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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Piñol, Xavier; Comissionat/da de Tecnologia i Innovació Digital;

    Subtítols en català Beatriz Cavanillas, responsable de l’Ateneu de Fabricació La Fàbrica del Sol, i Lorea Sanz, tecnòloga, expliquen el funcionament d'aquest espai on es desenvolupen projectes que ajuden a millorar la qualitat de vida de les persones en el terreny de l’autosuficiència energètica i vinculats a l’economia circular. L'Ateneu és un espai de creació i experimentació on s’empodera la ciutadania en l’ús de les tecnologies de fabricació digital (talladora de vinil, talladora làser, trituradora) i té com a eix transversal la sostenibilitat i el medi ambient.

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    Authors: RAMIREZ GARCIA, JAVIER; López López, David;

    Recurso de aprendizaje de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material publicado con licencia Creative Commons pasados 6 semestres desde la fecha de publicación. Recurs d'aprenentatge de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material publicat amb llicència Creative Commons passats 6 semestres des de la data de publicació. Learning resource of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material published under a Creative Commons license after 6 semesters from the date of publication.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

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    Authors: Castelló, Enric;

    This article discusses the concept of terroir in the light of the communication practices. It provides a literature review illustrated with a case observation. The author identifies three key stages in the constitution of the terroir through communication: organizational norms and interaction; the circulation of public relations, marketing and media messages, and promotion; and a meaningful consumer experience that closes the circle of a terroir-based storytelling. Here, communication processes play a leading role, which includes the agency of diverse stakeholders. The author argues that, among these stakeholders, geographical indication (GI) organizations are leading agents that build symbolic terroir practices. One of the text's principal theses is that terroir is a socio-cultural construction embedded in storytelling practices with a broad scientific, economic, social and cultural exchange. For this terroir to exist, there must be a collective will, driven by the interests of a wide range of stakeholders such as policymakers, local communities, vine growers, winemakers, marketers and consumers. The practice of defining, communicating and circulating this storytelling is what finally transfers agency to the narrative itself in what the author refers to as the will for terroir. The article illustrates the process with a case study of a wine GI in Catalonia (Spain) and discusses how the will for terroir is relevant at each stage.

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    Authors: Hernández Ramos, José Luis; Moreno Cano, María Victoria; Jara Valera, Antonio Jesús; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio Fernando;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Aranzana, M. J.; Arus, P.; Howad, W.; Iglesias, I.; +4 Authors
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    Authors: Ajuntament de Barcelona;

    Aprovat per resolució de la gerent Municipal de 03-06-2020

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    Authors: Marateb, Hamid Reza; Rojas Martínez, Mónica Marlene; Zamani, Shadi; Shirzadi, Mehdi; +2 Authors

    Industry 4.0 signifies a new step in the control and organization of the manufacturing value chain. It can provide better digital solutions for our day-to-day lives during pandemics and post-pandemic life, including better activity planning, global public health emergency, and risk assessment. Internet of Things (IoT), as a part of Industry 4.0, brings new opportunities in various applications, including smart healthcare and cities. The combination of an IoT system and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the following capabilities in pandemic management: public security improvement, contact tracing to access public places, and automated diagnosis and post-pandemic prognosis. In this chapter, we discuss the contribution of Industry 4.0 (IoT, digitalization, Big Data, AI, and cloud-based computing) for automatic surveillance and health monitoring during pandemics and post-pandemic life. More than fifty papers published in 2020-2022 were analyzed in this chapter. This work was supported by the Beatriu de Pinós post-doctoral programme from the Office of the Secretary of Universities and Research from the Ministry of Business and Knowledge of the Government of Catalonia (Grant number: #2020 BP 00261) and the TecnioSpring Industry fellowship (ACCIO, H2020-EU- EXCELLENT SCIENCE - Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, #ACE026/21/000035). Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::3 - Salut i Benestar::3.d - Reforçar la capacitat de tots els països, en particular els països en desenvolupament, en matèria d’alerta primerenca, reducció de riscos i gestió dels riscos per a la salut nacional i mundial Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::3 - Salut i Benestar Peer Reviewed

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    Authors: Fundació BCN Formació Professional; Mercabarna, S.A.;
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    Authors: Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Cifuentes, J. M.; Sanz-Ablanero, E.; Quintano, Carmen;

