A novel alternative is to use a single tierless language with a compiler that generates the code for each component, and for their correct interoperation. We report the first ever systematic comparison of tiered and tierless IoT software architectures. The comparison is based on two implementations of a non-trivial smart campus application. PRSS has a conventional tiered Python-based architecture, and Clean Wemos Super Sensors (CWSS) has a novel tierless architecture based on Clean and the iTask and mTask embedded DSLs. An operational comparison of CWSS and PRSS demonstrates that they have equivalent functionality, and that both meet the University of Glasgow (UoG) smart campus requirements. Crucially, the tierless CWSS stack requires 70% less code than the tiered PRSS stack. We analyse the impact of the following three main factors. (1) Tierless developers need to manage less interoperation: CWSS uses two DSLs in a single paradigm where PRSS uses five languages and three paradigms. (2) Tierless developers benefit from automatically generated, and hence correct, communication. (3) Tierless developers can exploit the powerful high-level abstractions such as Task Oriented Programming (TOP) in CWSS. Contents: - README.md: this readme containing information about both applications - cwss.tgz: source code for the mTask based smart campus applications dubbed CWSS. It consists of: * A snapshot of the mTask git repository: https://gitlab.science.ru.nl/mlubbers/mTask * A Clean programming language compiler. * The source code for the CWSS application. - prss.zip: source code for the anyscale sensor based smart campus application dubbed PRSS. It consists of: * A snapshot of the anyscale-sensors git repository: https://bitbucket.org/jsinger/anyscale-sensors

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Hecker, C.A.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    This dataset was used for a publication that describes the first time application of the Minimum Wavelength Mapper tool to (airborne) thermal infrared data. The Wavelength Mapper is an algorithm that searches for the deepest absorption feature in each pixel of a hyperspectral image. On a per pixel basis, it extracts the wavelength position, which serves as a proxy of the mineralogy and the feature depth as a proxy for the relative abundance. This algorithm has been used with near and shortwave infrared data, but has not yet been tested on hyperspectral thermal infrared images. It is unclear what results are expected when the Wavelength Mapper algorithm is applied to hyperspectral thermal infrared data since reststrahlen features characteristically overlap in emissivity spectra. In this paper, the Wavelength Mapper is tested on a multi-flightline airborne hyperspectral TIR dataset acquired over the Yerington Batholith, Nevada. Observations were made in the 8.05–11.65 μm wavelength range to include thermal spectral features of major rock-forming minerals, and a new color ramp is created to separate quartz-rich rocks from plagioclase-rich rocks. Our results indicate that the Wavelength Mapper creates coherent spatial patterns across flightlines. The results displayed represent different types of igneous and sedimentary rocks, as well as the products of hydrothermal alteration via different colors, mainly based on the relative abundance of quartz, feldspar and garnet, as well as mica and epidote. Comparison with published maps indicate that the Wavelength Mapper represents for each pixel a parameter value that can be linked to the spectrally dominate rock-forming mineral of that area, as mapped with traditional fieldwork methods. In conclusion, the Wavelength Mapper can be applied to airborne hyperspectral TIR data to achieve a simple, repeatable, per-pixel overview map of the dominating rock-forming mineral occurrences.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 18 Nov 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Poorter, Lourens; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A.; Bongers, Frans; Almeida de Jarcilene, S.; Àlvarez, Francisco S.; Luìs Andrade, Josè; Arreola Villa, Luis F.; Becknell, Justin M.; Bhaskar, Radika; Boukili, Vanessa; +49 more
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | PANTROP (834775)

