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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Torres Morales, Eileen Jimena;

    There is an urgent need to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Countries have pledged national strategies to reach their climate change mitigation goals in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). In the case of Colombia, the country envisions becoming carbon neutral by 2050. A pathway to reach this goal is emission reduction through nature-based solutions (NBS). Biochar is an NBS with the potential to be used as a land-based emission mitigation technology. Records indicate that it was first used by indigenous communities in the Amazon about a thousand years ago. Biochar can be obtained through thermochemical conversion by slow pyrolysis of residual biomass. The original organic carbon present in the biomass is sequestered in the biochar as it is pyrolyzed and thus, CO2 emissions are prevented. Biochar is not yet considered in Colombia´s carbon neutrality strategy. The aim of this thesis project is to investigate the potential of biochar production in Colombia as a land-based mitigation technology (LMT). Therefore, a comprehensive assessment is performed with the purpose of identifying the status of biochar in the country. The motivation behind the assessment is to gain an understanding of the variables involved in biochar production. Factors such as the production sectors involved, feedstocks, production technologies, project costs and emission mitigation are of interest. The study explores these factors by following five methodological steps. First, the current research on the technology is mapped to understand biochar’s status at a national level. Second, experts are interviewed to collect their views regarding biochar and a PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental & Legal) analysis is employed based on their point of view on the technology. Third, the potential sources of residual biomass which could be used to produce biochar in the agricultural sector are quantified. The approach to biochar’s potential is enriched with a focused in-person case study of biochar production from oil palm residues. Fourth, these residual biomass sources are subsequently employed to estimate the emissions sequestered in their biochar production. Lastly, project feasibility implementation is evaluated through a techno-economic to identify the project’s main cost drivers. The results are then discussed using a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, and Opportunities & Threats) analysis. The existing studies and the local experts’ opinion indicate that biochar potential is in the agricultural sector and that it can be thought of for soil adaptation. Biochar’s emission mitigation is considered an added value. In 2021, the agricultural sector produced near 73 million tonnes of agricultural products. The residues from agriculture could be used for biochar production. If the residues from the most produced agricultural products are transformed into biochar, about 1 to 2,2 tonne of CO2 per tonne of biochar could be avoided. The published literature and the in-person study visit confirmed that the largest advance in biochar production and use in Colombia is in the oil palm sector. Palm kernel shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches are the oil palm residues that could be used to produce biochar. From 1 tonne of these three oil palm residues, about 60 kg of biochar can be obtained. The results show that currently there is no market for trading with biochar in Colombia. High investments, transport and feedstock costs are identified obstacles. An Advanced Technology pyrolizer cost can cost around 330.000 USD while a Basic Technology one can be around 100 USD. Taxes associated with revenue from the biochar trade can