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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chauve, A.; Bretar, F.; Durrieu, S.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; +1 Authors

    Airborne lidar systems (ALS) provide 3D point clouds of the topography by direct time measurement of a short laser pulse after reflection on the Earth surface. For the last decade, this technique has proved to be the ideal remote sensing tool for delivering very accurate digital terrain model (DTM) of the Earth surface, and then for answering main environmental issues such as natural hazard prevention and natural ressource management. Moreover, such active systems, also called multiple echo lidar, allow to detect several return signals for a single laser shot. It is particularly relevant in case of vegetation areas since a single lidar survey allows to acquire not only the canopy top (the only visible layer from passive sensors), but also points inside the vegetation layer and on the ground underneath. Thus, among the different remote sensing techniques, airborne laser scanning has also proved to be the most efficient technique to characterize both forest structure and ground topography. For a few years, new airborne laser scanning systems called full-waveform lidar systems have emerged, providing not only 3D point clouds as classical ALS systems, but entire altimeter profiles of reflected energy from the Earth surface. These profiles represent the laser backscattered energy as a function of time. They give to the end-user more control and flexibility on the signal processing steps and enable to extract more information than classical multi-echo lidar data. A detailed state-of-the-art of such systems can be found in [1]. However, managing these data with spacial and time dependency is much more complex than images or 3D point clouds : raw full-waveform lidar data are sets of range profiles of various lengths that are stored in the sensor geometry following both the scan angle of the lidar system and the chronological order along the flight track. Moreover, the data volume is drastically larger than 3D point clouds: it takes about 140 GB for an acquisition time of 1.6 h with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 50kHz. Furthermore, there is neither commercial nor opensource toolkit to handle full-waveform lidar data, but some constructor solutions, that are black boxes, can only extract 3D point clouds from raw data and are designed to their own sensors. Finally, there is not standard file format for full-waveform data (such as the LAS format for multi-echo data). Managing full-waveform lidar data is therefore a challenging task, and we adress this issue by developping a specific research tool: FullAnalyze.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CemOA
    2009
    Data sources: CemOA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CemOA
      2009
      Data sources: CemOA
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cresson, R.;

    Remote sensing images allow the monitoring of field techniques among crops. CIRAD and SPOT imaging set up between 2003 and 2005 a powerful tool to help the management of sugar cane crops within the framework of GIS and optical images (SUCRETTE project). CIRAD sets up MARGOUILLA in 2009, its own project in La Réunion. The purpose of this training period is to study the potentiality of the RADAR images to characterize the cultural stage of sugar cane crops (harvested mapping), in order to increment and to fulfill information already acquired by optical images. That said, we focused on the influence on three different parameters affecting the RADAR signal: incident angle, polarization, thanks to RADAR images acquired by the sensor TERRASAR-X (X Band). First, we studied backscatter coefficient values (σ) of sugar cane reference field at different dates and secondly, analyze the temporal evolution of σ. We observed on several points the RADAR signal sensibility at different growing stage of sugar cane, validating a characterization potential. Nonetheless, this potential remains limited for soil and sugar cane under moisture (causing by rain) which could be confused with other growing stage. / Les images satellitaires permettent d'étudier les pratiques agricoles de cultures diverses. Le CIRAD et SPOT Image ont mis en place entre 2003 et 2005 un outil d'aide à la gestion de la culture de la canne à sucre avec un SIG et les images optiques (projet SUCRETTE). Le CIRAD installe en 2009 à La Réunion son propre projet, baptisé MARGOUILLA. L'objectif de ce stage est de prolonger ces travaux et d'évaluer le potentiel des images RADAR à caractériser les états culturaux des parcelles de cannes à sucre (cartographie des coupes), afin d'enrichir et de compléter les informations déjà obtenues avec les images optiques. Pour cela, nous avons analysé plus précisément l'influence sur le signal RADAR des paramètres suivants : angle d'incidence et polarisation grâce à l'analyse d'images RADAR acquises par le capteur hyperfréquence TERRASAR-X (bande X). Nous nous sommes intéressés aux valeurs de coefficient de rétrodiffusion (σ°) des parcelles de canne à sucre de référence à différentes dates et nous avons suivi dans un second temps l'évolution dans le temps de σ°. Nous avons observé sous plusieurs approches la sensibilité du signal RADAR aux différents stades de développement de la canne à sucre. Les résultats confirment bien le fort potentiel de caractérisation de ces stades.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CemOA
    2009
    Data sources: CemOA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CemOA
      2009
      Data sources: CemOA
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Betbeder, J.; Gond, V.; Frappart, F.; Baghdadi, N.; +2 Authors