    Knowledge of occurrence and severity of the damage caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) M.E. Barr and forest fires is key to define a management plan of Castanea sativa forest masses in south-western Europe. The main goal of our study is to verify whether there is a concordance between field measurements and measures from orthophotographs acquired by an unmanned flight and to determine the influence of the number of severity levels on it. Accuracy of blight severity level estimate was computed used as ground truth a red-green-blue (RGB) orthophotograph of very high spatial resolution (8 cm) acquired by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Starting from codes specifically defined for this study, the severity level of 823 chestnut trees was measured on the UAV orthophotograph. At same time, we ground measured the severity level on a sample of 182 chestnut trees using a standard methodology. From these measurements, overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were computed. Our results show that the concordance for 6 severity levels varies between moderate and good, whereas for 4 and 5 levels, varies between moderate and very good (kappa statistic>0.75). The study demonstrates the UAVs usefulness for studying forest damage in South-Western Europe. Funding for this study was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (FIRESEVES project, 559 AGL2017-86075-C2-1-R), and the Regional Government of Castile and León (SEFIRECYL project, LE001P17). Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Piñol, Xavier; Comissionat/da de Tecnologia i Innovació Digital;

    Subtítols en català Beatriz Cavanillas, responsable de l’Ateneu de Fabricació La Fàbrica del Sol, i Lorea Sanz, tecnòloga, expliquen el funcionament d'aquest espai on es desenvolupen projectes que ajuden a millorar la qualitat de vida de les persones en el terreny de l’autosuficiència energètica i vinculats a l’economia circular. L'Ateneu és un espai de creació i experimentació on s’empodera la ciutadania en l’ús de les tecnologies de fabricació digital (talladora de vinil, talladora làser, trituradora) i té com a eix transversal la sostenibilitat i el medi ambient.

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    Authors: RAMIREZ GARCIA, JAVIER; López López, David;

    Recurso de aprendizaje de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material publicado con licencia Creative Commons pasados 6 semestres desde la fecha de publicación. Recurs d'aprenentatge de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material publicat amb llicència Creative Commons passats 6 semestres des de la data de publicació. Learning resource of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Material published under a Creative Commons license after 6 semesters from the date of publication.

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    Authors: Anghel, Brindusa; Lacuesta, Aitor; Tagliati, Federico;