negatively impact a biochar project’s feasibility. In this study, a price for biochar is estimated using break-even analysis. Under the assumptions used, the biochar price per tonne is around 200 to 1.000 USD. Price variability is explained in the technologies used for production, feedstock biomass availability and variable revenues from biochar sales. Koldioxidutsläppen till atmosfären behöver minskas för att undvika de negativa effekterna av klimatförändringar. Olika länder har presenterat på sina nationellt fastställda bidrag (NDC) hur sina mål för begränsning av klimatförändringarna skulle kunna uppnås. I Colombia är planen att uppnå koldioxidneutralitet år 2050. Ett sätt att uppnå detta mål är att minska utsläpp genom naturbaserade lösningar (NBS). Biokol är en NBS som kan användas som landbaserade åtgärder för att minska växthusgasutsläpp eller öka koldioxidupptag. Forskning har bevisat att biokol användes i Amazonas för ungefär tusen år sedan. Biokol framställs genom långsam pyrolys av restprodukter av biomass. Kolet i biomassan binds i biokolet genom pyrolysis, vilket förhindrar koldioxidens utsläppning till atmosfären. Biokol inkluderas ännu inte i Colombias strategi för koldioxidneutralitet. Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka biokolets produktionspotential i Colombia son ett landbaserade åtgärder (LMT). En analys gjordes för att identifiera statusen av biokol runt om i landet. Faktorer såsom berörda produktionssektorer, råvaror, produktionstekniker, projektkostnader och koldioxidutsläppen var av intresse. Studien undersöker faktorerna ovan genom att tillämpa en femstegsmetod. Först identifierades den aktuella forskningen om biokol i Colombia. Sedan intervjuades experter för att samla in deras åsikter om biokol och en PESTEL analys (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental & Legal) användes. Nästa steg i metoden var att kvantifiera potentialen av restprodukter inom jordbrukssektorn. Detta steg kompletterades med en fallstudie som fokuserade på biokolproduktion från rester från oljepalmer och sedan beräknades utsläppen som binds i biokol. Till sist utvärderades projektets genomförbarhet genom en teknoekonomisk analys som identifierade viktigaste drivkrafterna bakom kostnaderna. Resultaten diskuterades med hjälp av en SWOT analys (Strength, Weaknesses, and Opportunities & Threats). Experter och forskningsresultat om biokol i Colombia anger att det finns stor potential nom jordbrukssektor där biokol skulle kunna användas för jordförbättring, medan utsläppsminskningar endast anses vara en ytterligare fördel. År 2021 Colombias jordbrukssektor producerade nästan 73 millioner tonne av jordbruksprodukter och restprodukter från jordbruket kan användas för produktion av biokol. För varje ton biokol som produceras undviks ungefär 1 till 2,2 tonne koldioxid. Litteraturen och studiebesöket bekräftade att största framsteget inom produktion och användning av biokol i Colombia händer inom oljepalmssektorn. Palmkärnor, fibrer och tomma fruktknippar är restprodukterna som kan användas för att producera biokol. En ton av dessa tre typer av oljepalmsrester ger cirka 60 kg biokol. Resultaten visar att det inte finns en marknad för biokol i Colombia. Höga investeringskostnader, transport-och råvarukostnader är främsta hindarna som identifierades. En pyrolysanläggning med avancerad teknik kostar cirka 330 000 US-dollar, medan en pyrolysanläggning med grundläggande teknik kostar cirka 100 US -dollar. Skatter på inkomster från biokolsförsäljning kan ha en negativ effekt på genomförbarhet. Studien uppskattas ett pris för biokol med hjälp av en break-even-analys och visar att cirka 200 till 1.000 USD per tonne biokol vore ett möjligt prisintervall. Prisvariationerna förklaras av tekniken som används för produktion, tillgång på biomassa som råvara och varierande intäkter från biokolförsäljning. 