    One-third of all Neotropical forests are secondary forests that regrow naturally after agricultural use through secondary succession. We need to understand better how and why succession varies across environmental gradients and broad geographic scales. Here we present data on functional recovery, using community data on seven plant characteristics (traits) of 1016 forest plots from 30 chronosequence sites across the Neotropics. By analyzing communities in terms of their traits one can enhance understanding of the mechanisms of succession and assess ecosystem recovery.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Portela, B.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Hydrothermal mineral deposits are the primary source of many mineral commodities of global importance. Since hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with the formation of these mineral deposits are active in the visible and infrared range, the analysis of spectral absorption features can be used to identify the mineralogy associated with different alteration events. Some hydrothermal events are responsible for the occurrence of mineral commodities, while other events create hydrothermal alteration unrelated to the introduction of base and precious metals. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a mineral exploration strategy to rapidly identify and map the indicator minerals linked to a mineralising event. The separation of minerals of different alteration events which are spectrally active in the same overlapping range of the spectrum, is the challenge addressed in this study. High spatial resolution airborne and laboratory-based hyperspectral images are combined to detect and visualise textures of muscovite replacing pyrophyllite in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectroscopy survey over the Buckskin Range, the volcanic-hosted lithocap part of the Yerington porphyry district, Nevada (USA). Spectral wavelength maps in different SWIR ranges are used to map the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy at both laboratory (26 ?m) and airborne (1 m) scales. The airborne spectral data define outward zoning from alunite ? pyrophyllite to muscovite characterized by variable wavelength positions of its Al-OH absorption feature. The wavelength range of 1650?1850 nm is used to differentiate zones of pyrophyllite predominance over alunite within the inner domain. The laboratory data improves the characterisation of the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy, which includes alunite, pyrophyllite, muscovite, dickite, chlorite, topaz and zunyite. The textural relationship of muscovite replacing pyrophyllite is addressed through the development of a novel spectral index, the pyrophyllite-muscovite index (PMI). The characterisation of the intergrowths of pyrophyllite and muscovite at the laboratory scale is based on two aspects: (1) the definition of pervasive versus veinletcontrolled textures and (2) a subtle shift detection in the wavelength position of the Al-OH absorption feature of muscovite from 2189 to 2195 nm. The combination of the spatial patterns with the textural relationship of the pyrophyllite-muscovite association allows the identification of areas which contain the muscovite replacement of pyrophyllite. The recognition of a late muscovite replacement of pyrophyllite suggests that advanced argillic alteration reflecting intense acid leaching is followed by late near-neutral pH magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, adding K+ and potentially other alkali elements and metals in the epithermal environment. As a result of this study, we document the hydrothermal muscovite-pyrophyllite intergrowth relationships in the study area, thus contributing to an improved understanding of the lithocap epithermal system and a better assessment of its exploration potential for Au, Ag and Cu mineralisation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Del Rio, TRINIDAD;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Country: Netherlands

    We developed a method using Landsat satellite images combined with a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design, and applied this to an arid rural landscape, the Baviaanskloof in South Africa. Since 1990, various restoration projects have been implemented to halt and reverse degradation. We applied the BACI approach at pixel-level comparing the conditions of each intervened pixel (impact) with 20 similar control pixels. By evaluating the conditions before and after the restoration intervention, we assessed the effectiveness of long-term restoration interventions distinguishing their impact from environmental temporal changes. The BACI approach was implemented with Landsat images that cover a 30-year period at a spatial resolution of 30 meter. We evaluated the impact of three interventions (revegetation, livestock exclusion, and the combination of both) on three ecosystem services; forage provision, erosion prevention, and presence of iconic vegetation.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Rural Digital Europe. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
89 Research products, page 1 of 9
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Zong, X.;
    Country: Netherlands

    The data set contains several tiles of ALS point cloud data which covers the scanning area of corresponding TLS point cloud data. This data set was used to estimate fine-scale visibility in a temperate forest landscape in the paper: "Estimating fine-scale visibility in a temperate forest landscape using airborne laser scanning" https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2021.102478

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Flores, N.Y.; Collas, F.P.L.; Leuven, ROB S.E.W.;
    Publisher: DANS EASY
    Country: Netherlands

