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  • Authors: Bassin, Claire;

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à la profession d’auditeur et à sa perception de trois changements récents qui modifient en profondeur ses modalités d’exercice et pourraient remettre en question la qualité de l’audit, sujet largement étudié dans la littérature académique sans que sa définition ne fasse consensus. Pour autant la nécessité que l’audit financier soit « de qualité » est largement acceptée notamment car l’auditeur légal certifie les comptes annuels sur lesquels les décisions financières sont fondées. Or, peu de recherches s’intéressent aux conditions d’exercice de la profession d’auditeur légal. Dans cette thèse, nous montrons comment la profession d’auditeur légal a évolué suite à des changements majeurs liés à la législation, la crise sanitaire et l’évolution technologique. Nous présentons l’évolution des principales caractéristiques de cette profession. L’une d’elle est le fait d’avoir connu, ces dernières années, plusieurs changements qui modifient la nature et l’ampleur de la mission des auditeurs.Nous retenons trois changements récents ayant impacté la profession de natures complémentaires. Nous étudions comment les auditeurs perçoivent ces changements et quel est leur impact pour leur cabinet et plus généralement pour le marché de l’audit. Cette thèse consacre un chapitre à chacun des trois changements. Dans un premier article, les effets pour la profession d’auditeur légal de la loi PACTE sont étudiés. A travers une étude qualitative réalisée à partir d’entretiens et d’un questionnaire, nous montrons pourquoi la loi PACTE présente, selon certains auditeurs légaux, un danger pour la qualité de l’audit. Nos résultats soulignent que le manque de concertation, en amont de l’adoption de la loi, a particulièrement heurté les auditeurs. De plus, parmi les conséquences de la loi, la mission ALPE est largement rejetée par les auditeurs. Le deuxième article s’intéresse aux conséquences du passage au télétravail, lors de la crise sanitaire, sur les auditeurs légaux. Grâce à des entretiens menés avec des auditeurs et à travers une démarche inductive, nous montrons que le télétravail a trois conséquences pour la qualité de l’audit. D’abord, les relations avec les clients sont dégradées et une perte de l’information dite « soft » est à déplorer. Ensuite, les relations humaines au cabinet sont modifiées avec des impacts négatifs sur la formation des collaborateurs et le management des équipes. Enfin, l’équilibre de vie des collaborateurs est également impacté avec des conséquences plutôt positives. Le troisième article traite d’un changement dans les modalités de travail des auditeurs à travers la digitalisation de leurs pratiques. Si les cabinets dits Big ont déjà fait l’objet d’étude sur ce sujet, notre recherche est la première à se consacrer aux cabinets dits Non-Big. Après des entretiens exploratoires menés auprès d’auditeurs de cabinets de taille intermédiaire ou de petite taille, nous avons élaboré un questionnaire. Les résultats obtenus permettent de mieux définir la digitalisation dans les cabinets, à comprendre quels éléments les auditeurs incluent derrière la notion de « digitalisation » et à situer l’avancement des cabinets sur chacun de ces éléments. De plus, nous montrons que la digitalisation présente des avantages certains et permet une évolution bénéfique de la profession. Cependant, certaines craintes émergent de nos résultats et l’avenir de la profession semble être questionné. Cette thèse confirme donc que la profession d’auditeur légal est à une étape clef de son histoire. Plusieurs changements récents ont modifié ses pratiques et l’avenir des cabinets, et plus largement de la profession, semble lié à leur façon de gérer les changements à se réinventer. This thesis looks at the auditing profession and its perception of three recent changes that are profoundly altering the way it practises and could call into question the quality of auditing, a subject widely studied in academic literature without a consensus on its definition. However, the need for financial auditing to be of "high quality" is widely accepted, particularly as the statutory auditor certifies the annual accounts on which financial decisions are based. However, little research has been carried out into the conditions under which statutory auditors practice their profession. In this thesis, we show how the profession of statutory auditor has evolved in the wake of major changes linked to legislation, the health crisis and technological developments. We present the evolution of the main characteristics of this profession. One of these is the fact that, in recent years, a number of changes have affected the nature and scope of auditors' missions.We have selected three recent changes that have had a complementary impact on the profession. We look at how auditors perceive these changes, and what impact they have had on their firms and on the audit market in general.This thesis devotes a chapter to each of these three changes. The first article examines the effects of the PACTE Act on the legal auditing profession. Through a qualitative study based on interviews and a questionnaire, we show why, according to some statutory auditors, the PACTE law poses a danger to audit quality. Our results show that the lack of consultation prior to the law's adoption has particularly offended auditors. Moreover, among the consequences of the law, the ALPE mission is widely rejected by auditors. The second article looks at the impact on statutory auditors of the switch to telecommuting during the health crisis. Using interviews with auditors and an inductive approach, we show that telecommuting has three consequences for audit quality. Firstly, relations with clients deteriorate, and a loss of "soft" information is to be deplored. Secondly, human relations within the firm are altered, with negative impacts on staff training and team management. Finally, the balance of employees' lives is also impacted, with rather positive consequences.The third article deals with a change in the way auditors work, through the digitization of their practices. While Big firms have already been studied, our research is the first to focus on Non-Big firms. Following exploratory interviews with auditors from mid-sized and small firms, we developed a questionnaire. The results obtained help us to better define digitization in firms, to understand which elements auditors include behind the notion of " digitization ", and to situate firms' progress on each of these elements. In addition, we show that digitization has definite advantages and is bringing about a beneficial evolution in the profession. However, certain fears emerge from our results, and the future of the profession seems to be in doubt. This thesis confirms that the legal auditing profession is at a key stage in its history. A number of recent changes have altered its practices, and the future of firms - and of the profession more generally - seems to depend on how they manage these changes and reinvent themselves.

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    Authors: Bilici, İhsan;

    Bu araştırmanın temel amaçları IPARD programı kapsamında destek almış süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin ekonomik yapısının ortaya konulması, IPARD desteklerinin süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde meydana getirdiği değişimin incelenmesi ve süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin hibe desteklerinden yararlanma durumunun ve kazanımlarının belirlenmesidir. Araştırma verileri, Türkiye'de IPARD desteklerinden faydalanan ve 17 farklı ilde faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin tamamını oluşturan 100 süt sığırcılığı işletmesinden anket yoluyla elde edilmiştir. Benzer özelliklere sahip işletmelerin gruplandırılmasında kümeleme analizi kullanılmıştır. Süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin ekonomik yapısının ortaya konulmasında klasik ekonomik analiz yaklaşımları kullanılmıştır. Süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin hibelerden sağladığı kazanımlar fayda masraf analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, küçük süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 21 baş, orta büyüklükteki süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 61 baş ve büyük süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 95 baş süt sığırı bulunduğunu göstermiştir. Ekonomik analizde, incelenen küçük ve orta ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde karlılığın istenen düzeyde olmadığı, büyük işletmelerin ise karlı olduğu tespit edilmiştir. IPARD desteği almanın incelenen süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin üretim alışkanlığını, teknoloji kullanımını ve işletmecilik biçimini olumlu yönde değiştirdiği saptanmıştır. Fayda masraf analizi sonuçlarına göre, Türkiye'de faaliyet gösteren küçük ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmeleri kullandıkları hibe karşılığında, yeterli düzeyde fayda sağlayamamaktadırlar. IPARD desteklerinin orta ve büyük ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmelerine sağladığı fayda, katlanılan maliyetten daha yüksektir. İşletmelerin ekonomik sürdürülebilirliği ve verilen hibe tutarı karşılığında beklenen faydanın sağlanabilmesi için, TKDK tarafından işletme bazında bulundurulması gereken süt sığırı sayısının 'proje kabul aşamasında' belirlenmesi ve projenin uygulama dönemi boyunca bunun takibinin yapılması gerekmektedir. The main purposes of this study were to perform an economic analysis of dairy farms supported by ARDSI within the scope of IPARD; to reveal changes sourced by grant in dairy farms and to explore the utilization characteristics and benefits of dairy farms from IPARD grants. Research data were collected from 100 dairy farms benefited IPARD grants in 17 different provinces of Turkey. Cluster analysis was used to classify dairy farms. When performing economic analysis, classical economic analysis methods were followed. Cost- benefit analysis was used to explore benefits of dairy farms from IPARD grants. Research results showed that number of cattle in small, medium and large dairy farms were 21, 61 and 95, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that the profitability of small and medium dairy farms was unsatisfactory level, while that of large dairy farms was satisfactory level. Benefiting IPARD grants positively affected the production habits, technology usage and management type of dairy farms. Based on the results of cost-benefit analysis, small scale Turkish dairy farms was not benefited from IPARD grants effectively. However, benefits were larger than that of allocated grants in medium and large size dairy farms. In order to ensure economic sustainability of dairy farms and achieve the expected benefits from allocated grants, the number of cattle should be determined at the starting point of project and monitored throughout the project implementation period. 153

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  • Authors: Rosendo, Juan Luis;

    This work seeks to mitigate the effects of constraints on mobile robotic systems. To this end, auxiliary control loops and robust tuning techniques are proposed. The former are proposed to mitigate the effects of constraints on the input and output of the systems through the modification of the motion parameter in path following applications.Then, PID controllers are considered as a structural constraint, given its wide use in robotics particularly at low control level. A robust tuning methodology considering this constraint is proposed which achieves good performancelevels even when facing disturbances. Finally, to deal with robustness in presence of robots nonlinearity constraints, an analysis and tuning tool for sliding mode controllers is proposed. The particularity of this tuning method, based on global optimization and interval techniques,is that it allows generating tuning maps of the parameter regions where the desired performance criterion is fulfilled. All the proposed strategies are put into practice, through real experimentation or invalidated simulators, over the AUV Ciscrea available at ENSTA Bretagne.; Ce travail vise à atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les systèmes robotiques mobiles. À cette fin, des structures de commande auxiliaire et des techniques de réglage robuste sont proposées. Les structures sont proposées dans le cadre du suivi de chemin pour atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les entrées et les sorties des systèmes. Ensuite, étant donnée leur utilisation répandue en robotique, les contrôleurs de type PID sont considérés comme une contrainte structurelle. Une méthode de réglage robuste, tenant compte de cette contrainte, est proposée permettant d’atteindre de bons niveaux de performance même en présence de perturbations. Enfin, pour faire face à la robustesse en présence des contraintes de non-linéarité sur robots, un outil d’analyse et de réglage pour les contrôleurs de mode glissant est proposé. La particularité de cette méthode de réglage, basée sur des techniques d’optimisation globale et de calculs par intervalles, est qu’elle permet de générer des cartographies de réglage des paramètres pour lesquels le critère de performance souhaité est rempli.Toutes les stratégies proposées sont mises en pratique par des expérimentations réelles ou sur des simulateurs validés (AUV Ciscrea disponible à l’ENSTA Bretagne).