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2022
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Skog Andersen, Jonas; Eriksson, Joakim;

    New innovations, technologies, ideas and businesses are driving the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. As with many other fields in technology comes competing protocols and standards, ranging from modulation schema used for transmitting data to security standards used to ensure safe operation and the privacy needs for all involved entities. This thesis looks into one of the competing modulation schema and network protocols for IoT applications: the LoRaWAN protocol. The main contribution of this thesis is a datadriven empirical study that helps verify theoretically obtained results from other authors. Our results also suggest that as long as other signals on the same frequency band uses different modulation techniques (or just other parameters for the same modulation technique), then only the signal to noise ratio is affected without introducing collisions. This affects the scalability and overall practical distance covered by a LoRaWAN. Our general conclusion is that the LoRaWAN as a technology/protocol has its disadvantages, mainly how heavily different traffic profiles may affect the scalability of it and a general lack of hard quality of service guarantees.

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    Authors: Jansson, Albert;

    Electronics miniaturization is an ever-important subject in the industry of consumer electronics, where smaller, lighter and more powerful electronics is expected. This thesis investigates the miniaturization challenge in the EU-funded project SOMIRO, that aims to construct an energy autonomous swimming millirobot for remote sensing in in agriculture. The current prototype Generation 1 (G1) prototype design is used as a base and a smaller version with additional features is constructed to evaluate possible performance differences. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that is produced is of a folding flex-rigid construction that sandwiches several layers of components to fit all components required. The performance of the new Generation 2 (G2) prototype is very similar to the existing G1 prototype in all electrical performance tests with the notable exception being the current draw for actuation of the swimming platform. The G2 prototype consumes significantly less current in this case, which is beneficial for the limited energy availability the millirobot will be operating in. There is still room for improving the PCB design with additional advanced PCB manufacturing techniques. Some of the external parts for the final version of the millirobot still needs to be finalized, for which this PCB may need additional changes, but this is not part of this thesis. Miniatyrisering av elektronik är ett ständigt aktuellt problem i industrin för konsumentelektronik, där mindre, lättare och mer kraftfulla produkter förväntas. Detta mastersarbete undersöker miniatyriseringsutmaningen i EU-projektet SOMIRO som ska utveckla en energiautonom simmande millirobot för distribuerad mätning inom vattenbaserade jordbruk. Den nuvarande prototypen, Generation 1 (G1), lägger grunden till detta arbete som producerar en mindre version som dessutom innehåller fler funktioner. Den nya prototypen, Generation 2 (G2), utvärderas och jämförs med G1-versionen för att se om det är någon skillnad i elektrisk prestanda. Kretskortet som konstrueras är hopvikbart för att få plats med alla komponenter. Det nya kortet presterar mycket likt G1-versionen, förutom i testet för drivningen av aktuatorplattformen, där det nya kortet drog mindre ström. Det är en fördel då en mycket begränsad mängd energi kommer finnas tillgänglig i de tänkta miljöerna för milliroboten. Det finns fortfarande förbättringsmöjligheter då ytterligare avancerade konstruktionstekniker kan användas i design och tillverkning av kretskortet för att minska storleken ytterligare. Vissa förändringar kan också krävas för att kretskortet ska kunna monteras ihop med de externa delarna som ingår i den kompletta milliroboten, vilket dock inte är del av detta arbete.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2022
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Мета роботи – здійснити теоретичне узагальнення та аналіз сучасного стану розвитку міжнародної торгівлі в умовах цифровізації економіки. Об’єктом дослідження є процес цифровізації економіки у контексті переходу на Індустрію 4.0. Предметом дослідження є суспільні відносини, процеси, процедури запровадження Індустрії 4.0 в європейських державах. Методи дослідження. У ході наукового дослідження було використано такі теоретичні методи, як аналіз, синтез, дедукція, індукція, узагальнення, логічний метод, історичний метод, системний метод, а також такі емпіричні методи, як метод графічного моделювання, метод табличного порівняння, метод порівняння, метод мозкового штурму, SWOT-аналіз. Рекомендації щодо використання результатів роботи. Результати наукового дослідження можуть бути використані як з теоретико-методичних позицій, зокрема, у подальших наукових дослідженнях проблематики цифровізації економіки, при викладанні дисциплін, пов’язаних із проблематикою цифровізації економіки, так і з практичних позицій, зокрема – для розробки рекомендацій щодо розвитку міжнародної торгівлі в умовах цифровізації економіки в Україні. The purpose of the study is to make a theoretical generalization and analysis of the current state of development of international trade in the context of digitalization of the economy. The object of research is the process of digitalization of the economy in the context of the transition to Industry 4.0. The subject of the study is social relations, processes, procedures for the introduction of Industry 4.0 in European countries. Research methods. In the course of the research, the following theoretical methods were used: analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, generalization, logical method, historical method, systematic method, as well as empirical methods such as graphical modeling, tabular comparison method, comparison method, brainstorming method, SWOT analysis. Recommendations for using the results of the work. The results of the research can be used both from a theoretical and methodological point of view, in particular, in further scientific research on the problems of digitalization of the economy, in teaching disciplines related to the problems of digitalization of the economy, and from a practical point of view, in particular, to develop recommendations for the development of international trade in the context of digitalization of the economy in Ukraine.