    Wetlands represent 6% of the Earth's land cover surface. They are of crucial importance in the global water cycle and climatic dynamics. Nowadays, wetlands are the most threatened land cover type, nevertheless their spatial distribution and ecological functions are poorly documented. Despite the need for more detailed information, wetland mapping is a rarely activity. Few data are available mainly because of the complexity of obtaining good field data. We therefore propose a method based on multi sensor imagery analysis, to characterize land cover patterns of the second largest wetland area of the world (The 'Cuvette Centrale' of the Congo River basin). Time series of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) images are used to map land cover types based their phenological differences. Flooded areas in the Congo Basin have been mapped during different seasons using L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) imagery. The associated model has been improved upon by the addition of elevation data as well as mean canopy heights acquired with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. The result of this study is the first detailed spatial distribution of four forested wetland types within the 'Cuvette Centrale' of the Congo River basin. This study demonstrates that the spatial organization of the floodplain landscape depends on the extent of flooding. The results also show that land cover phenology is closely related to the time period of flood and solar intensity for this region, similarly to what is observed in the extensive floodplain of the Amazon basin.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
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    CemOA
    2013
    Data sources: CemOA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CemOA
      2013
      Data sources: CemOA
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chen, Y.; Chanet, J.P.; Hou, K.M.;

    The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) was designed in the ROLL working group at IETF since the year of 2008. Until the latest version of draft 19 released, this protocol algorithms and its four application scenario, such as home automation, industrial control, urban environment and building automation, have been nearly grounded. However, it is still very difficult to find effective approaches to simulate and evaluate RPL's behavior and other extensions of its application. In this paper, first we provide a brief presentation of the RPL protocol including two case studies ContikiRPL and TinyRPL, and an initial simulation experiment results obtained from the RPL capable COOJA simulator and its developed module. Second we then focus on the utilization of this protocol in the precision agriculture area and propose our dedicated instances hybrid network architecture to meet the specific requirement of this application. As a conclusion, we summarized our ongoing work and future solutions of the current technology issues.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CemOA
    2012
    Data sources: CemOA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CemOA
      2012
      Data sources: CemOA
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Feurer, D.; Bailly, J.S.; Puech, C.; Le Coarer, Y.; +1 Authors

    Remote sensing has been used to map river bathymetry for several decades. Non-contact methods are necessary in several cases: inaccessible rivers, large-scale depth mapping, very shallow rivers. The remote sensing techniques used for river bathymetry are reviewed. Frequently, these techniques have been developed for marine environment and have then been transposed to riverine environments. These techniques can be divided into two types: active remote sensing, such as ground penetrating radar and bathymetric lidar; or passive remote sensing, such as through-water photogrammetry and radiometric models. This last technique which consists of finding a logarithmic relationship between river depth and image values appears to be the most used. Fewer references exist for the other techniques, but lidar is an emerging technique. For each depth measurement method, we detail the physical principles and then a review of the results obtained in the field. This review shows a lack of data for very shallow rivers, where a very high spatial resolution is needed. Moreover, the cost related to aerial image acquisition is often huge. Hence we propose an application of two techniques, radiometric models and through-water photogrammetry, with very high-resolution passive optical imagery, light platforms, and off-the-shelf cameras. We show that, in the case of the radiometric models, measurement is possible with a spatial filtering of about 1 m and a homogeneous river bottom. In contrast, with through-water photogrammetry, fine ground resolution and bottom textures are necessary.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CemOA
    2008
    Data sources: CemOA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      CemOA
      2008
      Data sources: CemOA
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alavoine-Mornas, F.;