    Este documento analiza las competencias financieras de las empresas españolas de menos de 50 trabajadores (pequeñas empresas) a partir de una encuesta elaborada por el Banco de España entre marzo y mayo de 2021, que se engloba dentro de un proyecto desarrollado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE): International Network on Financial Education (OCDE/INFE). La encuesta incluye una serie de preguntas con el objetivo de medir las competencias financieras de las empresas (conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros), así como la tenencia de instrumentos financieros, el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre su actividad o el nivel de digitalización de la empresa. Estas preguntas deben de ser contestadas por el propietario de la empresa, siempre que tome alguna decisión financiera en relación con aquella. Los principales resultados de la encuesta apuntan a que, en general, en España los propietarios de las empresas con menos de 20 trabajadores y las empresas de servicios de alojamiento y hostelería, construcción y otros servicios personales (grupo heterogéneo de ramas, que incluiría empresas de educación, reparaciones o lavandería, entre otras) presentan unos conocimientos financieros bajos en comparación con las empresas de entre 20 y 49 trabajadores y con las del resto de los sectores. En cuanto a las actitudes financieras, los propietarios de las empresas de más de 10 trabajadores presentan una mayor tendencia a establecer objetivos financieros a largo plazo respecto a los propietarios de empresas de menos de 10 trabajadores. Algunos comportamientos financieros están menos generalizados en las empresas de menor tamaño (y especialmente en las de menos de 5 trabajadores), como, por ejemplo, disponer de estrategias en caso de robo y considerar opciones de distintos proveedores de productos o de servicios financieros. Finalmente, las pequeñas empresas españolas, independientemente de su tamaño, sobresalen por el bajo porcentaje de propietarios que han pensado en la financiación de su jubilación. El uso de los instrumentos de capital y de otras formas de financiación más recientes como los bonos sostenibles, los business angels o la financiación participativa) es marginal en las pequeñas empresas españolas. Asimismo, es limitado en estas empresas el empleo del seguro de daños materiales, y principalmente del de interrupción de negocio. No se observan diferencias importantes en los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos financieros según el género del propietario de la empresa. Además, en general, las competencias financieras medias en las pequeñas empresas mejoran con el nivel educativo tan solo si el propietario tiene formación concreta en temas relacionados con la empresa, la economía o las finanzas. Otras características que se asocian positivamente con las capacidades financieras, independientemente del nivel educativo, son disponer de 10 años de experiencia empresarial o tener un progenitor empresario. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 en el nivel de facturación, en los beneficios y en la deuda fue bastante similar en empresas con distintos grados de competencias financieras. Sin embargo, los efectos negativos en el empleo y en la liquidez fueron algo menores para los cuartiles más altos de competencias financieras de los propietarios. Adicionalmente, mayores conocimientos financieros estuvieron asociados a una probabilidad superior de solicitar y de obtener un nuevo préstamo o de beneficiarse de un aval público. Las empresas con menores conocimientos financieros sí utilizaron en mayor medida transferencias de renta, así como moratorias de alquiler. Finalmente, existe una relación positiva entre competencias financieras y mayor nivel de digitalización en la empresa con anterioridad a la pandemia. Sin embargo, no existe correlación de competencias financieras y un incremento de las actividades digitales tras el COVID-19. This paper analyses the financial competencies of Spanish enterprises with fewer than 50 employees (small enterprises) based on a survey conducted by the Banco de España between March and May 2021 as part of a project launched by the OECD (International Network on Financial Education, OECD/INFE). The survey includes a series of questions aimed at measuring firms’ financial competencies (financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) and the financial instruments held by them, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on their activity and their level of digitalisation. It is the owners of the firms who should answer these questions insofar as it is they who make financial decisions in relation to their firm. The main results of the survey suggest that, in Spain, owners of enterprises with fewer than 20 employees have little financial knowledge compared with those of enterprises with between 20 and 49 employees. The same is true of firms in the accommodation and food service activities, construction and other personal service sectors (a heterogeneous group of sectors which would include firms in education, repairs or laundry services, among others) compared with firms in other sectors. In terms of financial attitudes, owners of firms with more than ten employees have a greater tendency to set long-term financial goals than owners of firms with fewer than ten employees. Some financial behaviours (such as having strategies in place in the event of theft or considering different options for their financial product and service providers) are less widespread among smaller firms, especially those with fewer than five employees. Lastly, the percentage of Spanish small enterprises, regardless of size, whose owners have thought about how to finance their retirement is remarkably low. The use of capital instruments and other more recent types of financing (such as sustainable bonds, business angels or crowdfunding) is marginal in small Spanish enterprises. Likewise, the use of property and, particularly, business interruption insurance is limited among these firms. There are no discernible, significant differences in financial knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in terms of the gender of the business owner. Also, in general, the average financial competencies in small enterprises improve with the level of educational attainment only if the owner has specific training in business, economics or finance. Other characteristics positively associated with financial competencies, irrespective of educational attainment, are having ten years of entrepreneurial experience or having an entrepreneur for a parent. The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the level of turnover, profits and debt was quite similar for firms with different degrees of financial competencies. However, the negative impact on employment and liquidity was somewhat lower for the higher quartiles of owners’ financial competencies. Additionally, higher financial knowledge was associated with being more likely to apply for and obtain a new loan or benefit from a public guarantee. Firms with less financial knowledge did make greater use of income transfers and rental moratoria. Lastly, there is a positive correlation between financial competencies and a higher level of digitalisation in the firm pre-pandemic. However, there is no such correlation between financial competencies and digital activities following COVID-19.

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    Authors: Castelló, Enric;

    This article discusses the concept of terroir in the light of the communication practices. It provides a literature review illustrated with a case observation. The author identifies three key stages in the constitution of the terroir through communication: organizational norms and interaction; the circulation of public relations, marketing and media messages, and promotion; and a meaningful consumer experience that closes the circle of a terroir-based storytelling. Here, communication processes play a leading role, which includes the agency of diverse stakeholders. The author argues that, among these stakeholders, geographical indication (GI) organizations are leading agents that build symbolic terroir practices. One of the text's principal theses is that terroir is a socio-cultural construction embedded in storytelling practices with a broad scientific, economic, social and cultural exchange. For this terroir to exist, there must be a collective will, driven by the interests of a wide range of stakeholders such as policymakers, local communities, vine growers, winemakers, marketers and consumers. The practice of defining, communicating and circulating this storytelling is what finally transfers agency to the narrative itself in what the author refers to as the will for terroir. The article illustrates the process with a case study of a wine GI in Catalonia (Spain) and discusses how the will for terroir is relevant at each stage.

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    Authors: Hernández Ramos, José Luis; Moreno Cano, María Victoria; Jara Valera, Antonio Jesús; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio Fernando;
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    Authors: Aranzana, M. J.; Arus, P.; Howad, W.; Iglesias, I.; +4 Authors
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