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    Authors: Tägtström, Ninnie;

    This thesis investigates the important potential of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) onmobility and society. C-ITS appears as a promising solution to reinvent transportation and become avital part of the ever-evolving environment as developments in technology continue to change the world.The goal of this study is to investigate how C-ITS can enhance and promote various forms of mobility.It additionally investigates at how C-ITS applications and policy objectives interact, highlighting C-ITS’contribution to the development of a sustainable society.A thorough examination of the current literature, case studies, and pertinent policies was conductedin order to analyse the possible advantages and difficulties related to C-ITS in detail. In order toprovide seamless communication and interaction between C-ITS systems and other devices, the researchemphasizes the importance of early integration and adoption of C-ITS as a solution. It also emphasizesthe need for standardization, interoperability, and collaborative efforts among stakeholders.Findings demonstrate that C-ITS has the capacity to support policies aimed at improving transportationsystems and mobility in the cities. C-ITS usage has enormous potential for influencing society andmobility. C-ITS reduces accidents while enhancing road safety through real-time communication. Byenhancing traffic flow and promoting alternative modes of transportation, it supports environmentalsustainability. It also has secondary effects such as reducing pollutants and improving air andnoise quality. Through the integration of numerous mobility choices and the provision of real-timeinformation, C-ITS improves accessibility. For implementation to be successful, privacy and securityissues as well as economic reasons must be taken into consideration. To solve the issues posed byconcerns about data privacy, security, and economic factors, however, strong policies, legislation,and safe data processing techniques are needed. C-ITS has the potential to help create a future oftransportation that is safer, more environmentally friendly, and more effective.In the concluding part, the paper suggests numerous possibilities for C-ITS research going forward.It advises combining policies and guiding documents to offer a clearer strategy for utilizing C-ITSsuccessfully. Additionally, creating more complex mathematical models that include equations can helpus comprehend the importance of the variables better. Iterative procedures integrated into detailedmodels allow for the comparison of many scenarios, addressing the various desires of stakeholders andexperts. Additionally, combining C-ITS with Vehicle-to-Everything (VoT) systems offer a chance toinvestigate the real advantages and make it simpler to make comparisons with other variables. Furtherresearch should be carried out on the likelihood of developing an automated mobility system.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Meleaku, Daniel;

    In 2014, Russia imposed an import ban against a large variety of western food products. The ban served as a shield against foreign competition, including from Russia’s neighbours. In 2015-2016, a major drop in the Russian rouble’s exchange rate heightened Russia’s food products’ competitiveness versus its neighbours’. Both these events acted as trade shocks to Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors’ as they suddenly created an uneven competitive balance between their sectors and Russia’s. However, while previous research has documented disruptions to political cooperation between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan following these shocks, researchers have yet to quantify the influence of heightened Russian agricultural sector competitiveness on its neighbouring countries’ agricultural sectors. This Master’s thesis studies Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors’ capacity to maintain competitiveness versus Russia’s during both these shocks by analysing the developments of and the causes behind these developments for two indices measuring the countries’ Revealed Comparative Advantage between 2014-2019. Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors competed rather well with Russia’s during both these events. However, while Belarus had the overall most internationally competitive agricultural sector out of the three countries, Kazakhstan’s agricultural sector’s competitiveness better withstood the negative effects of increases in Russian competitiveness. Overall, Kazakhstan’s agricultural sector emerges as having the most rapidly growing international competitiveness out of the three countries.

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    Authors: Nguyen, Peter;

    The complexity of mobile robots increases as more parts are added to the system. Introducing microcontrollers into a mobile robot abstracts and modularises the system architecture, creating a demand for seamless microcontroller integration. The Robot Operating System (ROS) used by ABB’s new mobile robot, the mobile YuMi prototype (mYuMi), allows standardised robot software libraries and packages to simplify robotic creations. As ABB is porting over from ROS1 to ROS2, the ROS2 compatible Microcontroller Robot Operating System (micro-ROS) will be incorporated into the system to smoothly integrate microcontrollers into mYuMi. In order to display the validity of micro-ROS, this project used tracing and latency measurements with external applications to test the remote communication between mYuMi using ROS2 and microcontrollers using micro-ROS, with three different microcontrollers tested. The communication was evaluated in different scenarios with a test bench, using ping pong communication to get the round-trip time. A reinforcement of the test results was presented by demonstrating the use of micro-ROS live in a prototype developed, where mYuMi controlled a 1D rangefinder and an RC servo motor by utilising two microcontrollers. The results concluded that the micro-ROS delay could be analysed in theory with external applications, equivalent micro-ROS functionality should apply to most microcontrollers, and the test results and prototype displayed the potential of micro-ROS matching ROS2 in terms of delay and stability.