    In the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur region (France), some forest lands are converted to agricultural use, in particular in the wine-growing sector. In this region agricultural lands have to cope with urbanization and agricultural land abandonment. But this trend raises the question of natural and forest lands preservation. The issue is also to understand the conditions of these changes in land use. We carried out an exploratory study in order to quantify this evolution and provide information on the agriculture and forest stakes. This work was based on a bibliographic study and some interviews among local stakeholders. We also conducted a more precise study in the Var department using the CRIGE-PACA database to quantify the changes in land use regarding vineyards and forests (conversion of forest land to vineyards and vice-versa) between 2006 and 2014. We showed that the surfaces of forest lands to vineyards was very small. The requests for authorization to clear forest land often concerned plots which were formerly cultivated. However the context could accelerate this process, especially due to outside investors entering the wine-growing sector as well as the surface growth of som AOC/AOP, and the strong willingness of agricultural organizations to develop the wine-growing sector and more widely the agricultural sector. A more comprehensive study will be needed using spatial data to locate the impacted territories and assess the possible effects on forests. / En région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (France), des terres sont récupérées sur des espaces forestiers par des agriculteurs, particulièrement dans le secteur viticole. Dans une région où les espaces agricoles peinent à se maintenir face au développement urbain et à la déprise, cette tendance pose cependant la question de la préservation des espaces naturels et forestiers et des conditions dans lesquelles s'effectuent ces changements d'occupation du sol (lieu, superficie et types de forêts concernées, projets de valorisation de ces espaces...). Nous avons réalisé une étude exploratoire visant à quantifier cette évolution et à en préciser les enjeux pour l'agriculture et pour les espaces forestiers. Ce travail a été conduit à partir de la bibliographie existante et d'entretiens avec quelques acteurs du territoire. Un travail plus précis a été réalisé sur le département du Var, pour lequel nous avons utilisé des bases de données du CRIGE-PACA pour quantifier les transformations d'occupation du sol concernant la viticulture et la forêt (transformation de forêts en vignobles, et vice versa) entre 2006 et 2014. Les analyses montrent que les superficies de forêts converties en vignobles aux dépens d'espaces forestiers ont été très limitées au cours de la période étudiée. Les demandes de défrichement concernent souvent des parcelles anciennement cultivées. Cependant certains éléments de contexte pourraient conduire à une accélération de cette tendance, notamment l'entrée d'investisseurs extérieurs au secteur viticole apportant des capitaux importants et souhaitant les valoriser, l'extension des aires d'appellations de certaines AOC/AOP, et la volonté affirmée des organisations professionnelles agricoles de développer le secteur viticole provençal et plus largement l'agriculture. Le travail réalisé devra être poursuivi par des études spatialisées permettant de localiser les territoires impactés (ou pouvant être impactés) par cette tendance et d'évaluer les effets possibles sur les forêts concernées.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
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    CemOA
    2019
    Data sources: CemOA
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      CemOA
      2019
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Figureau, A.G.; Montginoul, M.; Rinaudo, J.D.;

    This paper proposes and analyzes three policy instruments which can be used to enhance farmers' compliance with individual water allocations in a decentralized management context. Three regulation strategies are proposed for the case of groundwater allocations for irrigation: the first relies on economic instruments; the second is based on tools designed to promote pro-social behaviors; and the third combines assumptions from the first two approaches. They are evaluated through 16 scenario workshops involving 124 stakeholders and farmers in five French groundwater basins. Stakeholders' perceptions are analyzed, disentangling the ethical, economic, institutional, social and technical perspectives underlying the stakeholders' arguments for or against the proposed instruments for groundwater-use regulation. The analysis reveals a preference for the strategy that combines economic and social incentives.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CemOAarrow_drop_down
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    CemOA
    2015
    Data sources: CemOA
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      CemOA
      2015
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Bailly, J.S.; Millier, C.; Saidouni, D.; Lagacherie, P.;