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    Authors: Strigens, Alexander Carl Georg;

    Since the introduction of maize into Europe, open-pollinated varieties of flint maize were cultivated across the continent. Natural selection promoted adaptation to the climatic conditions prevailing in the different regions. With the advent of hybrid breeding in Europe during the 1950’s, some of the genes responsible for the specific adaptations of the landraces to abiotic and biotic stress were captured in the first developed inbred lines, but most of their genetic diversity is still untapped. Development of inbred lines out of this material by recurrent selfing is very tedious due to strong inbreeding depression. In contrast, the doubled-haploid (DH) technology allows producing fully homozygous lines out of landraces in only one step. This allows their precise characterization in replicated trials and identification of new genes by genome wide association (GWA) mapping. In this study we genotyped a set of 132 DH lines derived from European Flint landraces and 364 elite European flint (EU-F), European dent (EU-D) and North-American dent (NA-D) inbred lines with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The lines were evaluated in field trials for morphologic and agronomic traits and GWA mapping was performed to identify underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, our objectives were to (1) develop a robust method for quantifying early growth with a non-destructive remote-sensing platform, (2) evaluate the importance of early growth performance of inbred lines with regard to their testcross performance, (3) determine the potential of GWA mapping to identify genes underlying early growth and cold tolerance related traits, (4) evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity recovered in the DH lines derived from the landraces, (5) estimate the effect of the DH method on the recovered genetic diversity, (6) identify new genes by GWA mapping in the DH lines derived from landraces, and (8) discuss the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to improve the genetic diversity and performance of elite maize germplasm. A phenotyping platform using spectral reflectance and light curtains was used to perform repeated measurements of biomass and estimate relative growth rates (RGR) of the DH and inbred lines, as well as of two testcrosses of 300 dent inbred lines. The DH lines derived from the landraces Schindelmeiser and Gelber Badischer had the highest RGR followed by EU-F lines, DH lines derived from Bugard, EU-D lines and, finally, NA-D lines. For inbred lines, whole plant dry matter yield (DMY) was positively correlated with RGR (r = 0.49), whereas this relation was weaker in the testcrosses (r = 0.29). RGR of the inbred lines correlated with RGR of their testcrosses (r = 0.42), but it had no influence on testcross DMY. A set of 375 EU-F, EU-D and NA-D lines were further evaluated in growth chambers under chilling (16/13°C) and optimal (27/25°C) temperatures. Photosynthetic and early growth performance were estimated for each treatment and an adaptation index (AI) built as the chilling to optimal performance ratio. Nineteen QTL were identified by GWA mapping for trait performance and AI. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signaling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. Several QTL for photosynthetic performance co-located with previously reported QTL and the QTL identified for shoot dry wieght under optimal conditions co-located with a QTL for RGR. Comparison of the DH lines derived from landraces with the EU-F lines showed that genotypic variances in single DH populations were greater than in the EU-F breeding population. A high average genetic distance among the DH lines derived from the same landrace as well as a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium suggests a high effective population size of the landraces. Because no systematic phenotypic differences were observed between the landraces and synthetic landraces obtained by intermating the corresponding DH lines, the expected purge of lethal recessive alleles during the DH production did neither improve grain yield performance nor affect the recovered genetic diversity. Performing GWA in the DH lines derived from landraces as well as the EU-F, and EU-D lines allowed the identification of 49 QTL for 27 traits. A larger set of DH lines derived from more landraces might solve problems arising from population structure and allow a much higher power for the detection of new alleles. In conclusion, the introgression of DH lines derived from landraces into the elite breeding material would strongly broaden its genetic base. However, grain yield performance was 22% higher in EU-F lines than in the DH lines derived from landraces. Selection of the best DH lines would allow partially bridging this yield gap and marker-assisted selection may allow introgression of positive QTL without introducing negative features by linkage drag. Seit der Einfuhr von Mais aus der „neuen“ Welt nach Europa, wurden offen abblühende Flint-Mais Populationen auf dem gesamten Kontinent angebaut. Durch natürliche Selektion passten sich diese Landsorten an die Klimate des Kontinents an. In den Anfängen der Hybridzüchtung wurden Gene und Allele, die für diese spezifische Anpassung an biotische und abiotische Stressfaktoren verantwortlich sind, in den ersten Inzuchtlinien nur teilweise fixiert. Der Grossteil der genetischen Vielfalt der Landsorten blieb jedoch ungenutzt, da die Entwicklung von Inzuchtlinien aus diesem Material wegen besonders starker Inzuchtdepression sehr mühsam ist. Demgegenüber erlaubt es die seit etwa 10 Jahre eingesetzte Methode der Erzeugung von Doppel-Haploiden (DH), vollständig homozygote Linien aus Landsorten in einem einzigen Schritt zu entwickeln. Diese DH-Linien können in wiederholten Feldversuchen sehr präzise evaluiert werden. Dies vereinfacht die Kartierung von Genen mithilfe der Genom-weiten Assoziations-Kartierung (GWA) enorm. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden 132 DH-Linien aus europäischen Landsorten, 364 Inzucht-linien aus Nordamerikanischem Dent (NA-D), europäischem Flint (EU-F) und europäischem Dent (EU-D) Zuchtmaterial mit 56110 genetischen Markern genotypisiert. Agronomische Eigenschaften der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien wurden in Feldversuchen evaluiert und mittels GWA kartiert, um vorteilhafte Gene zu identifizieren. Zu unseren Zielen gehörten insbesondere (1) die Entwicklung einer robusten, nicht-destruktiven Methode zur Erfassung der Jugendentwicklung mittels Sensoren, (2) die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der Jugendentwicklung der Linien per se und deren Testkreuzungen, (3) die Erforschung von GWA zur Identifikation von Kühletoleranz- und Jugendentwicklungs-Genen in Elite-Inzuchtlinien, (4) die Evaluierung der aus den Landsorten mittels der DH-Methode geborgene phänotypische und genetische Vielfalt, (5) die Abschätzung eines möglichen Einfluss der DH-Methode auf der genetischen Vielfalt der DH-Linien, (6) die Entdeckung neuer Gene in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten mittels GWA, und (7) die Ermittlung des Potentials von DH-Linien aus Landsorten, um die Leistung und genetische Diversität des modernen Zuchtmaterials zu verbessern. Die Biomasse und relative Wachstumsrate (RGR) der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien sowie je zwei Testkreuzungen von 300 Dent Inzuchtlinien wurden mit Lichtschranken und spektraler Reflektion geschätzt. Die DH-Linien aus den Landsorten Schindelmeiser und Gelber Badischer wiesen die höchste RGR auf, gefolgt von EU-F Linien, DH-Linien aus Bugard, EU-D Linien und zuletzt NA-D Linien. Die Gesamttrockenmasse der Linien war mit deren RGR positiv korreliert (r = 0.49), während diese Korrelationen für die Testkreuzungen schwächer ausfiel (r = 0.29). Die RGR der Linien korrelierte mit der RGR der Testkreuzungen (r = 0.42), hatte jedoch keinen Einfluss auf deren Gesamttrockenmasse. Ein Satz von 375 EU-F, EU-D und NA-D Linien wurde unter kühlen (16/13°C) und optimalen (27/25°C) Temperaturen in Klimakammern untersucht. Die photosynthetische Leistung und die Jugendentwicklung wurden für jedes Verfahren gemessen. Aus dem Verhältnis der Leistungen unter kühlen und optimalen Bedingungen wurde ein Adaptations-Index (AI) berechnet. Neunzehn Genorte (QTL) wurden für verschiedene Merkmale und deren AI mittels GWA identifiziert. Gene mit Beteiligung in der Äthylen-Signalkette, Brassinolid- und Lignin-Biosynthese wurden als Kandidaten identifiziert. Mehrere QTL für photosynthetische Leistung co-lokalisierten mit bereits beschriebenen QTL. Der Vergleich der genetischen Varianzen zeigte, dass diese innerhalb der einzelnen Landsorten grösser ist als innerhalb des EU-F Zuchtmaterials. Sowohl die hohe mittlere genetische Distanz zwischen den DH-Linien einer Landsorte, als auch das rasch abfallende Kopplungs-ungleichgewicht innerhalb der Landsorten deuten auf eine grosse Effektive Populationsgrösse hin. Die erwartete Eliminierung von rezessiven letalen Allelen durch die DH-Methode konnte den Ertrag synthetischer Landsorten nicht erhöhen und hatte auch keinen grossen Einfluss auf die genetische Diversität. Mittels GWA Analyse in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten und in Elite-Inzuchtlinien konnten 49 QTL für 27 Merkmale kartiert werden. Eine grössere Anzahl von DH-Linien aus Landsorten würde es erlauben, die durch Populationsstruktur verursachten Artefakte zu beseitigen und somit die Wahrscheinlichkeit, neue Allele zu entdecken, stark erhöhen. Zusammengefasst kann die genetische Diversität des Zuchtmaterials durch die Einkreuzung von DH-Linien aus Landsorten stark erhöht werden. Der grosse Abstand zwischen der Leistung des Zuchtmaterials und den DH-Linien aus Landsorten (22%) kann durch Selektion der besten DH-Linien teilweise ausgeglichen werden. Marker-gestützte Selektion könnte das Einkreuzen von positiven QTL ohne Introgression von unerwünschten negativen Eigenschaften erleichtern.

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    Authors: Imran, Muhammad;

    Seed reserves are the primary source of mineral nutrients for early seedling development. ?Nutrient seed priming? is a technique in which seeds are soaked in nutrient solution and subsequently dried back to initial moisture content for storage. It is an efficient approach to increase seed nutrient contents along with priming effects to improve seed quality, germination speed and seedling establishment. Various abiotic stresses, such as sub-optimal temperature, drought, submergence and soil pH extremes can seriously affect seedling establishment and nutrient acquisition at early growth stages. This thesis focused on the role and contribution of nutrient seed priming in plant growth and nutritional status in maize and soybean under conditions of limited nutrient availability and low root-zone temperature. Protocols for nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn, Zn+Mn, B and P were optimised for application in maize and soybean seeds (B and P priming in maize only). Optimum priming durations of 24 h (maize) and 12 h (soybean) were identified for both plant species but in instead of submerging seeds in priming solutions slow imbibition between filter papers was essential for soybean to minimise development of abnormal seedlings to avoid imbibition damage. Nutrient concentrations were calculated according to water uptake to double the natural seed reserves of the respective micronutrients and 50% increase in phosphorus. However, final uptake of the micronutrients was generally much higher (+500-1000%) while it was lower for P (+20%). In case of soybean this could be attributed to a high Zn and Mn binding capacity of the seed coat, which adsorbed up to 60% of the primed nutrients. Particularly, Zn and Zn+Mn priming stimulated plant growth in hydroponic culture systems and to a lower extent also on a soil with low availability of P, Zn and Fe. This was associated with a high shoot translocation of the primed nutrients (Zn and Mn), which was most expressed in the hydroponic culture system. Combined priming treatments with Zn and Mn were usually less effective than Zn priming alone, suggesting an antagonistic interaction. By contrast, mobility of primed B was extremely low and B priming was completely ineffective. In soil culture also P priming moderately increased shoot biomass production by 10-20 %. However the efficiency of P priming was largely limited by the high P demand of the plants. Low root zone temperature (RZT) at early spring is a limiting factor for maize production in Central and Northern Europe. Nutrient acquisition, nutrient uptake and particularly root growth are severely affected at low RZT and the consequences of these growth depressions are often not completely compensated until final harvest. Model experiments in hydroponics and soil culture revealed that maize nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn and Fe is a promising strategy to diminish the deficiency of specific nutrients, such as Zn, Mn and also P and to maintain plant growth under low RZT stress. This was mainly attributed to significantly increased root growth and particularly fine root production in plants grown from nutrient-primed seeds. Improved net photosynthesis of primed plants was mainly related with increased leaf area and preliminary results suggest a higher tolerance to oxidative damage due to increased production of protective phenolics. Two independent field experiments under conditions of suboptimal temperatures during germination and early growth revealed an increase in grain yield of 10 ? 15 % for plants derived from Zn+Mn and Fe primed seeds. This finding demonstrates long-lasting persistence of priming effects. The molecular and physiological mechanisms behind require further investigation. Samenreserven sind die primäre Quelle für die Mineralstoffversorgung während der frühen Keimlingsentwicklung. Nährstoffpriming ist ein methodischer Ansatz, bei dem Saatgut in Mineralstofflösungen vorgequollen und anschließend zur weiteren Lagerung auf Ausgangsfeuchte zurückgetrocknet wird. Hierdurch ist es möglich, neben vorquellungsbedingten Primingeffekten auch die Mineralstoffreserven zur Verbesserung der Saatgutqualität zu erhöhen sowie die Auflauf-Geschwindigkeit und die Keimlingsentwicklung zu verbessern, die durch verschiedenste Stressfaktoren, wie suboptimale Temperaturbedingungen, Trockenheit, Staunässe und pH-Extreme beeinträchtigt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Wirkung von Nährstoffpriming auf das Wachstum und den Ernährungsstatus von Mais und Soja unter Bedingungen eingeschränkter Nährstoffverfügbarkeit und niedriger Wurzelraumtemperatur. Für die Saatgutapplikation von Zink (Zn), Mangan (Mn), Mn+Zn, Bor (B), Eisen (Fe) und Phosphat (P) bei Mais und Soja wurden Primingprotokolle entwickelt. Bei beiden Pflanzenarten ergab sich eine optimale Behandlungsdauer von 24 h. Jedoch war es notwendig, das Soja-Saatgut anstelle von submerser Inkubation in den Nährlösungen, langsam in Nährlösungsgetränktem Filterpapier einzuquellen, um die Entwicklung abnormaler Keimlinge aufgrund von Quellungsschäden zu vermeiden. Anhand der Wasseraufnahme der Keinlinge wurden die Nährlösungskonzentrationen so berechnet, das sich nach Einquellen eine Verdopplung der natürlichen Mineralstoffreserven im Samen ergeben sollte. Jedoch wurden für die Mikronährstoffe erheblich höhere Aufnahmeraten gemessen (+500 - 1000%), während die Aufnahme von P geringer war (+ 20%). Bei Soja konnte gezeigt werden, das die erhöhten Mikronährstoffgehalte auf eine hohe Bindungskapazität der Zwei unabhängige Feldversuche bei suboptimaler Temperatur während der Keimphase und des Jugendwachstums ergaben Kornertragssteigerungen von 10-15 % bei Mais nach Saatgutpriming mit Zn+Mn oder Fe. Diese Ergebnisse belegen die Langzeitwirkung der Primingeffekte. Die molekularen und physiologischen Grundlagen erfordern allerdings noch weitere Untersuchungen.