    Dataset for the article 'Geomorphological development of aquatic mesohabitats in shore channels along longitudinal training dams' published in Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. Abstract Longitudinal training dams (LTDs) are novel hydraulic engineering structures in the river Waal intended to facilitate intensive navigation and safe discharges in the main channel while providing sheltered habitats for aquatic biota in shore channels. Monitoring data collected using light detection and ranging (LiDAR), multibeam echosounder (MBES) and aerial photography for the years during and after to construction of the LTDs were analyzed in order to determine patterns of erosion and deposition, the retreat rate of steep eroding banks and shoreline length change through time. The LTD shore channels and two traditional groyne fields (references) were divided into nine mesohabitats based on physical attributes. Net erosion was estimated for eight out of the nine mesohabitats for the 2015-2020 period. Generally, there is a pattern of riverbed aggradation towards the LTDs and degradation or bank erosion towards the littoral zones of the LTD shore channels. This kind of continuous behavior could be indicative of current or eminent channel and thus habitat stability. The bankline erosion in shore channels had mean retreat rates of 1.4-1.6 m/yr. The shorelines were longer in sand-dominated mesohabitats, which could be key for habitat heterogeneity. The LTD shore channels offered more complex relatively natural continuous littoral zones than the traditional groyne fields while maintaining the multifunctionality of the river. Thus, the development of sandy shorelines in the LTD shore channels should be encouraged through management in order to enhance biodiversity. Geomorphological monitoring of the shore channels should continue in the future in order to detect any long-term changes in the sedimentary processes and ecological functions. For detailed methods see the Readme.txt file.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Briechle, S.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    The zip archive contains two folders: - "MS_data" contains three orthomosaics generated from surveys using a drone-based multispectral camera (Micasense Rededge) in April 2018. The tiff files comprise five spectral channels (Blue, Green, Red, Rededge, NIR) with a ground resolution of 10 cm. - "YS_data" contains 15 ULS (= unmanned laserscanner) datasets from drone flights using a YellowScan Mapper I laserscanner in November 2017 and April 2018. Each dataset comprises four files (*.ahrs, *.gps, *.idc, and *.sbf). The point density is approximately 50 points per m?.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 23 Mar 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Höhler, Julia; Müller, Jörg;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Farmers often decide simultaneously on crop production or input use without knowing other farmers’ decisions. Anticipating the behavior of other farmers can increase financial performance. This paper investigates the role of other famers’ behaviors and other contextual factors in farmers’ simultaneous production decisions. Market entry games are a common method for investigating simultaneous production decisions. However, so far they have been conducted with abstract tasks and by untrained subjects. We extend market entry games by using three real contexts, pesticide use, animal welfare, and wheat production, in an incentivized framed field experiment with 323 German farmers. We find that farmers take different decision under identical incentive structures for the three contexts. While context plays a major role in their decisions, their expectations about the behavior of other farmers have little influence on their decision.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Zong, XIN;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    A dataset collected in an European temperate forest for developing and validating an approach to estimate fine-scale visibility in forested landscape. It consists of Terrestrial laser scanning data and Photographs of selected forest plots. This dataset is associated with the following paper: Zong, X., Wang, T., Skidmore, A.K., Heurich, M., 2021. The impact of voxel size, forest type, and understory cover on visibility estimation in forests using terrestrial laser scanning. GIScience & Remote Sensing, 1-17.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 16 Mar 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lubbers, M.; Koopman, P.; Ramsingh, A.; Singer, J.; Trinder, P.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Source code accompanying the paper: M. Lubbers, P. Koopman, A. Ramsingh, J. Singer, and P. Trinder, ‘Tiered versus Tierless IoT Stacks: Comparing Smart Campus Software Architectures’, presented at the 10th International Conference on the Internet of Things, Malmö, 2020, doi: 10.1145/3410992.3411002. Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) software stacks are notoriously complex, conventionally comprising multiple tiers/components and requiring that the developer not only uses multiple programming languages, but also correctly interoperate the components. A novel alternative is to use a single tierless language with a compiler that generates the code for each component, and for their correct interoperation. We report the first ever systematic comparison of tiered and tierless IoT software architectures. The comparison is based on two implementations of a non-trivial smart campus application. PRSS has a conventional tiered Python-based architecture, and Clean Wemos Super Sensors (CWSS) has a novel tierless architecture based on Clean and the iTask and mTask embedded DSLs. An operational comparison of CWSS and PRSS demonstrates that they have equivalent functionality, and that both meet the University of Glasgow (UoG) smart campus requirements. Crucially, the tierless CWSS stack requires 70% less code than the tiered PRSS stack. We analyse the impact of the following three main factors. (1) Tierless developers need to manage less interoperation: CWSS uses two DSLs in a single paradigm where PRSS uses five languages and three paradigms. (2) Tierless developers benefit from automatically generated, and hence correct, communication. (3) Tierless developers can exploit the powerful high-level abstractions such as Task Oriented Programming (TOP) in CWSS. Contents: - README.md: this readme containing information about both applications - cwss.tgz: source code for the mTask based smart campus applications dubbed CWSS. It consists of: * A snapshot of the mTask git repository: https://gitlab.science.ru.nl/mlubbers/mTask * A Clean programming language compiler. * The source code for the CWSS application. - prss.zip: source code for the anyscale sensor based smart campus application dubbed PRSS. It consists of: * A snapshot of the anyscale-sensors git repository: https://bitbucket.org/jsinger/anyscale-sensors

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Hecker, C.A.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    This dataset was used for a publication that describes the first time application of the Minimum Wavelength Mapper tool to (airborne) thermal infrared data. The Wavelength Mapper is an algorithm that searches for the deepest absorption feature in each pixel of a hyperspectral image. On a per pixel basis, it extracts the wavelength position, which serves as a proxy of the mineralogy and the feature depth as a proxy for the relative abundance. This algorithm has been used with near and shortwave infrared data, but has not yet been tested on hyperspectral thermal infrared images. It is unclear what results are expected when the Wavelength Mapper algorithm is applied to hyperspectral thermal infrared data since reststrahlen features characteristically overlap in emissivity spectra. In this paper, the Wavelength Mapper is tested on a multi-flightline airborne hyperspectral TIR dataset acquired over the Yerington Batholith, Nevada. Observations were made in the 8.05–11.65 μm wavelength range to include thermal spectral features of major rock-forming minerals, and a new color ramp is created to separate quartz-rich rocks from plagioclase-rich rocks. Our results indicate that the Wavelength Mapper creates coherent spatial patterns across flightlines. The results displayed represent different types of igneous and sedimentary rocks, as well as the products of hydrothermal alteration via different colors, mainly based on the relative abundance of quartz, feldspar and garnet, as well as mica and epidote. Comparison with published maps indicate that the Wavelength Mapper represents for each pixel a parameter value that can be linked to the spectrally dominate rock-forming mineral of that area, as mapped with traditional fieldwork methods. In conclusion, the Wavelength Mapper can be applied to airborne hyperspectral TIR data to achieve a simple, repeatable, per-pixel overview map of the dominating rock-forming mineral occurrences.