    Artificial drainage networks such as ditches networks are landscape elements that control many hydrological transfers. To introduce these elements in hydrological models, we need to develop methods that allow their representation in space. We aimed here to assess the utilities of LiDAR data in the detecting and characterizing of ditches in Mediterranean cultivated rural landscapes. To perform the detection, we combined jointly laser-scanning and parcel boundaries data and developed a methodology based on : 1- estimation from last pulse laser points of terrain altimetric profiles that are perpendicular to parcel boundaries; 2- 1D wavelet transforms of the profiles ; 3- a supervised classification of profiles with CART on the wavelet coefficients that are relevant for the size of the shapes we want to detect. The methodology we developed was applied in France on a typical basin of the Mediterranean vineyard landscapes. Compared to visual interpretation of the profiles, we obtained satisfactory detection rate. According to these results, high resolution laser-scanning data appears reliable for ditches detection but, due to vegetation and sampling resolution, misclassification on ditches typology is still important.

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    CemOA
    2004
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      CemOA
      2004
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Jardi, Cristina; Casanova, Byron David; Arija, Victoria;

    Background: Child malnutrition is a major epidemiological problem in developing countries, especially in African countries. Nutrition education for mothers can alleviate this malnutrition in their young children. The objective of this study was to make a systematic review to assess the effect of intervention programs in nutrition education for African mothers on the nutritional status of their infants. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed database for clinical trials between November 2012 and 2021. The studies should contain educational programs to evaluate the impact on the infant's nutritional indicators in children under 5 years (food consumption, anthropometry and/or knowledge of nutrition in caretakers). Results: A total of 20 articles were selected, of which 53% evaluated infant's food consumption, 82% anthropometric measurements and 30% nutritional knowledge. In general, nutritional education programs are accredited with some significant improvements in food and nutrient consumption, knowledge and dietary practices in complementary feeding, but only those studies that implemented strategies in agriculture, educational workshops and supplementation obtained reductions in chronic malnutrition figures. Limitations: There is high heterogeneity in the articles included, since the intervention programs have different approaches. Conclusions: Programs that implemented actions of national agriculture or nutritional supplementation reap the greatest benefits in curbing infant malnutrition.

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    Authors: Martí E; Sierra J; Mari M; Ortiz C; +4 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chauve, A.; Bretar, F.; Durrieu, S.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; +1 Authors

    Airborne lidar systems (ALS) provide 3D point clouds of the topography by direct time measurement of a short laser pulse after reflection on the Earth surface. For the last decade, this technique has proved to be the ideal remote sensing tool for delivering very accurate digital terrain model (DTM) of the Earth surface, and then for answering main environmental issues such as natural hazard prevention and natural ressource management. Moreover, such active systems, also called multiple echo lidar, allow to detect several return signals for a single laser shot. It is particularly relevant in case of vegetation areas since a single lidar survey allows to acquire not only the canopy top (the only visible layer from passive sensors), but also points inside the vegetation layer and on the ground underneath. Thus, among the different remote sensing techniques, airborne laser scanning has also proved to be the most efficient technique to characterize both forest structure and ground topography. For a few years, new airborne laser scanning systems called full-waveform lidar systems have emerged, providing not only 3D point clouds as classical ALS systems, but entire altimeter profiles of reflected energy from the Earth surface. These profiles represent the laser backscattered energy as a function of time. They give to the end-user more control and flexibility on the signal processing steps and enable to extract more information than classical multi-echo lidar data. A detailed state-of-the-art of such systems can be found in [1]. However, managing these data with spacial and time dependency is much more complex than images or 3D point clouds : raw full-waveform lidar data are sets of range profiles of various lengths that are stored in the sensor geometry following both the scan angle of the lidar system and the chronological order along the flight track. Moreover, the data volume is drastically larger than 3D point clouds: it takes about 140 GB for an acquisition time of 1.6 h with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 50kHz. Furthermore, there is neither commercial nor opensource toolkit to handle full-waveform lidar data, but some constructor solutions, that are black boxes, can only extract 3D point clouds from raw data and are designed to their own sensors. Finally, there is not standard file format for full-waveform data (such as the LAS format for multi-echo data). Managing full-waveform lidar data is therefore a challenging task, and we adress this issue by developping a specific research tool: FullAnalyze.