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    Authors: Kramer, K.;

    Research topicsThe relationships between climate and both phenology and growth of some important European tree species were studied to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on trees and forests in Europe. In order to make such assessments, insight is required on the mechanisms how climatic variables interact with plant processes. The topics addressed in this study were: (1) the modelling of phenology, (2) the consequences of climate change on spring frost damage, (3) the importance of phenotypic plasticity, (4) the importance of phenology on the effects of climate change on growth of monospecies deciduous forests, and (5) the importance of phenology on the effects of climate change on growth of mixed-species deciduous forests.Modelling phenologyTo evaluate the impacts of climate change on growth of temperate deciduous tree species, the onset and cessation of the growth must be accurately described. A review is presented on eight models predicting the date of leaf unfolding depending on temperature. These models were fitted using 57 years of observations on the date of leaf unfolding of Fagus sylvatica in The Netherlands, and used to predict 40 years of similar observations collected in Germany. As conflicting experimental evidence exist on the role of photoperiod on leaf unfolding of Fagus sylvatica, photoperiod was incorporated into each of these models.The timing of leaf unfolding could best be described by a model in which the effects of chilling temperatures (-5 to +10°C) and forcing temperatures (>0°C) operate sequentially in time, according to a triangular and logistic function, respectively. Including photoperiod reduced the predicting power of this model.Spring frost damageTwo studies presented in literature evaluate the effect of increasing winter temperature on the probability of spring frost damage to trees. However, one study predicted an increase, while the other predicted a decrease in the probability of spring frost damage. It is unclear whether the disparity is because: (1) different models were used, (2) different climatic warming scenarios used, or (3) the tree species at the different locations respond differently to warmer winters. To evaluate the effects of climatic warming to Larix decidua, Betula pubescens, Tilia platyphylla, Fagus sylvatica, Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelcior, Quercus petraea, Picea abies and Pinussylvestris in The Netherlands and in Germany, both models were fitted to long series of observations on the date of leaf unfolding of these tree species. The impact of the two scenarios (uniformly and non-uniformly changing winter temperature) on the date of leaf unfolding and on the probability of freezing temperature around that date was evaluated. To test the importance of adaptation to local climate, hypothetical provenance transfers were analysed.For tree species in The Netherlands and Germany the probability of spring frost damage will decrease, provided the variability in temperature does not change. The contradictory results found in literature could be ascribed to differences among provenances adapted to their local climate, rather than to differences between either the models or the climatic warming scenarios used in these studies.PlasticityTo evaluate the potential response of individual trees to climatic warming, phenological observations of clones of Larix decidua, Betula pubescens, Tilia cordata, Populus canescens, Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica, and Picea abies transferred over a large latitudinal range in Europe were analysed. The magnitude of the clone's response was compared to that of genetically different trees of the same species along a part of the latitudinal range, which were assumed to have adapted to their local climate.The responses of the date of leaf unfolding and leaf fall of the clones to temperature are similar in magnitude to those of the genetically different trees. This demonstrates that trees possess a considerable plasticity and are able to respond phenotypically to a major change in their local climate. For the clones of Larix decidua and Quercus robur the growing season may shorten with increasing temperature, because leaf fall is advanced more than leaf unfolding. In Betula pubescens and Populus canescens, leaf unfolding and leaf fall are advanced equally, whereas in Tilia cordata and Fagus sylvatica the date of leaf fall seems to be unaltered but leaf unfolding advances with increasing temperature. These differences in the duration of the growing season in response to increasing temperature may alter the competitive balance between the species in mixed stands.Descriptive dynamic models showed that most of the variance of the date of leaf unfolding can be accounted for by temperature. However, a generally applicable model of leaf fall based on temperature and/or photoperiod could not improve the null model, i.e. the mean date of leaf fall, because of variability in other environmental factors.The lowest temperature around the date of leaf unfolding and leaf fall differed among the clones. The hypothesis that the survival of the clones is curtailed by spring frosts was supported. Thus, these lowest temperatures around leaf unfolding may represent thresholds below which the species cannot survive.It is argued that these thresholds may be a particularly sensitive means to evaluate the impacts of climatic warming on the geographical distribution of tree species.Growth of monospecies forestsThe importance of three phenological types of deciduous tree for the effects of climate change on growth of monospecies forests was evaluated using the model FORGRO. The climate change scenarios used were a doubling of the C02 concentration (700 μmol mol -1) and an increase in temperature ranging from 0 to 7°C. To elucidate the relative importance of photosynthesis and allocation for this evaluation, models with different levels of mechanistic detail of photosynthesis and allocation were used. The photosynthesis approach of FORGRO was compared to the Farquhar and Von Caernmerer approach as formulated in PGEN (FORGRO-PGEN). Similarly, the allocation approach of FORGRO was compared to the transport-resistance approach, as formulated in the ITE-Edinburgh model (ITE-FORGRO). A sensitivity analysis was performed to ascertain whether the response of gross photosynthesis to a climate change scenario depends on the value assigned to parameters in these models, and to compare this sensitivity with the differences found between the phenological types. The differences in the response of annual gross photosynthesis ( Pg,a ) to the climate change scenarios between the phenological types were smaller according to ITE- FORGRO as compared to FORGRO. These differences are of a similar magnitude when comparing the two photosynthesis models. Furthermore, FORGRO-PGEN showed that the response of Pg,a to a 2 x [ 2 CO ] increases with rising temperature, thus compensating for the increase in respiration. For both FORGRO and ITEFORGRO, this C0 2 and temperature interaction was not found. Consequently, in these models the increase in respiration exceeded the increase in gross photosynthesis at the higher range of temperature rise. The sensitivity analysis showed that the models differ in the sensitivity of the response of Pg,a to a 2 x [C 2 O ] scenario combined with a temperature rise of 2°C ( C700 / T2 ), when parameter values change by ±25%. In FORGRO-PGEN, the magnitude of the response of Pg,a depended on the values of some of its parameters, especially those determining the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of Rubisco, which for these parameters exceeded the differences between the phenological types in this scenario. In both FORGRO and ITE-FORGRO, this sensitivity is similar to or less than the difference between the phenological types in the C700 / T2 scenario.Growth of mixed-species forestsUsing the same three phenological types and climate change scenarios, the effects of differences in phenology and spring frost damage on growth in mixed-species stands were evaluated using the models FORGRO and HYBRID. FORGRO highlights potential growth in managed forests, whereas HYBRID highlights feedbacks of carbon, water and nitrogen cycles in General Vegetation Types, based on gap model theory. Furthermore, the importance of inaccuracy of the phenological model for growth in mixed-species stands was evaluated by comparing the modelling approach with a regression approach.The results of the climate change scenarios indicate for both FORGRO and HYBRID that: (1) the differences in NPP of the three phenological types considered are enhanced when grown in a mixed-species stand compared to a monospecies stand; and (2) the consequences of frost damage on growth is more prominent in mixed-species stands than in monospecies stands.Considering the accuracy of the modelling approach compared to the regression approach for the timing of leaf unfolding and spring frost damage, the sequential model of leaf unfolding shows a similar response of the NPP as the regression approach, both for the monospecies and the mixed-species situation. The modelling approach yields, however, larger differences in the NPP between the phenological types because the model predicts a greater advancement of leaf unfolding than the regression model. Comparing the regression approach to the modelling approach for frost hardiness, the regression approach shows a greater frequency of frost damage, because according to the model, the minimum level of frost hardiness is attained after the date of leaf unfolding, thus reducing this frequency.The differences in phenological response to temperature can be used to evaluate the consequences of climate change on the geographical distributions of species.