  • Research data . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 18 Nov 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Poorter, Lourens; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A.; Bongers, Frans; Almeida de Jarcilene, S.; Àlvarez, Francisco S.; Luìs Andrade, Josè; Arreola Villa, Luis F.; Becknell, Justin M.; Bhaskar, Radika; Boukili, Vanessa; +49 more
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | PANTROP (834775)

    One-third of all Neotropical forests are secondary forests that regrow naturally after agricultural use through secondary succession. We need to understand better how and why succession varies across environmental gradients and broad geographic scales. Here we present data on functional recovery, using community data on seven plant characteristics (traits) of 1016 forest plots from 30 chronosequence sites across the Neotropics. By analyzing communities in terms of their traits one can enhance understanding of the mechanisms of succession and assess ecosystem recovery.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Portela, B.;
    Publisher: Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    Country: Netherlands

    Hydrothermal mineral deposits are the primary source of many mineral commodities of global importance. Since hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with the formation of these mineral deposits are active in the visible and infrared range, the analysis of spectral absorption features can be used to identify the mineralogy associated with different alteration events. Some hydrothermal events are responsible for the occurrence of mineral commodities, while other events create hydrothermal alteration unrelated to the introduction of base and precious metals. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a mineral exploration strategy to rapidly identify and map the indicator minerals linked to a mineralising event. The separation of minerals of different alteration events which are spectrally active in the same overlapping range of the spectrum, is the challenge addressed in this study. High spatial resolution airborne and laboratory-based hyperspectral images are combined to detect and visualise textures of muscovite replacing pyrophyllite in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectroscopy survey over the Buckskin Range, the volcanic-hosted lithocap part of the Yerington porphyry district, Nevada (USA). Spectral wavelength maps in different SWIR ranges are used to map the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy at both laboratory (26 ?m) and airborne (1 m) scales. The airborne spectral data define outward zoning from alunite ? pyrophyllite to muscovite characterized by variable wavelength positions of its Al-OH absorption feature. The wavelength range of 1650?1850 nm is used to differentiate zones of pyrophyllite predominance over alunite within the inner domain. The laboratory data improves the characterisation of the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy, which includes alunite, pyrophyllite, muscovite, dickite, chlorite, topaz and zunyite. The textural relationship of muscovite replacing pyrophyllite is addressed through the development of a novel spectral index, the pyrophyllite-muscovite index (PMI). The characterisation of the intergrowths of pyrophyllite and muscovite at the laboratory scale is based on two aspects: (1) the definition of pervasive versus veinletcontrolled textures and (2) a subtle shift detection in the wavelength position of the Al-OH absorption feature of muscovite from 2189 to 2195 nm. The combination of the spatial patterns with the textural relationship of the pyrophyllite-muscovite association allows the identification of areas which contain the muscovite replacement of pyrophyllite. The recognition of a late muscovite replacement of pyrophyllite suggests that advanced argillic alteration reflecting intense acid leaching is followed by late near-neutral pH magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, adding K+ and potentially other alkali elements and metals in the epithermal environment. As a result of this study, we document the hydrothermal muscovite-pyrophyllite intergrowth relationships in the study area, thus contributing to an improved understanding of the lithocap epithermal system and a better assessment of its exploration potential for Au, Ag and Cu mineralisation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Del Rio, TRINIDAD;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Country: Netherlands

    We developed a method using Landsat satellite images combined with a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design, and applied this to an arid rural landscape, the Baviaanskloof in South Africa. Since 1990, various restoration projects have been implemented to halt and reverse degradation. We applied the BACI approach at pixel-level comparing the conditions of each intervened pixel (impact) with 20 similar control pixels. By evaluating the conditions before and after the restoration intervention, we assessed the effectiveness of long-term restoration interventions distinguishing their impact from environmental temporal changes. The BACI approach was implemented with Landsat images that cover a 30-year period at a spatial resolution of 30 meter. We evaluated the impact of three interventions (revegetation, livestock exclusion, and the combination of both) on three ecosystem services; forage provision, erosion prevention, and presence of iconic vegetation.