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    CemOA
    2009
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      CemOA
      2009
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Cresson, R.;

    Remote sensing images allow the monitoring of field techniques among crops. CIRAD and SPOT imaging set up between 2003 and 2005 a powerful tool to help the management of sugar cane crops within the framework of GIS and optical images (SUCRETTE project). CIRAD sets up MARGOUILLA in 2009, its own project in La Réunion. The purpose of this training period is to study the potentiality of the RADAR images to characterize the cultural stage of sugar cane crops (harvested mapping), in order to increment and to fulfill information already acquired by optical images. That said, we focused on the influence on three different parameters affecting the RADAR signal: incident angle, polarization, thanks to RADAR images acquired by the sensor TERRASAR-X (X Band). First, we studied backscatter coefficient values (σ) of sugar cane reference field at different dates and secondly, analyze the temporal evolution of σ. We observed on several points the RADAR signal sensibility at different growing stage of sugar cane, validating a characterization potential. Nonetheless, this potential remains limited for soil and sugar cane under moisture (causing by rain) which could be confused with other growing stage. / Les images satellitaires permettent d'étudier les pratiques agricoles de cultures diverses. Le CIRAD et SPOT Image ont mis en place entre 2003 et 2005 un outil d'aide à la gestion de la culture de la canne à sucre avec un SIG et les images optiques (projet SUCRETTE). Le CIRAD installe en 2009 à La Réunion son propre projet, baptisé MARGOUILLA. L'objectif de ce stage est de prolonger ces travaux et d'évaluer le potentiel des images RADAR à caractériser les états culturaux des parcelles de cannes à sucre (cartographie des coupes), afin d'enrichir et de compléter les informations déjà obtenues avec les images optiques. Pour cela, nous avons analysé plus précisément l'influence sur le signal RADAR des paramètres suivants : angle d'incidence et polarisation grâce à l'analyse d'images RADAR acquises par le capteur hyperfréquence TERRASAR-X (bande X). Nous nous sommes intéressés aux valeurs de coefficient de rétrodiffusion (σ°) des parcelles de canne à sucre de référence à différentes dates et nous avons suivi dans un second temps l'évolution dans le temps de σ°. Nous avons observé sous plusieurs approches la sensibilité du signal RADAR aux différents stades de développement de la canne à sucre. Les résultats confirment bien le fort potentiel de caractérisation de ces stades.

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    CemOA
    2009
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      CemOA
      2009
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Betbeder, J.; Gond, V.; Frappart, F.; Baghdadi, N.; +2 Authors

    Wetlands represent 6% of the Earth's land cover surface. They are of crucial importance in the global water cycle and climatic dynamics. Nowadays, wetlands are the most threatened land cover type, nevertheless their spatial distribution and ecological functions are poorly documented. Despite the need for more detailed information, wetland mapping is a rarely activity. Few data are available mainly because of the complexity of obtaining good field data. We therefore propose a method based on multi sensor imagery analysis, to characterize land cover patterns of the second largest wetland area of the world (The 'Cuvette Centrale' of the Congo River basin). Time series of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) images are used to map land cover types based their phenological differences. Flooded areas in the Congo Basin have been mapped during different seasons using L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) imagery. The associated model has been improved upon by the addition of elevation data as well as mean canopy heights acquired with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. The result of this study is the first detailed spatial distribution of four forested wetland types within the 'Cuvette Centrale' of the Congo River basin. This study demonstrates that the spatial organization of the floodplain landscape depends on the extent of flooding. The results also show that land cover phenology is closely related to the time period of flood and solar intensity for this region, similarly to what is observed in the extensive floodplain of the Amazon basin.