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    Authors: Arca, Gülseren;

    - 64 - VII. ÖZET Bu araştırma, Tütün Araştırma ve Eğitim Enstitüsü ile Ege Ta rımsal Araştırma Enstitüsünde 1902-1^88 yılları arasında yürütülmüş tür. Araştırmada Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Fitopatoloji ve Zirai Botanik Kürsüsü olanaklarından da yararlanılmıştır. Ülkemizde Macrophomina phaseolirıa (Tassi.) Goid. fungusu hak kında yeterli çalışma bulunmadığı bilinaektadir. Araştırmamızda, bun dan 50 yıl önceki veriler gözönüne alınarak, geçen zaman zarfında neden olduğu tütünde özükuru hastalığının durumunu, etmenin varyas yonunu ve yerel çeşitlerin reaksiyonlarını belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgular özetlenecek olursa; 1. İzmir ilinin, tütün üretimi olan ilçelerinde 1985 ve 1986 yıllarında yapılan survey sonucunda özükuru hastalık oranı I985 yılı ortalaması olarak % Ş6-31, I986 yılı ortalaması olarak da % 50.54 oranında bulunmuştur. Hastalık oranı sırasıyla en çok % 95*50 ve $> 90, 21* e kadar çıkmıştır. 2. Bölgeden alınan 504 hasta bitki materyalinin 362'sinden {% 71.82) Macrophomina phaseolina fungusu izole edilmiştir. 3. İzolatlar gerek gelişmeleri ve gerekse oluşturdukları sklerot sayıları bakımından önemli farklılıklar göstermişlerdir. Ba zı durumlarda koloni gelişmesi ile sklerot sayısı arasında olumlu yönde ilişkiler varken, bazı izolatlarda ise bunun aksi saptanmıştır. 4. Aynı durum patojenisite yönünden de söylenebilir. İzolatları bu özelliklerine bakarak gruplar halinde bir araya getirmek mümkün olabilmektedir. Patojenisite testlerinde, 6 tütün çeşidinde 52 izo- lat % 0-$100 arasında bir hastalık çıkışına neden olmuşlardır. İzolat- ların, gerek çeşitler karşısında teksel ve gerekse tüm çeşitler karşı-- 65 - sında değerlendirilmelerinde farklı virulens gösterdikleri saptan mıştır. İzolatlar virulensleri yönünden değişik gruplara ayrılabil mişlerdir. `* 5. Çeşitler, reaksiyon testleri sonucunda % 25-60 ve fo 61-100 oranında hastalanma gösterenler diye iki gruba ayrılmışlardır. Reak siyon testine alınan 24 tütün çeşit/hattının M.phaseoliha'ya kar şı duyarlı olduğu bulunmuştur. Ancak Ege-64 ve Basma I92/23 no'lu çeşitler daha az duyarlılık göstermişlerdir. Bundan başka çeşitler ve izolatlar arasındaki interaksiyon ilişkisi inoelenmiş, testlerde izolatlar benzer etkide, çeşitlerin ise farklı duyarlılıkta oldukla rı ortaya çıkmıştır. Ancak Basma 192/23 no'lu çeşit üzerinde 1 no'lu izolat etkili, 2 no'lu izolat ise etkisiz bulunmuştur. - 66 - VIII. SUMMARY The stuiy was undertaken both at Tobacco Research ani Training Institute and Aegean Agri cultural Research Institute between the years of I982/88. In aiiition, facilities of Department of the Phyto pathology and Agricultural Botany of Agricultural Faculty at the Aegean University, were also utilized. It is known that studies on Macrophornina phaseolina have not been sufficient in Turkey. With this study it was aimed to determine the incidence of the disease, variations and the reactions of selec ted local cultivars to the fungus on the basis of data available about 50 years ago. Prom the' results obtained the following findings were drawn; 1»-- According to surveys carried out, the mean incidence of the- disease was estimated to be 56,31 % (max 95» 5 f») and 50,54 (max 90,21 İo) for the years 1985 and I986, respectively. 2. The fungus was isolated in 362 out of, 504 diseased specimen collected in the region (71,82 %). 3. Isolates varied in development and the number of sclerotia produced. In some cases, positive correlation were found between co lonial development and the number of sclerotia. However some of the isolates also exhibited variation in pathogenicity and they could be classified depending on these characteristics. 52 isolates connected with six tobacco cultivars incited the disease based on the tests done. Data taken on single basis and whole, it was concluded that isolates were also differed in terms of their virulencies, which could also be used for grouping.- 67 - 5. Cultivars were classified into two disease incidence groups being 25 to 60 fu ani 61 to 100 $, based on the results of reaction tests. 24 tobacco cultivars/lines tested against the pathogen, were found to be susceptible. However, the susceptibility of cvs Sge 64 and Basma 192/23 were less announced. Moreover, the relationship of the interactions between the cultivar and isolates were exammei and it was concluded that the cultivars varied in susceptibility but the isolates had the same effect. Although isolate number 1 was found to be effective on cv 192/23, isolate number 2 was not. 74

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    Authors: Elma, Fatma Nur;

    Yapılan bu çalışmada, Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae), Lavandula angustifolia Miller(Lamiaceae), Cuminum cyminum L. (Umbelliferae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae) olmak üzere sekiz bitkinin methanol ekstraktlarının Avrupa sünesi Eurygaster maura L. (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae)?nın değişik biyolojik dönemlerine toksik etkileri ile yumurta verimi ve yumurta canlılık oranına etkileri araştırılmıştır. Kışlamış erginler topikal aplikasyon ve püskürtme yöntemi, nimfler püskürtme yöntemi ile, yumurta dönemi ise bitki ekstraktlarına daldırma yöntemi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Ayrıca bitki ekstraktlarının ovipozisyonu engelleme üzerine etkileri kurutma kağıdına emdirme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Yapılan paralel bir çalışma ile E. maura?nın yumurta parazitoiti olan Trissolcus semistriatus Nees.?un (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) larva, pupa ve ergin dönemlerine ekstraktların toksik etkileri de değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda Avrupa sünesinin tüm dönemlerinde ekstrakt konsantrasyonunun artışına ve uygulama süresine bağlı olarak ölüm oranının arttığı belirlenmiştir. Uygulamadan 48 saat sonra erginler için elde edilen LD50 değerleri dikkate alınarak toksik etkisi bakımından ekstraktların sıralanmasıtopikal uygulamada, F. vulgare > L. angustifolia > C. cyminum > A. millefolium > P. anisum > A. absinthium > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum şeklinde iken, püskürtme uygulamasında F. vulgare > C. cyminum > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum > L. angustifolia > A. absinthium > P. anisum > A. millefoliumşeklinde olmuştur. Nimf döneminde ise F. vulgare ve T. vulgaris ekstraktları en toksik ekstraktlar olmuşlardır. Ekstrakta daldırılan yumurtaların konsantrasyon artışına bağlı olarak açılım oranlarının düştüğü belirlenmiştir. Foeniculum vulgare ekstraktı %73.64 yumurta açılımını engelleme oranıyla ilk sırayı almıştır. Ekstrakt uygulanan ergin dişilerin, kontrole göre daha az yumurta bıraktığı ve genel olarak bu yumurtalarda açılım oranlarının düştüğü görülmüştür. En güçlü ovipozisyonu engelleme A. millefolium ekstraktı tarafından meydana getirilmiştir (%40.28). Foeniculum vulgare, L. angustifolia, C. cyminum ve T. vulgaris ekstraktları tüm biyolojik dönemler için toksik etki göstermiştir. Ekstraktların T. semistriatus?a toksik etkisi ile ilgili çalışmalarda parazitoid pupası en dayanıklı, ergini ise en hassas dönem olarak belirlenmiştir.Buğday bitkilerine fitotoksisite bakımından T. vulgaris, P. anisum ve L. angustifolia en toksik ekstraktlar olmuştur.Anahtar Kelimeler: Avrupa sünesi, Bitki ekstraktı, Eurygaster maura L., Ovipozisyon engelleme, Ovisit etki, Toksik etki, Trissolcus semistriatus Nees In this study, methanol extracts of eight plants; Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae), Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiaceae), Cuminum cyminum L. (Umbelliferae), Thymus vulgaris L.(Lamiaceae), Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae), were tested on various biological stages of the European Sunn pest, Eurygaster maura L. (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae). Toxicities of the extracts were tested on overwintered adults of the pest by using topical and spraying methods. At the same time, the extracts were sprayed on the nymphal stages of the sunn-pest. Toxicites of the extracts on eggs were investigated by using dipping method. In addition, effects of plant extracts on oviposition deterrent were determined by impregnation method of blotting papers to plant extracts. A parallel study was also performed to evaluate the toxicities of the extracts on larvae, pupae and adults of egg parasitoid Trissolcus semistriatus Nees. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae).As a result of this study, toxicities of the extracts were increased by depending on the rising of exposure time and extract concentration. Taking into account of LD50 values, 48 h later from applications on adults, ranking of extracts with regard to toxic effects were determined as F. vulgare > L. angustifolia> C. cyminum > A. millefolium > P. anisum > A. absinthium > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum and F. vulgare> C. cyminum > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum > L. angustifolia > A. absinthium > P. anisum > A. millefolium at the topical and spray applications, respectively. Against to the nymphal stages F. vulgare and T. vulgaris extracts were the most toxic among the tested extracts. The percentage of hatching of treated eggs decreased and treated females laid less egg which have low hatching ratio, than that of the control. Foeniculum vulgare extract was the most effective on egg hatching inhibition with the rate of73.64%. A. millefolium extract was the most active on reducing fecundity among other extracts (40.28%).It was concluded that F. vulgare, L. angustifolia, C. cyminum, T. vulgaris extracts were the most toxic to all biological stages tested.While the pupae of parasitoid T. semistriatus were the most resistant to the extracts, adults were the most sensitive.In terms of phytotoxicity to the wheat plants T. vulgaris, P. anisum and L. angustifolia appeared to be the most toxic among other extracts tested.Keywords: Eurygaster maura L., Ovicidal effects, Oviposition deterrence, Plant extract, Sunn pest, Toxicity, Trissolcus semistriatus Nees 106

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    Authors: Mackay, Heather;

    This research contributes to countering a large city research bias by focusing on the food, farming and health experiences of two secondary cities of Uganda: Mbale and Mbarara. It is not an apocalyptic story. Like anywhere in the world, for some residents things were going well; for others, less well. My research explores the varied geometries of advantage and disadvantage in diets, food security, and livelihood circumstances to shed light on why things were more secure for some than for others. I used multiple methods including a household survey, focus groups with local healthcare professionals, and in-depth interviews with varied city residents. A geographic perspective explored intersections of food, farming and health with aspects of identity (such as gender, class, tribe), and with place (the city itself, but also with rural areas, or other urban areas). The starting point was the theorised food system, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions predicted to occur with urban development, often called nutrition transition theory. My research suggests caution with dominant models of how urban life shifts food and farming systems towards a food system and diet pattern focused around large retailer supermarkets, processed foods, fast foods, more meat, less agriculture, less movement. Nutrition transition theory postulates these changes causing a shift in epidemiology from infectious to non-infectious diseases in urban areas. Instead of the suggestion from nutrition transition theory, my work presents evidence of non-communicable disease (obesity, diabetes, hypertension) experience in Mbale and Mbarara’s residents, but without evidence of advanced change in food and farming systems. Findings revealed relatively low dietary diversities and common food insecurity. Diets remained predominantly traditional, as did the main food sources (traditional markets and neighbourhood shops), across diverse residents. The more food secure had regular salaried employment and strong relational links with rural farms and family, supporting work on multi-spatial livelihoods. This contrasts with earlier ideas of who farms the African city, or retains farming livelihoods. Most vulnerable to food insecurity and low diet diversity were those who were most dependent on purchasing all their food. In conclusion, this research suggests that food system, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions in Mbale and Mbarara may be less linked than previously thought, or linked in more complex ways. Other drivers of epidemiologic change are likely. Findings highlight the importance of local data and specific city investigations.