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7 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Torres Morales, Eileen Jimena;

    There is an urgent need to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Countries have pledged national strategies to reach their climate change mitigation goals in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). In the case of Colombia, the country envisions becoming carbon neutral by 2050. A pathway to reach this goal is emission reduction through nature-based solutions (NBS). Biochar is an NBS with the potential to be used as a land-based emission mitigation technology. Records indicate that it was first used by indigenous communities in the Amazon about a thousand years ago. Biochar can be obtained through thermochemical conversion by slow pyrolysis of residual biomass. The original organic carbon present in the biomass is sequestered in the biochar as it is pyrolyzed and thus, CO2 emissions are prevented. Biochar is not yet considered in Colombia´s carbon neutrality strategy. The aim of this thesis project is to investigate the potential of biochar production in Colombia as a land-based mitigation technology (LMT). Therefore, a comprehensive assessment is performed with the purpose of identifying the status of biochar in the country. The motivation behind the assessment is to gain an understanding of the variables involved in biochar production. Factors such as the production sectors involved, feedstocks, production technologies, project costs and emission mitigation are of interest. The study explores these factors by following five methodological steps. First, the current research on the technology is mapped to understand biochar’s status at a national level. Second, experts are interviewed to collect their views regarding biochar and a PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental & Legal) analysis is employed based on their point of view on the technology. Third, the potential sources of residual biomass which could be used to produce biochar in the agricultural sector are quantified. The approach to biochar’s potential is enriched with a focused in-person case study of biochar production from oil palm residues. Fourth, these residual biomass sources are subsequently employed to estimate the emissions sequestered in their biochar production. Lastly, project feasibility implementation is evaluated through a techno-economic to identify the project’s main cost drivers. The results are then discussed using a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, and Opportunities & Threats) analysis. The existing studies and the local experts’ opinion indicate that biochar potential is in the agricultural sector and that it can be thought of for soil adaptation. Biochar’s emission mitigation is considered an added value. In 2021, the agricultural sector produced near 73 million tonnes of agricultural products. The residues from agriculture could be used for biochar production. If the residues from the most produced agricultural products are transformed into biochar, about 1 to 2,2 tonne of CO2 per tonne of biochar could be avoided. The published literature and the in-person study visit confirmed that the largest advance in biochar production and use in Colombia is in the oil palm sector. Palm kernel shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches are the oil palm residues that could be used to produce biochar. From 1 tonne of these three oil palm residues, about 60 kg of biochar can be obtained. The results show that currently there is no market for trading with biochar in Colombia. High investments, transport and feedstock costs are identified obstacles. An Advanced Technology pyrolizer cost can cost around 330.000 USD while a Basic Technology one can be around 100 USD. Taxes associated with revenue from the biochar trade can