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    CemOA
    2013
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      CemOA
      2013
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Chen, Y.; Chanet, J.P.; Hou, K.M.;

    The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) was designed in the ROLL working group at IETF since the year of 2008. Until the latest version of draft 19 released, this protocol algorithms and its four application scenario, such as home automation, industrial control, urban environment and building automation, have been nearly grounded. However, it is still very difficult to find effective approaches to simulate and evaluate RPL's behavior and other extensions of its application. In this paper, first we provide a brief presentation of the RPL protocol including two case studies ContikiRPL and TinyRPL, and an initial simulation experiment results obtained from the RPL capable COOJA simulator and its developed module. Second we then focus on the utilization of this protocol in the precision agriculture area and propose our dedicated instances hybrid network architecture to meet the specific requirement of this application. As a conclusion, we summarized our ongoing work and future solutions of the current technology issues.

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    CemOA
    2012
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      CemOA
      2012
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Feurer, D.; Bailly, J.S.; Puech, C.; Le Coarer, Y.; +1 Authors

    Remote sensing has been used to map river bathymetry for several decades. Non-contact methods are necessary in several cases: inaccessible rivers, large-scale depth mapping, very shallow rivers. The remote sensing techniques used for river bathymetry are reviewed. Frequently, these techniques have been developed for marine environment and have then been transposed to riverine environments. These techniques can be divided into two types: active remote sensing, such as ground penetrating radar and bathymetric lidar; or passive remote sensing, such as through-water photogrammetry and radiometric models. This last technique which consists of finding a logarithmic relationship between river depth and image values appears to be the most used. Fewer references exist for the other techniques, but lidar is an emerging technique. For each depth measurement method, we detail the physical principles and then a review of the results obtained in the field. This review shows a lack of data for very shallow rivers, where a very high spatial resolution is needed. Moreover, the cost related to aerial image acquisition is often huge. Hence we propose an application of two techniques, radiometric models and through-water photogrammetry, with very high-resolution passive optical imagery, light platforms, and off-the-shelf cameras. We show that, in the case of the radiometric models, measurement is possible with a spatial filtering of about 1 m and a homogeneous river bottom. In contrast, with through-water photogrammetry, fine ground resolution and bottom textures are necessary.

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    CemOA
    2008
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      CemOA
      2008
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Alavoine-Mornas, F.;

    In the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur region (France), some forest lands are converted to agricultural use, in particular in the wine-growing sector. In this region agricultural lands have to cope with urbanization and agricultural land abandonment. But this trend raises the question of natural and forest lands preservation. The issue is also to understand the conditions of these changes in land use. We carried out an exploratory study in order to quantify this evolution and provide information on the agriculture and forest stakes. This work was based on a bibliographic study and some interviews among local stakeholders. We also conducted a more precise study in the Var department using the CRIGE-PACA database to quantify the changes in land use regarding vineyards and forests (conversion of forest land to vineyards and vice-versa) between 2006 and 2014. We showed that the surfaces of forest lands to vineyards was very small. The requests for authorization to clear forest land often concerned plots which were formerly cultivated. However the context could accelerate this process, especially due to outside investors entering the wine-growing sector as well as the surface growth of som AOC/AOP, and the strong willingness of agricultural organizations to develop the wine-growing sector and more widely the agricultural sector. A more comprehensive study will be needed using spatial data to locate the impacted territories and assess the possible effects on forests. / En région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (France), des terres sont récupérées sur des espaces forestiers par des agriculteurs, particulièrement dans le secteur viticole. Dans une région où les espaces agricoles peinent à se maintenir face au développement urbain et à la déprise, cette tendance pose cependant la question de la préservation des espaces naturels et forestiers et des conditions dans lesquelles s'effectuent ces changements d'occupation du sol (lieu, superficie et types de forêts concernées, projets de valorisation de ces espaces...). Nous avons réalisé une étude exploratoire visant à quantifier cette évolution et à en préciser les enjeux pour l'agriculture et pour les espaces forestiers. Ce travail a été conduit à partir de la bibliographie existante et d'entretiens avec quelques acteurs du territoire. Un travail plus précis a été réalisé sur le département du Var, pour lequel nous avons utilisé des bases de données du CRIGE-PACA pour quantifier les transformations d'occupation du sol concernant la viticulture et la forêt (transformation de forêts en vignobles, et vice versa) entre 2006 et 2014. Les analyses montrent que les superficies de forêts converties en vignobles aux dépens d'espaces forestiers ont été très limitées au cours de la période étudiée. Les demandes de défrichement concernent souvent des parcelles anciennement cultivées. Cependant certains éléments de contexte pourraient conduire à une accélération de cette tendance, notamment l'entrée d'investisseurs extérieurs au secteur viticole apportant des capitaux importants et souhaitant les valoriser, l'extension des aires d'appellations de certaines AOC/AOP, et la volonté affirmée des organisations professionnelles agricoles de développer le secteur viticole provençal et plus largement l'agriculture. Le travail réalisé devra être poursuivi par des études spatialisées permettant de localiser les territoires impactés (ou pouvant être impactés) par cette tendance et d'évaluer les effets possibles sur les forêts concernées.