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  • Authors: Kounades-Bastian, Dionyssos;

    In this thesis we address the problem of multichannel audio source separa- tion (MASS) for underdetermined convolutive mixtures through probabilistic modeling. We focus on three aspects of the problem and make three contri- butions. Firstly, inspired from the empirically well validated representation of an audio signal, that is know as local Gaussian signal model (LGM) with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we propose a Bayesian extension to this, that overcomes some of the limitations of the NMF. We incorporate this representation in a MASS framework and compare it with the state of the art in MASS, yielding promising results. Secondly, we study how to separate mix- tures of moving sources and/or of moving microphones. Movements make the acoustic path between sources and microphones become time-varying. Ad- dressing time-varying audio mixtures appears is not so popular in the MASS literature. Thus, we begin from a state of the art LGM-with-NMF method designed for separating time-invariant audio mixtures and propose an exten- sion that uses a Kalman smoother to track the acoustic path across time. The proposed method is benchmarked against a block-wise adaptation of that state of the art (ran on time segments), and delivers competitive results on both simulated and real-world mixtures. Lastly, we investigate the link between MASS and the task of audio diarisation. Audio diarisation is the detection of the time intervals where each speaker/source is active or silent. Most state of the art MASS methods consider the sources to emit continuously; A hypothe- sis that can result in spurious signal estimates for a source, in intervals where that source was silent. Our aim is that diarisation can aid MASS by indicat- ing the emitting sources at each time frame. To that extent we design a joint framework for simultaneous diarisation and MASS, that incorporates a hidden Markov model (HMM) to track the temporal activity of the sources, within a state of the art LGM-with-NMF MASS framework. We compare the proposed method with the state of the art in MASS and audio diarisation tasks. We ob- tain performances comparable, with the state of the art, in terms of separation while winning in terms of diarisation.; Dans cette thèse nous abordons le problème de la séparation de sources audio dans des mélanges convolutifs multicanaux et sous-déterminés, en utilisant une modélisation probabiliste. Nous nous concentrons sur trois aspects, et nous apportons trois contributions. D’abord, nous nous inspirons du modèle Gaussien local par factorisation en matrices non-négatives (LGM-with-NMF), qui est un modèle empiriquement validé pour représenter un signal audio. Nous proposons une extension Bayésienne de ce modèle, qui permet de sur- passer certaines limitations du modèle NMF. Nous incorporons cette représentation dans un cadre de separation audio multicanaux, et le comparons avec l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation. Nous obtenons des résultats prometteurs. Deuxièment, nous étudions comment séparer des mélanges audio de sources et/ou des capteurs en mouvement. Ces déplacements rendent le chemin acoustique entre les sources et les microphones variant en cours du temps. L’adressage des mélanges convolutifs variant au cours du temps est peu exploré dans la littérature. Ainsi, nous partons d’une méthode de l’état de l’art développée pour la séparation de mélanges invariant (sources et microphones statiques) et utilisant LGM-with-NMF. Nous proposons à ceci une extension qui utilise un filtre de Kalman pour suivre le chemin acoustique au cours du temps. La technique proposée est comparée à une adaptation block-par-block d’une technique de l’état de l’art appliquée sur des intervalles de temps, et a donné des résultats exceptionels sur les mélanges simulés et les mélanges du monde réel. Enfin, nous investiguons les similitudes entre la séparation et la journalisation audio. La journalisation est le problème de détection des intervalles auxquels chaque locuteur/source est émettant. La plupart des méthodes de séparation supposent toutes les sources émettent continuellement. Cette hypothèe peut donner lieu à de fausses estimations durant les intervalles au cours desquels cette source n’a pas émis. Notre objectif est que la journalisation puisse aider à résoudre la séparation, en indiquant les sources qui émettent à chaque intervalle de temps. Dans cette mesure, nous concevons une cadre commun pour traiter simultanément la journalisation et la séparation du mélange audio. Ce cadre incorpore un modèle de Markov caché pour suivre les activités des sources au sein d’une technique de séparation LGM-with-NMF. Nous comparons l’algorithme proposé à l’état de l’art sur des tâches de séparation et de journalisation. Nous obtenons des performances comparables avec l’état de l’art pour la séparation, et supériures pour la journalisation.

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  • Authors: Bassin, Claire;

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à la profession d’auditeur et à sa perception de trois changements récents qui modifient en profondeur ses modalités d’exercice et pourraient remettre en question la qualité de l’audit, sujet largement étudié dans la littérature académique sans que sa définition ne fasse consensus. Pour autant la nécessité que l’audit financier soit « de qualité » est largement acceptée notamment car l’auditeur légal certifie les comptes annuels sur lesquels les décisions financières sont fondées. Or, peu de recherches s’intéressent aux conditions d’exercice de la profession d’auditeur légal. Dans cette thèse, nous montrons comment la profession d’auditeur légal a évolué suite à des changements majeurs liés à la législation, la crise sanitaire et l’évolution technologique. Nous présentons l’évolution des principales caractéristiques de cette profession. L’une d’elle est le fait d’avoir connu, ces dernières années, plusieurs changements qui modifient la nature et l’ampleur de la mission des auditeurs.Nous retenons trois changements récents ayant impacté la profession de natures complémentaires. Nous étudions comment les auditeurs perçoivent ces changements et quel est leur impact pour leur cabinet et plus généralement pour le marché de l’audit. Cette thèse consacre un chapitre à chacun des trois changements. Dans un premier article, les effets pour la profession d’auditeur légal de la loi PACTE sont étudiés. A travers une étude qualitative réalisée à partir d’entretiens et d’un questionnaire, nous montrons pourquoi la loi PACTE présente, selon certains auditeurs légaux, un danger pour la qualité de l’audit. Nos résultats soulignent que le manque de concertation, en amont de l’adoption de la loi, a particulièrement heurté les auditeurs. De plus, parmi les conséquences de la loi, la mission ALPE est largement rejetée par les auditeurs. Le deuxième article s’intéresse aux conséquences du passage au télétravail, lors de la crise sanitaire, sur les auditeurs légaux. Grâce à des entretiens menés avec des auditeurs et à travers une démarche inductive, nous montrons que le télétravail a trois conséquences pour la qualité de l’audit. D’abord, les relations avec les clients sont dégradées et une perte de l’information dite « soft » est à déplorer. Ensuite, les relations humaines au cabinet sont modifiées avec des impacts négatifs sur la formation des collaborateurs et le management des équipes. Enfin, l’équilibre de vie des collaborateurs est également impacté avec des conséquences plutôt positives. Le troisième article traite d’un changement dans les modalités de travail des auditeurs à travers la digitalisation de leurs pratiques. Si les cabinets dits Big ont déjà fait l’objet d’étude sur ce sujet, notre recherche est la première à se consacrer aux cabinets dits Non-Big. Après des entretiens exploratoires menés auprès d’auditeurs de cabinets de taille intermédiaire ou de petite taille, nous avons élaboré un questionnaire. Les résultats obtenus permettent de mieux définir la digitalisation dans les cabinets, à comprendre quels éléments les auditeurs incluent derrière la notion de « digitalisation » et à situer l’avancement des cabinets sur chacun de ces éléments. De plus, nous montrons que la digitalisation présente des avantages certains et permet une évolution bénéfique de la profession. Cependant, certaines craintes émergent de nos résultats et l’avenir de la profession semble être questionné. Cette thèse confirme donc que la profession d’auditeur légal est à une étape clef de son histoire. Plusieurs changements récents ont modifié ses pratiques et l’avenir des cabinets, et plus largement de la profession, semble lié à leur façon de gérer les changements à se réinventer. This thesis looks at the auditing profession and its perception of three recent changes that are profoundly altering the way it practises and could call into question the quality of auditing, a subject widely studied in academic literature without a consensus on its definition. However, the need for financial auditing to be of "high quality" is widely accepted, particularly as the statutory auditor certifies the annual accounts on which financial decisions are based. However, little research has been carried out into the conditions under which statutory auditors practice their profession. In this thesis, we show how the profession of statutory auditor has evolved in the wake of major changes linked to legislation, the health crisis and technological developments. We present the evolution of the main characteristics of this profession. One of these is the fact that, in recent years, a number of changes have affected the nature and scope of auditors' missions.We have selected three recent changes that have had a complementary impact on the profession. We look at how auditors perceive these changes, and what impact they have had on their firms and on the audit market in general.This thesis devotes a chapter to each of these three changes. The first article examines the effects of the PACTE Act on the legal auditing profession. Through a qualitative study based on interviews and a questionnaire, we show why, according to some statutory auditors, the PACTE law poses a danger to audit quality. Our results show that the lack of consultation prior to the law's adoption has particularly offended auditors. Moreover, among the consequences of the law, the ALPE mission is widely rejected by auditors. The second article looks at the impact on statutory auditors of the switch to telecommuting during the health crisis. Using interviews with auditors and an inductive approach, we show that telecommuting has three consequences for audit quality. Firstly, relations with clients deteriorate, and a loss of "soft" information is to be deplored. Secondly, human relations within the firm are altered, with negative impacts on staff training and team management. Finally, the balance of employees' lives is also impacted, with rather positive consequences.The third article deals with a change in the way auditors work, through the digitization of their practices. While Big firms have already been studied, our research is the first to focus on Non-Big firms. Following exploratory interviews with auditors from mid-sized and small firms, we developed a questionnaire. The results obtained help us to better define digitization in firms, to understand which elements auditors include behind the notion of " digitization ", and to situate firms' progress on each of these elements. In addition, we show that digitization has definite advantages and is bringing about a beneficial evolution in the profession. However, certain fears emerge from our results, and the future of the profession seems to be in doubt. This thesis confirms that the legal auditing profession is at a key stage in its history. A number of recent changes have altered its practices, and the future of firms - and of the profession more generally - seems to depend on how they manage these changes and reinvent themselves.

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    Authors: Bilici, İhsan;

    Bu araştırmanın temel amaçları IPARD programı kapsamında destek almış süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin ekonomik yapısının ortaya konulması, IPARD desteklerinin süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde meydana getirdiği değişimin incelenmesi ve süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin hibe desteklerinden yararlanma durumunun ve kazanımlarının belirlenmesidir. Araştırma verileri, Türkiye'de IPARD desteklerinden faydalanan ve 17 farklı ilde faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin tamamını oluşturan 100 süt sığırcılığı işletmesinden anket yoluyla elde edilmiştir. Benzer özelliklere sahip işletmelerin gruplandırılmasında kümeleme analizi kullanılmıştır. Süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin ekonomik yapısının ortaya konulmasında klasik ekonomik analiz yaklaşımları kullanılmıştır. Süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin hibelerden sağladığı kazanımlar fayda masraf analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, küçük süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 21 baş, orta büyüklükteki süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 61 baş ve büyük süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde 95 baş süt sığırı bulunduğunu göstermiştir. Ekonomik analizde, incelenen küçük ve orta ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinde karlılığın istenen düzeyde olmadığı, büyük işletmelerin ise karlı olduğu tespit edilmiştir. IPARD desteği almanın incelenen süt sığırcılığı işletmelerinin üretim alışkanlığını, teknoloji kullanımını ve işletmecilik biçimini olumlu yönde değiştirdiği saptanmıştır. Fayda masraf analizi sonuçlarına göre, Türkiye'de faaliyet gösteren küçük ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmeleri kullandıkları hibe karşılığında, yeterli düzeyde fayda sağlayamamaktadırlar. IPARD desteklerinin orta ve büyük ölçekli süt sığırcılığı işletmelerine sağladığı fayda, katlanılan maliyetten daha yüksektir. İşletmelerin ekonomik sürdürülebilirliği ve verilen hibe tutarı karşılığında beklenen faydanın sağlanabilmesi için, TKDK tarafından işletme bazında bulundurulması gereken süt sığırı sayısının 'proje kabul aşamasında' belirlenmesi ve projenin uygulama dönemi boyunca bunun takibinin yapılması gerekmektedir. The main purposes of this study were to perform an economic analysis of dairy farms supported by ARDSI within the scope of IPARD; to reveal changes sourced by grant in dairy farms and to explore the utilization characteristics and benefits of dairy farms from IPARD grants. Research data were collected from 100 dairy farms benefited IPARD grants in 17 different provinces of Turkey. Cluster analysis was used to classify dairy farms. When performing economic analysis, classical economic analysis methods were followed. Cost- benefit analysis was used to explore benefits of dairy farms from IPARD grants. Research results showed that number of cattle in small, medium and large dairy farms were 21, 61 and 95, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that the profitability of small and medium dairy farms was unsatisfactory level, while that of large dairy farms was satisfactory level. Benefiting IPARD grants positively affected the production habits, technology usage and management type of dairy farms. Based on the results of cost-benefit analysis, small scale Turkish dairy farms was not benefited from IPARD grants effectively. However, benefits were larger than that of allocated grants in medium and large size dairy farms. In order to ensure economic sustainability of dairy farms and achieve the expected benefits from allocated grants, the number of cattle should be determined at the starting point of project and monitored throughout the project implementation period. 153