negatively impact a biochar project’s feasibility. In this study, a price for biochar is estimated using break-even analysis. Under the assumptions used, the biochar price per tonne is around 200 to 1.000 USD. Price variability is explained in the technologies used for production, feedstock biomass availability and variable revenues from biochar sales. Koldioxidutsläppen till atmosfären behöver minskas för att undvika de negativa effekterna av klimatförändringar. Olika länder har presenterat på sina nationellt fastställda bidrag (NDC) hur sina mål för begränsning av klimatförändringarna skulle kunna uppnås. I Colombia är planen att uppnå koldioxidneutralitet år 2050. Ett sätt att uppnå detta mål är att minska utsläpp genom naturbaserade lösningar (NBS). Biokol är en NBS som kan användas som landbaserade åtgärder för att minska växthusgasutsläpp eller öka koldioxidupptag. Forskning har bevisat att biokol användes i Amazonas för ungefär tusen år sedan. Biokol framställs genom långsam pyrolys av restprodukter av biomass. Kolet i biomassan binds i biokolet genom pyrolysis, vilket förhindrar koldioxidens utsläppning till atmosfären. Biokol inkluderas ännu inte i Colombias strategi för koldioxidneutralitet. Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka biokolets produktionspotential i Colombia son ett landbaserade åtgärder (LMT). En analys gjordes för att identifiera statusen av biokol runt om i landet. Faktorer såsom berörda produktionssektorer, råvaror, produktionstekniker, projektkostnader och koldioxidutsläppen var av intresse. Studien undersöker faktorerna ovan genom att tillämpa en femstegsmetod. Först identifierades den aktuella forskningen om biokol i Colombia. Sedan intervjuades experter för att samla in deras åsikter om biokol och en PESTEL analys (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental & Legal) användes. Nästa steg i metoden var att kvantifiera potentialen av restprodukter inom jordbrukssektorn. Detta steg kompletterades med en fallstudie som fokuserade på biokolproduktion från rester från oljepalmer och sedan beräknades utsläppen som binds i biokol. Till sist utvärderades projektets genomförbarhet genom en teknoekonomisk analys som identifierade viktigaste drivkrafterna bakom kostnaderna. Resultaten diskuterades med hjälp av en SWOT analys (Strength, Weaknesses, and Opportunities & Threats). Experter och forskningsresultat om biokol i Colombia anger att det finns stor potential nom jordbrukssektor där biokol skulle kunna användas för jordförbättring, medan utsläppsminskningar endast anses vara en ytterligare fördel. År 2021 Colombias jordbrukssektor producerade nästan 73 millioner tonne av jordbruksprodukter och restprodukter från jordbruket kan användas för produktion av biokol. För varje ton biokol som produceras undviks ungefär 1 till 2,2 tonne koldioxid. Litteraturen och studiebesöket bekräftade att största framsteget inom produktion och användning av biokol i Colombia händer inom oljepalmssektorn. Palmkärnor, fibrer och tomma fruktknippar är restprodukterna som kan användas för att producera biokol. En ton av dessa tre typer av oljepalmsrester ger cirka 60 kg biokol. Resultaten visar att det inte finns en marknad för biokol i Colombia. Höga investeringskostnader, transport-och råvarukostnader är främsta hindarna som identifierades. En pyrolysanläggning med avancerad teknik kostar cirka 330 000 US-dollar, medan en pyrolysanläggning med grundläggande teknik kostar cirka 100 US -dollar. Skatter på inkomster från biokolsförsäljning kan ha en negativ effekt på genomförbarhet. Studien uppskattas ett pris för biokol med hjälp av en break-even-analys och visar att cirka 200 till 1.000 USD per tonne biokol vore ett möjligt prisintervall. Prisvariationerna förklaras av tekniken som används för produktion, tillgång på biomassa som råvara och varierande intäkter från biokolförsäljning. 