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    CemOA
    2019
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      CemOA
      2019
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Figureau, A.G.; Montginoul, M.; Rinaudo, J.D.;

    This paper proposes and analyzes three policy instruments which can be used to enhance farmers' compliance with individual water allocations in a decentralized management context. Three regulation strategies are proposed for the case of groundwater allocations for irrigation: the first relies on economic instruments; the second is based on tools designed to promote pro-social behaviors; and the third combines assumptions from the first two approaches. They are evaluated through 16 scenario workshops involving 124 stakeholders and farmers in five French groundwater basins. Stakeholders' perceptions are analyzed, disentangling the ethical, economic, institutional, social and technical perspectives underlying the stakeholders' arguments for or against the proposed instruments for groundwater-use regulation. The analysis reveals a preference for the strategy that combines economic and social incentives.

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    CemOA
    2015
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      CemOA
      2015
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    Authors: Bailly, J.S.; Millier, C.; Saidouni, D.; Lagacherie, P.;

    Artificial drainage networks such as ditches networks are landscape elements that control many hydrological transfers. To introduce these elements in hydrological models, we need to develop methods that allow their representation in space. We aimed here to assess the utilities of LiDAR data in the detecting and characterizing of ditches in Mediterranean cultivated rural landscapes. To perform the detection, we combined jointly laser-scanning and parcel boundaries data and developed a methodology based on : 1- estimation from last pulse laser points of terrain altimetric profiles that are perpendicular to parcel boundaries; 2- 1D wavelet transforms of the profiles ; 3- a supervised classification of profiles with CART on the wavelet coefficients that are relevant for the size of the shapes we want to detect. The methodology we developed was applied in France on a typical basin of the Mediterranean vineyard landscapes. Compared to visual interpretation of the profiles, we obtained satisfactory detection rate. According to these results, high resolution laser-scanning data appears reliable for ditches detection but, due to vegetation and sampling resolution, misclassification on ditches typology is still important.

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    CemOA
    2004
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      CemOA
      2004
      Data sources: CemOA
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    Authors: Jardi, Cristina; Casanova, Byron David; Arija, Victoria;

    Background: Child malnutrition is a major epidemiological problem in developing countries, especially in African countries. Nutrition education for mothers can alleviate this malnutrition in their young children. The objective of this study was to make a systematic review to assess the effect of intervention programs in nutrition education for African mothers on the nutritional status of their infants. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed database for clinical trials between November 2012 and 2021. The studies should contain educational programs to evaluate the impact on the infant's nutritional indicators in children under 5 years (food consumption, anthropometry and/or knowledge of nutrition in caretakers). Results: A total of 20 articles were selected, of which 53% evaluated infant's food consumption, 82% anthropometric measurements and 30% nutritional knowledge. In general, nutritional education programs are accredited with some significant improvements in food and nutrient consumption, knowledge and dietary practices in complementary feeding, but only those studies that implemented strategies in agriculture, educational workshops and supplementation obtained reductions in chronic malnutrition figures. Limitations: There is high heterogeneity in the articles included, since the intervention programs have different approaches. Conclusions: Programs that implemented actions of national agriculture or nutritional supplementation reap the greatest benefits in curbing infant malnutrition.

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    Authors: Martí E; Sierra J; Mari M; Ortiz C; +4 Authors
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