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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials, donors, private sector actors, as well as other stakeholders in the agricultural sector. This study is predicated on the fact that agriculture is the backbone of the economies of most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. The ultimate aim is to stimulate debate and dialogue among policy makers in specific African countries to engender change and reform in areas where investment is needed to leverage agribusiness and economic development. This study relied heavily on an extensive secondary data collection and literature review, supplemented by informal surveys to solicit information from a broad spectrum of stakeholders and actors in Kenya's agricultural sector. The review and interviews focused on the factors that the agribusiness indicators team determined to be the most critical for agribusiness development across sub-Saharan Africa, based on extensive scoping missions in three pilot countries (Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mozambique). This report is organized into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two presents ABI methodology; chapter three presents findings on the success factors and indicators; and chapter four gives concluding remarks.

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    Authors: Pagiola, Stefano; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Freire-González, Jaume;

    The effectiveness of conservation interventions such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is often evaluated, if it is evaluated at all, only at the completion of the intervention. Since gains achieved by the intervention may be lost after it ends, even apparently successful interventions may not result in long-term conservation benefits, a problem known as that of permanence. This paper uses a unique dataset to examine the permanence of land use change induced by a short-term PES program implemented in Quindío, Colombia, between 2003 and 2008. This the first PES program to have a control group for comparison. Under this program, PES had been found to have a positive and highly significant impact on land use. To assess the long-term permanence of these changes, both PES recipients and control households were re-surveyed in 2011, four years after the last payment was made. We find that the land use changes that had been induced by PES were broadly sustained in intervening years, with minor differences across specific practices and sub-groups of participants. The patterns of change in the period after the PES program was completed also help better understand the reasons for the program s success. These results suggest that, at least in the case of productive land uses such as silvopastoral practices, PES programs can be effective at encouraging land owners to adopt environmentally-beneficial management practices and that the benefits will persist after payments cease.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    Petroleum supply reforms could yield huge savings. Training flourishes in the informal sector. Credit is a constraint to enterprise development. cAN Africa pay for its universities. How to double Sub-Saharan Africa's agricultural growth rate. Upgrading farming systems in the Sahel. Agricultural research is being revitalized.

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    Authors: Xie, Jian;

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

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    Authors: Alcântara, Enner; Curtarelli, Marcelo; Ogashawara, Igor; Stech, José; +1 Authors

    Long-term environmental time series of continuously collected data are fundamental to identify and classify pulses and determine their role in aquatic systems. This paper presents a web based archive for limnological and meteorological data collected by integrated system for environmental monitoring (SIMA). The environmental parameters that are measured by SIMA are: chlorophyll-a (µg/L), water surface temperature (ºC), water column temperature by a thermistor string (ºC), turbidity (NTU), pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/L), electric conductivity (µS/cm), wind speed (m/s) and direction (º), relative humidity (%), short wave radiation (W/m**2), barometric pressure (hPa). The data are collected in preprogrammed time interval (1 hour) and are transmitted by satellite in quasi-real time for any user in a range of 2500 km from the acquisition point. So far 11 hydroelectric reservoirs being monitored using the SIMA buoy. A basic statistics (mean and standard deviation) for some parameters and an example of time series were displayed. The main observed problem are divided into sensors and satellite. The sensors problems is due to the environmental characteristics of each water body. In acid waters the sensors of water quality rapidly degrade, and the collected data are invalid. Another problem is the infestation of periphyton in the sensor. SIMA buoy makes the parameters readings every hour, or 24 readings per day. However, not always received all readings because the system requires satellites passing over the buoy antenna to complete the transfer and due to the satellite constellation position, some locations inland are not met as often as necessary to complete all transmissions. This is the more often causes for lack in the time series.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    This basic Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) documents and analyzes information on the volume and structure of Liberia's past public expenditure on the agriculture sector and draws conclusions that can provide an orientation for future policies in view of the effectiveness of spending. The AgPER's focus is on the sectors of agriculture, including crops, fisheries, and forestry, in line with the New Partnership for African Development's (NEPAD) definition of the sectors of focus. This is in accordance with the Maputo Declaration and its target that governments devote ten percent of public expenditure for agricultural development with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction.

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    Authors: Operations Evaluation Department;

    This OED report finds that the Bank has made progress on the environment, and notes that its commitments were not accompanied by precise goals and performance monitoring. It advances explanations of why things have turned out this way. It offers recommendations which focus on how to restore the environment to its proper role in the Bank's holistic, long-term development agenda.