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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Skog Andersen, Jonas; Eriksson, Joakim;

    New innovations, technologies, ideas and businesses are driving the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. As with many other fields in technology comes competing protocols and standards, ranging from modulation schema used for transmitting data to security standards used to ensure safe operation and the privacy needs for all involved entities. This thesis looks into one of the competing modulation schema and network protocols for IoT applications: the LoRaWAN protocol. The main contribution of this thesis is a datadriven empirical study that helps verify theoretically obtained results from other authors. Our results also suggest that as long as other signals on the same frequency band uses different modulation techniques (or just other parameters for the same modulation technique), then only the signal to noise ratio is affected without introducing collisions. This affects the scalability and overall practical distance covered by a LoRaWAN. Our general conclusion is that the LoRaWAN as a technology/protocol has its disadvantages, mainly how heavily different traffic profiles may affect the scalability of it and a general lack of hard quality of service guarantees.

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    Authors: Jansson, Albert;

    Electronics miniaturization is an ever-important subject in the industry of consumer electronics, where smaller, lighter and more powerful electronics is expected. This thesis investigates the miniaturization challenge in the EU-funded project SOMIRO, that aims to construct an energy autonomous swimming millirobot for remote sensing in in agriculture. The current prototype Generation 1 (G1) prototype design is used as a base and a smaller version with additional features is constructed to evaluate possible performance differences. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that is produced is of a folding flex-rigid construction that sandwiches several layers of components to fit all components required. The performance of the new Generation 2 (G2) prototype is very similar to the existing G1 prototype in all electrical performance tests with the notable exception being the current draw for actuation of the swimming platform. The G2 prototype consumes significantly less current in this case, which is beneficial for the limited energy availability the millirobot will be operating in. There is still room for improving the PCB design with additional advanced PCB manufacturing techniques. Some of the external parts for the final version of the millirobot still needs to be finalized, for which this PCB may need additional changes, but this is not part of this thesis. Miniatyrisering av elektronik är ett ständigt aktuellt problem i industrin för konsumentelektronik, där mindre, lättare och mer kraftfulla produkter förväntas. Detta mastersarbete undersöker miniatyriseringsutmaningen i EU-projektet SOMIRO som ska utveckla en energiautonom simmande millirobot för distribuerad mätning inom vattenbaserade jordbruk. Den nuvarande prototypen, Generation 1 (G1), lägger grunden till detta arbete som producerar en mindre version som dessutom innehåller fler funktioner. Den nya prototypen, Generation 2 (G2), utvärderas och jämförs med G1-versionen för att se om det är någon skillnad i elektrisk prestanda. Kretskortet som konstrueras är hopvikbart för att få plats med alla komponenter. Det nya kortet presterar mycket likt G1-versionen, förutom i testet för drivningen av aktuatorplattformen, där det nya kortet drog mindre ström. Det är en fördel då en mycket begränsad mängd energi kommer finnas tillgänglig i de tänkta miljöerna för milliroboten. Det finns fortfarande förbättringsmöjligheter då ytterligare avancerade konstruktionstekniker kan användas i design och tillverkning av kretskortet för att minska storleken ytterligare. Vissa förändringar kan också krävas för att kretskortet ska kunna monteras ihop med de externa delarna som ingår i den kompletta milliroboten, vilket dock inte är del av detta arbete.

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    Мета роботи – здійснити теоретичне узагальнення та аналіз сучасного стану розвитку міжнародної торгівлі в умовах цифровізації економіки. Об’єктом дослідження є процес цифровізації економіки у контексті переходу на Індустрію 4.0. Предметом дослідження є суспільні відносини, процеси, процедури запровадження Індустрії 4.0 в європейських державах. Методи дослідження. У ході наукового дослідження було використано такі теоретичні методи, як аналіз, синтез, дедукція, індукція, узагальнення, логічний метод, історичний метод, системний метод, а також такі емпіричні методи, як метод графічного моделювання, метод табличного порівняння, метод порівняння, метод мозкового штурму, SWOT-аналіз. Рекомендації щодо використання результатів роботи. Результати наукового дослідження можуть бути використані як з теоретико-методичних позицій, зокрема, у подальших наукових дослідженнях проблематики цифровізації економіки, при викладанні дисциплін, пов’язаних із проблематикою цифровізації економіки, так і з практичних позицій, зокрема – для розробки рекомендацій щодо розвитку міжнародної торгівлі в умовах цифровізації економіки в Україні. The purpose of the study is to make a theoretical generalization and analysis of the current state of development of international trade in the context of digitalization of the economy. The object of research is the process of digitalization of the economy in the context of the transition to Industry 4.0. The subject of the study is social relations, processes, procedures for the introduction of Industry 4.0 in European countries. Research methods. In the course of the research, the following theoretical methods were used: analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, generalization, logical method, historical method, systematic method, as well as empirical methods such as graphical modeling, tabular comparison method, comparison method, brainstorming method, SWOT analysis. Recommendations for using the results of the work. The results of the research can be used both from a theoretical and methodological point of view, in particular, in further scientific research on the problems of digitalization of the economy, in teaching disciplines related to the problems of digitalization of the economy, and from a practical point of view, in particular, to develop recommendations for the development of international trade in the context of digitalization of the economy in Ukraine.