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  • Authors: Rosendo, Juan Luis;

    This work seeks to mitigate the effects of constraints on mobile robotic systems. To this end, auxiliary control loops and robust tuning techniques are proposed. The former are proposed to mitigate the effects of constraints on the input and output of the systems through the modification of the motion parameter in path following applications.Then, PID controllers are considered as a structural constraint, given its wide use in robotics particularly at low control level. A robust tuning methodology considering this constraint is proposed which achieves good performancelevels even when facing disturbances. Finally, to deal with robustness in presence of robots nonlinearity constraints, an analysis and tuning tool for sliding mode controllers is proposed. The particularity of this tuning method, based on global optimization and interval techniques,is that it allows generating tuning maps of the parameter regions where the desired performance criterion is fulfilled. All the proposed strategies are put into practice, through real experimentation or invalidated simulators, over the AUV Ciscrea available at ENSTA Bretagne.; Ce travail vise à atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les systèmes robotiques mobiles. À cette fin, des structures de commande auxiliaire et des techniques de réglage robuste sont proposées. Les structures sont proposées dans le cadre du suivi de chemin pour atténuer les effets des contraintes sur les entrées et les sorties des systèmes. Ensuite, étant donnée leur utilisation répandue en robotique, les contrôleurs de type PID sont considérés comme une contrainte structurelle. Une méthode de réglage robuste, tenant compte de cette contrainte, est proposée permettant d’atteindre de bons niveaux de performance même en présence de perturbations. Enfin, pour faire face à la robustesse en présence des contraintes de non-linéarité sur robots, un outil d’analyse et de réglage pour les contrôleurs de mode glissant est proposé. La particularité de cette méthode de réglage, basée sur des techniques d’optimisation globale et de calculs par intervalles, est qu’elle permet de générer des cartographies de réglage des paramètres pour lesquels le critère de performance souhaité est rempli.Toutes les stratégies proposées sont mises en pratique par des expérimentations réelles ou sur des simulateurs validés (AUV Ciscrea disponible à l’ENSTA Bretagne).

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    Authors: Strigens, Alexander Carl Georg;

    Since the introduction of maize into Europe, open-pollinated varieties of flint maize were cultivated across the continent. Natural selection promoted adaptation to the climatic conditions prevailing in the different regions. With the advent of hybrid breeding in Europe during the 1950’s, some of the genes responsible for the specific adaptations of the landraces to abiotic and biotic stress were captured in the first developed inbred lines, but most of their genetic diversity is still untapped. Development of inbred lines out of this material by recurrent selfing is very tedious due to strong inbreeding depression. In contrast, the doubled-haploid (DH) technology allows producing fully homozygous lines out of landraces in only one step. This allows their precise characterization in replicated trials and identification of new genes by genome wide association (GWA) mapping. In this study we genotyped a set of 132 DH lines derived from European Flint landraces and 364 elite European flint (EU-F), European dent (EU-D) and North-American dent (NA-D) inbred lines with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The lines were evaluated in field trials for morphologic and agronomic traits and GWA mapping was performed to identify underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, our objectives were to (1) develop a robust method for quantifying early growth with a non-destructive remote-sensing platform, (2) evaluate the importance of early growth performance of inbred lines with regard to their testcross performance, (3) determine the potential of GWA mapping to identify genes underlying early growth and cold tolerance related traits, (4) evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity recovered in the DH lines derived from the landraces, (5) estimate the effect of the DH method on the recovered genetic diversity, (6) identify new genes by GWA mapping in the DH lines derived from landraces, and (8) discuss the potential of DH lines derived from landraces to improve the genetic diversity and performance of elite maize germplasm. A phenotyping platform using spectral reflectance and light curtains was used to perform repeated measurements of biomass and estimate relative growth rates (RGR) of the DH and inbred lines, as well as of two testcrosses of 300 dent inbred lines. The DH lines derived from the landraces Schindelmeiser and Gelber Badischer had the highest RGR followed by EU-F lines, DH lines derived from Bugard, EU-D lines and, finally, NA-D lines. For inbred lines, whole plant dry matter yield (DMY) was positively correlated with RGR (r = 0.49), whereas this relation was weaker in the testcrosses (r = 0.29). RGR of the inbred lines correlated with RGR of their testcrosses (r = 0.42), but it had no influence on testcross DMY. A set of 375 EU-F, EU-D and NA-D lines were further evaluated in growth chambers under chilling (16/13°C) and optimal (27/25°C) temperatures. Photosynthetic and early growth performance were estimated for each treatment and an adaptation index (AI) built as the chilling to optimal performance ratio. Nineteen QTL were identified by GWA mapping for trait performance and AI. Candidate genes involved in ethylene signaling, brassinolide, and lignin biosynthesis were found in their vicinity. Several QTL for photosynthetic performance co-located with previously reported QTL and the QTL identified for shoot dry wieght under optimal conditions co-located with a QTL for RGR. Comparison of the DH lines derived from landraces with the EU-F lines showed that genotypic variances in single DH populations were greater than in the EU-F breeding population. A high average genetic distance among the DH lines derived from the same landrace as well as a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium suggests a high effective population size of the landraces. Because no systematic phenotypic differences were observed between the landraces and synthetic landraces obtained by intermating the corresponding DH lines, the expected purge of lethal recessive alleles during the DH production did neither improve grain yield performance nor affect the recovered genetic diversity. Performing GWA in the DH lines derived from landraces as well as the EU-F, and EU-D lines allowed the identification of 49 QTL for 27 traits. A larger set of DH lines derived from more landraces might solve problems arising from population structure and allow a much higher power for the detection of new alleles. In conclusion, the introgression of DH lines derived from landraces into the elite breeding material would strongly broaden its genetic base. However, grain yield performance was 22% higher in EU-F lines than in the DH lines derived from landraces. Selection of the best DH lines would allow partially bridging this yield gap and marker-assisted selection may allow introgression of positive QTL without introducing negative features by linkage drag. Seit der Einfuhr von Mais aus der „neuen“ Welt nach Europa, wurden offen abblühende Flint-Mais Populationen auf dem gesamten Kontinent angebaut. Durch natürliche Selektion passten sich diese Landsorten an die Klimate des Kontinents an. In den Anfängen der Hybridzüchtung wurden Gene und Allele, die für diese spezifische Anpassung an biotische und abiotische Stressfaktoren verantwortlich sind, in den ersten Inzuchtlinien nur teilweise fixiert. Der Grossteil der genetischen Vielfalt der Landsorten blieb jedoch ungenutzt, da die Entwicklung von Inzuchtlinien aus diesem Material wegen besonders starker Inzuchtdepression sehr mühsam ist. Demgegenüber erlaubt es die seit etwa 10 Jahre eingesetzte Methode der Erzeugung von Doppel-Haploiden (DH), vollständig homozygote Linien aus Landsorten in einem einzigen Schritt zu entwickeln. Diese DH-Linien können in wiederholten Feldversuchen sehr präzise evaluiert werden. Dies vereinfacht die Kartierung von Genen mithilfe der Genom-weiten Assoziations-Kartierung (GWA) enorm. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden 132 DH-Linien aus europäischen Landsorten, 364 Inzucht-linien aus Nordamerikanischem Dent (NA-D), europäischem Flint (EU-F) und europäischem Dent (EU-D) Zuchtmaterial mit 56110 genetischen Markern genotypisiert. Agronomische Eigenschaften der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien wurden in Feldversuchen evaluiert und mittels GWA kartiert, um vorteilhafte Gene zu identifizieren. Zu unseren Zielen gehörten insbesondere (1) die Entwicklung einer robusten, nicht-destruktiven Methode zur Erfassung der Jugendentwicklung mittels Sensoren, (2) die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der Jugendentwicklung der Linien per se und deren Testkreuzungen, (3) die Erforschung von GWA zur Identifikation von Kühletoleranz- und Jugendentwicklungs-Genen in Elite-Inzuchtlinien, (4) die Evaluierung der aus den Landsorten mittels der DH-Methode geborgene phänotypische und genetische Vielfalt, (5) die Abschätzung eines möglichen Einfluss der DH-Methode auf der genetischen Vielfalt der DH-Linien, (6) die Entdeckung neuer Gene in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten mittels GWA, und (7) die Ermittlung des Potentials von DH-Linien aus Landsorten, um die Leistung und genetische Diversität des modernen Zuchtmaterials zu verbessern. Die Biomasse und relative Wachstumsrate (RGR) der DH-Linien und Elite-Inzuchtlinien sowie je zwei Testkreuzungen von 300 Dent Inzuchtlinien wurden mit Lichtschranken und spektraler Reflektion geschätzt. Die DH-Linien aus den Landsorten Schindelmeiser und Gelber Badischer wiesen die höchste RGR auf, gefolgt von EU-F Linien, DH-Linien aus Bugard, EU-D Linien und zuletzt NA-D Linien. Die Gesamttrockenmasse der Linien war mit deren RGR positiv korreliert (r = 0.49), während diese Korrelationen für die Testkreuzungen schwächer ausfiel (r = 0.29). Die RGR der Linien korrelierte mit der RGR der Testkreuzungen (r = 0.42), hatte jedoch keinen Einfluss auf deren Gesamttrockenmasse. Ein Satz von 375 EU-F, EU-D und NA-D Linien wurde unter kühlen (16/13°C) und optimalen (27/25°C) Temperaturen in Klimakammern untersucht. Die photosynthetische Leistung und die Jugendentwicklung wurden für jedes Verfahren gemessen. Aus dem Verhältnis der Leistungen unter kühlen und optimalen Bedingungen wurde ein Adaptations-Index (AI) berechnet. Neunzehn Genorte (QTL) wurden für verschiedene Merkmale und deren AI mittels GWA identifiziert. Gene mit Beteiligung in der Äthylen-Signalkette, Brassinolid- und Lignin-Biosynthese wurden als Kandidaten identifiziert. Mehrere QTL für photosynthetische Leistung co-lokalisierten mit bereits beschriebenen QTL. Der Vergleich der genetischen Varianzen zeigte, dass diese innerhalb der einzelnen Landsorten grösser ist als innerhalb des EU-F Zuchtmaterials. Sowohl die hohe mittlere genetische Distanz zwischen den DH-Linien einer Landsorte, als auch das rasch abfallende Kopplungs-ungleichgewicht innerhalb der Landsorten deuten auf eine grosse Effektive Populationsgrösse hin. Die erwartete Eliminierung von rezessiven letalen Allelen durch die DH-Methode konnte den Ertrag synthetischer Landsorten nicht erhöhen und hatte auch keinen grossen Einfluss auf die genetische Diversität. Mittels GWA Analyse in den DH-Linien aus Landsorten und in Elite-Inzuchtlinien konnten 49 QTL für 27 Merkmale kartiert werden. Eine grössere Anzahl von DH-Linien aus Landsorten würde es erlauben, die durch Populationsstruktur verursachten Artefakte zu beseitigen und somit die Wahrscheinlichkeit, neue Allele zu entdecken, stark erhöhen. Zusammengefasst kann die genetische Diversität des Zuchtmaterials durch die Einkreuzung von DH-Linien aus Landsorten stark erhöht werden. Der grosse Abstand zwischen der Leistung des Zuchtmaterials und den DH-Linien aus Landsorten (22%) kann durch Selektion der besten DH-Linien teilweise ausgeglichen werden. Marker-gestützte Selektion könnte das Einkreuzen von positiven QTL ohne Introgression von unerwünschten negativen Eigenschaften erleichtern.