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    Authors: Tägtström, Ninnie;

    This thesis investigates the important potential of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) onmobility and society. C-ITS appears as a promising solution to reinvent transportation and become avital part of the ever-evolving environment as developments in technology continue to change the world.The goal of this study is to investigate how C-ITS can enhance and promote various forms of mobility.It additionally investigates at how C-ITS applications and policy objectives interact, highlighting C-ITS’contribution to the development of a sustainable society.A thorough examination of the current literature, case studies, and pertinent policies was conductedin order to analyse the possible advantages and difficulties related to C-ITS in detail. In order toprovide seamless communication and interaction between C-ITS systems and other devices, the researchemphasizes the importance of early integration and adoption of C-ITS as a solution. It also emphasizesthe need for standardization, interoperability, and collaborative efforts among stakeholders.Findings demonstrate that C-ITS has the capacity to support policies aimed at improving transportationsystems and mobility in the cities. C-ITS usage has enormous potential for influencing society andmobility. C-ITS reduces accidents while enhancing road safety through real-time communication. Byenhancing traffic flow and promoting alternative modes of transportation, it supports environmentalsustainability. It also has secondary effects such as reducing pollutants and improving air andnoise quality. Through the integration of numerous mobility choices and the provision of real-timeinformation, C-ITS improves accessibility. For implementation to be successful, privacy and securityissues as well as economic reasons must be taken into consideration. To solve the issues posed byconcerns about data privacy, security, and economic factors, however, strong policies, legislation,and safe data processing techniques are needed. C-ITS has the potential to help create a future oftransportation that is safer, more environmentally friendly, and more effective.In the concluding part, the paper suggests numerous possibilities for C-ITS research going forward.It advises combining policies and guiding documents to offer a clearer strategy for utilizing C-ITSsuccessfully. Additionally, creating more complex mathematical models that include equations can helpus comprehend the importance of the variables better. Iterative procedures integrated into detailedmodels allow for the comparison of many scenarios, addressing the various desires of stakeholders andexperts. Additionally, combining C-ITS with Vehicle-to-Everything (VoT) systems offer a chance toinvestigate the real advantages and make it simpler to make comparisons with other variables. Furtherresearch should be carried out on the likelihood of developing an automated mobility system.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Meleaku, Daniel;

    In 2014, Russia imposed an import ban against a large variety of western food products. The ban served as a shield against foreign competition, including from Russia’s neighbours. In 2015-2016, a major drop in the Russian rouble’s exchange rate heightened Russia’s food products’ competitiveness versus its neighbours’. Both these events acted as trade shocks to Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors’ as they suddenly created an uneven competitive balance between their sectors and Russia’s. However, while previous research has documented disruptions to political cooperation between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan following these shocks, researchers have yet to quantify the influence of heightened Russian agricultural sector competitiveness on its neighbouring countries’ agricultural sectors. This Master’s thesis studies Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors’ capacity to maintain competitiveness versus Russia’s during both these shocks by analysing the developments of and the causes behind these developments for two indices measuring the countries’ Revealed Comparative Advantage between 2014-2019. Belarus’ and Kazakhstan’s agricultural sectors competed rather well with Russia’s during both these events. However, while Belarus had the overall most internationally competitive agricultural sector out of the three countries, Kazakhstan’s agricultural sector’s competitiveness better withstood the negative effects of increases in Russian competitiveness. Overall, Kazakhstan’s agricultural sector emerges as having the most rapidly growing international competitiveness out of the three countries.

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    Thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Nguyen, Peter;

    The complexity of mobile robots increases as more parts are added to the system. Introducing microcontrollers into a mobile robot abstracts and modularises the system architecture, creating a demand for seamless microcontroller integration. The Robot Operating System (ROS) used by ABB’s new mobile robot, the mobile YuMi prototype (mYuMi), allows standardised robot software libraries and packages to simplify robotic creations. As ABB is porting over from ROS1 to ROS2, the ROS2 compatible Microcontroller Robot Operating System (micro-ROS) will be incorporated into the system to smoothly integrate microcontrollers into mYuMi. In order to display the validity of micro-ROS, this project used tracing and latency measurements with external applications to test the remote communication between mYuMi using ROS2 and microcontrollers using micro-ROS, with three different microcontrollers tested. The communication was evaluated in different scenarios with a test bench, using ping pong communication to get the round-trip time. A reinforcement of the test results was presented by demonstrating the use of micro-ROS live in a prototype developed, where mYuMi controlled a 1D rangefinder and an RC servo motor by utilising two microcontrollers. The results concluded that the micro-ROS delay could be analysed in theory with external applications, equivalent micro-ROS functionality should apply to most microcontrollers, and the test results and prototype displayed the potential of micro-ROS matching ROS2 in terms of delay and stability.

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