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    Authors: Imran, Muhammad;

    Seed reserves are the primary source of mineral nutrients for early seedling development. ?Nutrient seed priming? is a technique in which seeds are soaked in nutrient solution and subsequently dried back to initial moisture content for storage. It is an efficient approach to increase seed nutrient contents along with priming effects to improve seed quality, germination speed and seedling establishment. Various abiotic stresses, such as sub-optimal temperature, drought, submergence and soil pH extremes can seriously affect seedling establishment and nutrient acquisition at early growth stages. This thesis focused on the role and contribution of nutrient seed priming in plant growth and nutritional status in maize and soybean under conditions of limited nutrient availability and low root-zone temperature. Protocols for nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn, Zn+Mn, B and P were optimised for application in maize and soybean seeds (B and P priming in maize only). Optimum priming durations of 24 h (maize) and 12 h (soybean) were identified for both plant species but in instead of submerging seeds in priming solutions slow imbibition between filter papers was essential for soybean to minimise development of abnormal seedlings to avoid imbibition damage. Nutrient concentrations were calculated according to water uptake to double the natural seed reserves of the respective micronutrients and 50% increase in phosphorus. However, final uptake of the micronutrients was generally much higher (+500-1000%) while it was lower for P (+20%). In case of soybean this could be attributed to a high Zn and Mn binding capacity of the seed coat, which adsorbed up to 60% of the primed nutrients. Particularly, Zn and Zn+Mn priming stimulated plant growth in hydroponic culture systems and to a lower extent also on a soil with low availability of P, Zn and Fe. This was associated with a high shoot translocation of the primed nutrients (Zn and Mn), which was most expressed in the hydroponic culture system. Combined priming treatments with Zn and Mn were usually less effective than Zn priming alone, suggesting an antagonistic interaction. By contrast, mobility of primed B was extremely low and B priming was completely ineffective. In soil culture also P priming moderately increased shoot biomass production by 10-20 %. However the efficiency of P priming was largely limited by the high P demand of the plants. Low root zone temperature (RZT) at early spring is a limiting factor for maize production in Central and Northern Europe. Nutrient acquisition, nutrient uptake and particularly root growth are severely affected at low RZT and the consequences of these growth depressions are often not completely compensated until final harvest. Model experiments in hydroponics and soil culture revealed that maize nutrient seed priming with Zn, Mn and Fe is a promising strategy to diminish the deficiency of specific nutrients, such as Zn, Mn and also P and to maintain plant growth under low RZT stress. This was mainly attributed to significantly increased root growth and particularly fine root production in plants grown from nutrient-primed seeds. Improved net photosynthesis of primed plants was mainly related with increased leaf area and preliminary results suggest a higher tolerance to oxidative damage due to increased production of protective phenolics. Two independent field experiments under conditions of suboptimal temperatures during germination and early growth revealed an increase in grain yield of 10 ? 15 % for plants derived from Zn+Mn and Fe primed seeds. This finding demonstrates long-lasting persistence of priming effects. The molecular and physiological mechanisms behind require further investigation. Samenreserven sind die primäre Quelle für die Mineralstoffversorgung während der frühen Keimlingsentwicklung. Nährstoffpriming ist ein methodischer Ansatz, bei dem Saatgut in Mineralstofflösungen vorgequollen und anschließend zur weiteren Lagerung auf Ausgangsfeuchte zurückgetrocknet wird. Hierdurch ist es möglich, neben vorquellungsbedingten Primingeffekten auch die Mineralstoffreserven zur Verbesserung der Saatgutqualität zu erhöhen sowie die Auflauf-Geschwindigkeit und die Keimlingsentwicklung zu verbessern, die durch verschiedenste Stressfaktoren, wie suboptimale Temperaturbedingungen, Trockenheit, Staunässe und pH-Extreme beeinträchtigt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Wirkung von Nährstoffpriming auf das Wachstum und den Ernährungsstatus von Mais und Soja unter Bedingungen eingeschränkter Nährstoffverfügbarkeit und niedriger Wurzelraumtemperatur. Für die Saatgutapplikation von Zink (Zn), Mangan (Mn), Mn+Zn, Bor (B), Eisen (Fe) und Phosphat (P) bei Mais und Soja wurden Primingprotokolle entwickelt. Bei beiden Pflanzenarten ergab sich eine optimale Behandlungsdauer von 24 h. Jedoch war es notwendig, das Soja-Saatgut anstelle von submerser Inkubation in den Nährlösungen, langsam in Nährlösungsgetränktem Filterpapier einzuquellen, um die Entwicklung abnormaler Keimlinge aufgrund von Quellungsschäden zu vermeiden. Anhand der Wasseraufnahme der Keinlinge wurden die Nährlösungskonzentrationen so berechnet, das sich nach Einquellen eine Verdopplung der natürlichen Mineralstoffreserven im Samen ergeben sollte. Jedoch wurden für die Mikronährstoffe erheblich höhere Aufnahmeraten gemessen (+500 - 1000%), während die Aufnahme von P geringer war (+ 20%). Bei Soja konnte gezeigt werden, das die erhöhten Mikronährstoffgehalte auf eine hohe Bindungskapazität der Zwei unabhängige Feldversuche bei suboptimaler Temperatur während der Keimphase und des Jugendwachstums ergaben Kornertragssteigerungen von 10-15 % bei Mais nach Saatgutpriming mit Zn+Mn oder Fe. Diese Ergebnisse belegen die Langzeitwirkung der Primingeffekte. Die molekularen und physiologischen Grundlagen erfordern allerdings noch weitere Untersuchungen.

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    Authors: Kramer, K.;

    Research topicsThe relationships between climate and both phenology and growth of some important European tree species were studied to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on trees and forests in Europe. In order to make such assessments, insight is required on the mechanisms how climatic variables interact with plant processes. The topics addressed in this study were: (1) the modelling of phenology, (2) the consequences of climate change on spring frost damage, (3) the importance of phenotypic plasticity, (4) the importance of phenology on the effects of climate change on growth of monospecies deciduous forests, and (5) the importance of phenology on the effects of climate change on growth of mixed-species deciduous forests.Modelling phenologyTo evaluate the impacts of climate change on growth of temperate deciduous tree species, the onset and cessation of the growth must be accurately described. A review is presented on eight models predicting the date of leaf unfolding depending on temperature. These models were fitted using 57 years of observations on the date of leaf unfolding of Fagus sylvatica in The Netherlands, and used to predict 40 years of similar observations collected in Germany. As conflicting experimental evidence exist on the role of photoperiod on leaf unfolding of Fagus sylvatica, photoperiod was incorporated into each of these models.The timing of leaf unfolding could best be described by a model in which the effects of chilling temperatures (-5 to +10°C) and forcing temperatures (>0°C) operate sequentially in time, according to a triangular and logistic function, respectively. Including photoperiod reduced the predicting power of this model.Spring frost damageTwo studies presented in literature evaluate the effect of increasing winter temperature on the probability of spring frost damage to trees. However, one study predicted an increase, while the other predicted a decrease in the probability of spring frost damage. It is unclear whether the disparity is because: (1) different models were used, (2) different climatic warming scenarios used, or (3) the tree species at the different locations respond differently to warmer winters. To evaluate the effects of climatic warming to Larix decidua, Betula pubescens, Tilia platyphylla, Fagus sylvatica, Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelcior, Quercus petraea, Picea abies and Pinussylvestris in The Netherlands and in Germany, both models were fitted to long series of observations on the date of leaf unfolding of these tree species. The impact of the two scenarios (uniformly and non-uniformly changing winter temperature) on the date of leaf unfolding and on the probability of freezing temperature around that date was evaluated. To test the importance of adaptation to local climate, hypothetical provenance transfers were analysed.For tree species in The Netherlands and Germany the probability of spring frost damage will decrease, provided the variability in temperature does not change. The contradictory results found in literature could be ascribed to differences among provenances adapted to their local climate, rather than to differences between either the models or the climatic warming scenarios used in these studies.PlasticityTo evaluate the potential response of individual trees to climatic warming, phenological observations of clones of Larix decidua, Betula pubescens, Tilia cordata, Populus canescens, Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica, and Picea abies transferred over a large latitudinal range in Europe were analysed. The magnitude of the clone's response was compared to that of genetically different trees of the same species along a part of the latitudinal range, which were assumed to have adapted to their local climate.The responses of the date of leaf unfolding and leaf fall of the clones to temperature are similar in magnitude to those of the genetically different trees. This demonstrates that trees possess a considerable plasticity and are able to respond phenotypically to a major change in their local climate. For the clones of Larix decidua and Quercus robur the growing season may shorten with increasing temperature, because leaf fall is advanced more than leaf unfolding. In Betula pubescens and Populus canescens, leaf unfolding and leaf fall are advanced equally, whereas in Tilia cordata and Fagus sylvatica the date of leaf fall seems to be unaltered but leaf unfolding advances with increasing temperature. These differences in the duration of the growing season in response to increasing temperature may alter the competitive balance between the species in mixed stands.Descriptive dynamic models showed that most of the variance of the date of leaf unfolding can be accounted for by temperature. However, a generally applicable model of leaf fall based on temperature and/or photoperiod could not improve the null model, i.e. the mean date of leaf fall, because of variability in other environmental factors.The lowest temperature around the date of leaf unfolding and leaf fall differed among the clones. The hypothesis that the survival of the clones is curtailed by spring frosts was supported. Thus, these lowest temperatures around leaf unfolding may represent thresholds below which the species cannot survive.It is argued that these thresholds may be a particularly sensitive means to evaluate the impacts of climatic warming on the geographical distribution of tree species.Growth of monospecies forestsThe importance of three phenological types of deciduous tree for the effects of climate change on growth of monospecies forests was evaluated using the model FORGRO. The climate change scenarios used were a doubling of the C02 concentration (700 μmol mol -1) and an increase in temperature ranging from 0 to 7°C. To elucidate the relative importance of photosynthesis and allocation for this evaluation, models with different levels of mechanistic detail of photosynthesis and allocation were used. The photosynthesis approach of FORGRO was compared to the Farquhar and Von Caernmerer approach as formulated in PGEN (FORGRO-PGEN). Similarly, the allocation approach of FORGRO was compared to the transport-resistance approach, as formulated in the ITE-Edinburgh model (ITE-FORGRO). A sensitivity analysis was performed to ascertain whether the response of gross photosynthesis to a climate change scenario depends on the value assigned to parameters in these models, and to compare this sensitivity with the differences found between the phenological types. The differences in the response of annual gross photosynthesis ( Pg,a ) to the climate change scenarios between the phenological types were smaller according to ITE- FORGRO as compared to FORGRO. These differences are of a similar magnitude when comparing the two photosynthesis models. Furthermore, FORGRO-PGEN showed that the response of Pg,a to a 2 x [ 2 CO ] increases with rising temperature, thus compensating for the increase in respiration. For both FORGRO and ITEFORGRO, this C0 2 and temperature interaction was not found. Consequently, in these models the increase in respiration exceeded the increase in gross photosynthesis at the higher range of temperature rise. The sensitivity analysis showed that the models differ in the sensitivity of the response of Pg,a to a 2 x [C 2 O ] scenario combined with a temperature rise of 2°C ( C700 / T2 ), when parameter values change by ±25%. In FORGRO-PGEN, the magnitude of the response of Pg,a depended on the values of some of its parameters, especially those determining the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of Rubisco, which for these parameters exceeded the differences between the phenological types in this scenario. In both FORGRO and ITE-FORGRO, this sensitivity is similar to or less than the difference between the phenological types in the C700 / T2 scenario.Growth of mixed-species forestsUsing the same three phenological types and climate change scenarios, the effects of differences in phenology and spring frost damage on growth in mixed-species stands were evaluated using the models FORGRO and HYBRID. FORGRO highlights potential growth in managed forests, whereas HYBRID highlights feedbacks of carbon, water and nitrogen cycles in General Vegetation Types, based on gap model theory. Furthermore, the importance of inaccuracy of the phenological model for growth in mixed-species stands was evaluated by comparing the modelling approach with a regression approach.The results of the climate change scenarios indicate for both FORGRO and HYBRID that: (1) the differences in NPP of the three phenological types considered are enhanced when grown in a mixed-species stand compared to a monospecies stand; and (2) the consequences of frost damage on growth is more prominent in mixed-species stands than in monospecies stands.Considering the accuracy of the modelling approach compared to the regression approach for the timing of leaf unfolding and spring frost damage, the sequential model of leaf unfolding shows a similar response of the NPP as the regression approach, both for the monospecies and the mixed-species situation. The modelling approach yields, however, larger differences in the NPP between the phenological types because the model predicts a greater advancement of leaf unfolding than the regression model. Comparing the regression approach to the modelling approach for frost hardiness, the regression approach shows a greater frequency of frost damage, because according to the model, the minimum level of frost hardiness is attained after the date of leaf unfolding, thus reducing this frequency.The differences in phenological response to temperature can be used to evaluate the consequences of climate change on the geographical distributions of species.

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    Authors: Arca, Gülseren;

    - 64 - VII. ÖZET Bu araştırma, Tütün Araştırma ve Eğitim Enstitüsü ile Ege Ta rımsal Araştırma Enstitüsünde 1902-1^88 yılları arasında yürütülmüş tür. Araştırmada Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Fitopatoloji ve Zirai Botanik Kürsüsü olanaklarından da yararlanılmıştır. Ülkemizde Macrophomina phaseolirıa (Tassi.) Goid. fungusu hak kında yeterli çalışma bulunmadığı bilinaektadir. Araştırmamızda, bun dan 50 yıl önceki veriler gözönüne alınarak, geçen zaman zarfında neden olduğu tütünde özükuru hastalığının durumunu, etmenin varyas yonunu ve yerel çeşitlerin reaksiyonlarını belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgular özetlenecek olursa; 1. İzmir ilinin, tütün üretimi olan ilçelerinde 1985 ve 1986 yıllarında yapılan survey sonucunda özükuru hastalık oranı I985 yılı ortalaması olarak % Ş6-31, I986 yılı ortalaması olarak da % 50.54 oranında bulunmuştur. Hastalık oranı sırasıyla en çok % 95*50 ve $> 90, 21* e kadar çıkmıştır. 2. Bölgeden alınan 504 hasta bitki materyalinin 362'sinden {% 71.82) Macrophomina phaseolina fungusu izole edilmiştir. 3. İzolatlar gerek gelişmeleri ve gerekse oluşturdukları sklerot sayıları bakımından önemli farklılıklar göstermişlerdir. Ba zı durumlarda koloni gelişmesi ile sklerot sayısı arasında olumlu yönde ilişkiler varken, bazı izolatlarda ise bunun aksi saptanmıştır. 4. Aynı durum patojenisite yönünden de söylenebilir. İzolatları bu özelliklerine bakarak gruplar halinde bir araya getirmek mümkün olabilmektedir. Patojenisite testlerinde, 6 tütün çeşidinde 52 izo- lat % 0-$100 arasında bir hastalık çıkışına neden olmuşlardır. İzolat- ların, gerek çeşitler karşısında teksel ve gerekse tüm çeşitler karşı-- 65 - sında değerlendirilmelerinde farklı virulens gösterdikleri saptan mıştır. İzolatlar virulensleri yönünden değişik gruplara ayrılabil mişlerdir. `* 5. Çeşitler, reaksiyon testleri sonucunda % 25-60 ve fo 61-100 oranında hastalanma gösterenler diye iki gruba ayrılmışlardır. Reak siyon testine alınan 24 tütün çeşit/hattının M.phaseoliha'ya kar şı duyarlı olduğu bulunmuştur. Ancak Ege-64 ve Basma I92/23 no'lu çeşitler daha az duyarlılık göstermişlerdir. Bundan başka çeşitler ve izolatlar arasındaki interaksiyon ilişkisi inoelenmiş, testlerde izolatlar benzer etkide, çeşitlerin ise farklı duyarlılıkta oldukla rı ortaya çıkmıştır. Ancak Basma 192/23 no'lu çeşit üzerinde 1 no'lu izolat etkili, 2 no'lu izolat ise etkisiz bulunmuştur. - 66 - VIII. SUMMARY The stuiy was undertaken both at Tobacco Research ani Training Institute and Aegean Agri cultural Research Institute between the years of I982/88. In aiiition, facilities of Department of the Phyto pathology and Agricultural Botany of Agricultural Faculty at the Aegean University, were also utilized. It is known that studies on Macrophornina phaseolina have not been sufficient in Turkey. With this study it was aimed to determine the incidence of the disease, variations and the reactions of selec ted local cultivars to the fungus on the basis of data available about 50 years ago. Prom the' results obtained the following findings were drawn; 1»-- According to surveys carried out, the mean incidence of the- disease was estimated to be 56,31 % (max 95» 5 f») and 50,54 (max 90,21 İo) for the years 1985 and I986, respectively. 2. The fungus was isolated in 362 out of, 504 diseased specimen collected in the region (71,82 %). 3. Isolates varied in development and the number of sclerotia produced. In some cases, positive correlation were found between co lonial development and the number of sclerotia. However some of the isolates also exhibited variation in pathogenicity and they could be classified depending on these characteristics. 52 isolates connected with six tobacco cultivars incited the disease based on the tests done. Data taken on single basis and whole, it was concluded that isolates were also differed in terms of their virulencies, which could also be used for grouping.- 67 - 5. Cultivars were classified into two disease incidence groups being 25 to 60 fu ani 61 to 100 $, based on the results of reaction tests. 24 tobacco cultivars/lines tested against the pathogen, were found to be susceptible. However, the susceptibility of cvs Sge 64 and Basma 192/23 were less announced. Moreover, the relationship of the interactions between the cultivar and isolates were exammei and it was concluded that the cultivars varied in susceptibility but the isolates had the same effect. Although isolate number 1 was found to be effective on cv 192/23, isolate number 2 was not. 74

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    Authors: Elma, Fatma Nur;

    Yapılan bu çalışmada, Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae), Lavandula angustifolia Miller(Lamiaceae), Cuminum cyminum L. (Umbelliferae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae) olmak üzere sekiz bitkinin methanol ekstraktlarının Avrupa sünesi Eurygaster maura L. (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae)?nın değişik biyolojik dönemlerine toksik etkileri ile yumurta verimi ve yumurta canlılık oranına etkileri araştırılmıştır. Kışlamış erginler topikal aplikasyon ve püskürtme yöntemi, nimfler püskürtme yöntemi ile, yumurta dönemi ise bitki ekstraktlarına daldırma yöntemi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Ayrıca bitki ekstraktlarının ovipozisyonu engelleme üzerine etkileri kurutma kağıdına emdirme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Yapılan paralel bir çalışma ile E. maura?nın yumurta parazitoiti olan Trissolcus semistriatus Nees.?un (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) larva, pupa ve ergin dönemlerine ekstraktların toksik etkileri de değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda Avrupa sünesinin tüm dönemlerinde ekstrakt konsantrasyonunun artışına ve uygulama süresine bağlı olarak ölüm oranının arttığı belirlenmiştir. Uygulamadan 48 saat sonra erginler için elde edilen LD50 değerleri dikkate alınarak toksik etkisi bakımından ekstraktların sıralanmasıtopikal uygulamada, F. vulgare > L. angustifolia > C. cyminum > A. millefolium > P. anisum > A. absinthium > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum şeklinde iken, püskürtme uygulamasında F. vulgare > C. cyminum > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum > L. angustifolia > A. absinthium > P. anisum > A. millefoliumşeklinde olmuştur. Nimf döneminde ise F. vulgare ve T. vulgaris ekstraktları en toksik ekstraktlar olmuşlardır. Ekstrakta daldırılan yumurtaların konsantrasyon artışına bağlı olarak açılım oranlarının düştüğü belirlenmiştir. Foeniculum vulgare ekstraktı %73.64 yumurta açılımını engelleme oranıyla ilk sırayı almıştır. Ekstrakt uygulanan ergin dişilerin, kontrole göre daha az yumurta bıraktığı ve genel olarak bu yumurtalarda açılım oranlarının düştüğü görülmüştür. En güçlü ovipozisyonu engelleme A. millefolium ekstraktı tarafından meydana getirilmiştir (%40.28). Foeniculum vulgare, L. angustifolia, C. cyminum ve T. vulgaris ekstraktları tüm biyolojik dönemler için toksik etki göstermiştir. Ekstraktların T. semistriatus?a toksik etkisi ile ilgili çalışmalarda parazitoid pupası en dayanıklı, ergini ise en hassas dönem olarak belirlenmiştir.Buğday bitkilerine fitotoksisite bakımından T. vulgaris, P. anisum ve L. angustifolia en toksik ekstraktlar olmuştur.Anahtar Kelimeler: Avrupa sünesi, Bitki ekstraktı, Eurygaster maura L., Ovipozisyon engelleme, Ovisit etki, Toksik etki, Trissolcus semistriatus Nees In this study, methanol extracts of eight plants; Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae), Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiaceae), Cuminum cyminum L. (Umbelliferae), Thymus vulgaris L.(Lamiaceae), Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae), were tested on various biological stages of the European Sunn pest, Eurygaster maura L. (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae). Toxicities of the extracts were tested on overwintered adults of the pest by using topical and spraying methods. At the same time, the extracts were sprayed on the nymphal stages of the sunn-pest. Toxicites of the extracts on eggs were investigated by using dipping method. In addition, effects of plant extracts on oviposition deterrent were determined by impregnation method of blotting papers to plant extracts. A parallel study was also performed to evaluate the toxicities of the extracts on larvae, pupae and adults of egg parasitoid Trissolcus semistriatus Nees. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae).As a result of this study, toxicities of the extracts were increased by depending on the rising of exposure time and extract concentration. Taking into account of LD50 values, 48 h later from applications on adults, ranking of extracts with regard to toxic effects were determined as F. vulgare > L. angustifolia> C. cyminum > A. millefolium > P. anisum > A. absinthium > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum and F. vulgare> C. cyminum > T. vulgaris > H. perforatum > L. angustifolia > A. absinthium > P. anisum > A. millefolium at the topical and spray applications, respectively. Against to the nymphal stages F. vulgare and T. vulgaris extracts were the most toxic among the tested extracts. The percentage of hatching of treated eggs decreased and treated females laid less egg which have low hatching ratio, than that of the control. Foeniculum vulgare extract was the most effective on egg hatching inhibition with the rate of73.64%. A. millefolium extract was the most active on reducing fecundity among other extracts (40.28%).It was concluded that F. vulgare, L. angustifolia, C. cyminum, T. vulgaris extracts were the most toxic to all biological stages tested.While the pupae of parasitoid T. semistriatus were the most resistant to the extracts, adults were the most sensitive.In terms of phytotoxicity to the wheat plants T. vulgaris, P. anisum and L. angustifolia appeared to be the most toxic among other extracts tested.Keywords: Eurygaster maura L., Ovicidal effects, Oviposition deterrence, Plant extract, Sunn pest, Toxicity, Trissolcus semistriatus Nees 106

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