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    Authors: Wang, Chaogang;

    Local benefit sharing in hydropower projects can be defined as the systematic efforts by project proponents to sustainably benefit local communities affected by hydropower investments. Benefit sharing is a promising approach for implementing hydropower projects sustainably, and is emerging as a supplement to the requirements of compensation and mitigation. Benefit sharing can provide equitable development, sustainability, and smooth project implementation for hydropower development. For benefit sharing mechanisms to work, the key enabling conditions are government policies, the legal and regulatory framework, corporate social responsibility strategies of development companies, and the capacity of local communities. Stakeholder engagement is essential in initiating and designing benefit sharing programs. This guide provides some advice to task teams on how to design effective local benefit sharing mechanisms in hydropower projects. Benefit sharing arrangements would ensure that local communities have the opportunity to benefit directly from hydropower development, which will make hydropower projects more environmentally and socially sustainable. As a long-term arrangement, benefit sharing can facilitate local development. It can respond to unexpected environmental circumstances in the operation of dams to ensure local communities receive adequate benefits. Arrangements for the equitable sharing of benefits can offer scope for local communities and all other stakeholders to avoid conflicts and focus on creating synergies to maximize local development opportunities.

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    Authors: Arias, Diego; Gurria, Martin; Pena, Hector; Brown-Knowlton, Mildred; +2 Authors

    An analysis of Jamaica's agriculture support policies and programs shows that Jamaican consumers are financing the bulk of supports to the agriculture sector. This report estimates the agriculture public support policies and programs of Jamaica between 2006 and 2011. This analysis of the agriculture programs and policies provides an understanding of the level and composition by type of support for different crops and livestock producers during 2010-2011. The estimate of total agriculture supports (measured as the total support estimate, TSE) in Jamaica in 2011 was approximately United States (U.S.) 675 million dollars (J$58.071 million), representing 4.7 percent of total gross domestic product (GDP) and 22.7 percent of agriculture GDP. Jamaica has been facing significant development challenges over the last three decades. It is in this context of fiscal restrictions and potential further economic and social stagnation, that the Government of Jamaica and the World Bank have been prompted to take action to better understand the degree and type of support Jamaican farmers are receiving. Once the level of support is understood within Jamaica's economic context, policy and program recommendations can be made to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the support structure, addressing agriculture sector competitiveness issues and constraints. In this context, the report presents introduction; supports to agriculture; and summary and conclusions.

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    Authors: de la Torre, Augusto; Fajnzylber, Pablo; Nash, John;

    Based on analysis of recent data on the evolution of global temperatures, snow and ice covers, and sea level rise, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently declared that "warming of the climate system is unequivocal." Global surface temperatures, in particular, have increased during the past 50 years at twice the speed observed during the first half of the 20th century. The IPCC has also concluded that with 95 percent certainty the main drivers of the observed changes in the global climate have been anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases (GHG). While the greenhouse effect is a natural process without which the planet would probably be too cold to support life, most of the increase in the overall concentration of GHGs observed since the industrial revolution has been the result of human activities, namely the burning of fossil fuels, changes in land use (conversion of forests into agricultural land), and agriculture (the use of nitrogen fertilizers and live stock related methane emissions).

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials, donors, private sector actors, as well as other stakeholders in the agricultural sector. This study is predicated on the fact that agriculture is the backbone of the economies of most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. The ultimate aim is to stimulate debate and dialogue among policy makers in specific African countries to engender change and reform in areas where investment is needed to leverage agribusiness and economic development. This study relied heavily on an extensive secondary data collection and literature review, supplemented by informal surveys to solicit information from a broad spectrum of stakeholders and actors in Kenya's agricultural sector. The review and interviews focused on the factors that the agribusiness indicators team determined to be the most critical for agribusiness development across sub-Saharan Africa, based on extensive scoping missions in three pilot countries (Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mozambique). This report is organized into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two presents ABI methodology; chapter three presents findings on the success factors and indicators; and chapter four gives concluding remarks.

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    Authors: Pagiola, Stefano; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Freire-González, Jaume;

    The effectiveness of conservation interventions such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) is often evaluated, if it is evaluated at all, only at the completion of the intervention. Since gains achieved by the intervention may be lost after it ends, even apparently successful interventions may not result in long-term conservation benefits, a problem known as that of permanence. This paper uses a unique dataset to examine the permanence of land use change induced by a short-term PES program implemented in Quindío, Colombia, between 2003 and 2008. This the first PES program to have a control group for comparison. Under this program, PES had been found to have a positive and highly significant impact on land use. To assess the long-term permanence of these changes, both PES recipients and control households were re-surveyed in 2011, four years after the last payment was made. We find that the land use changes that had been induced by PES were broadly sustained in intervening years, with minor differences across specific practices and sub-groups of participants. The patterns of change in the period after the PES program was completed also help better understand the reasons for the program s success. These results suggest that, at least in the case of productive land uses such as silvopastoral practices, PES programs can be effective at encouraging land owners to adopt environmentally-beneficial management practices and that the benefits will persist after payments cease.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    Petroleum supply reforms could yield huge savings. Training flourishes in the informal sector. Credit is a constraint to enterprise development. cAN Africa pay for its universities. How to double Sub-Saharan Africa's agricultural growth rate. Upgrading farming systems in the Sahel. Agricultural research is being revitalized.

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    Authors: Xie, Jian;

    This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

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    Authors: Alcântara, Enner; Curtarelli, Marcelo; Ogashawara, Igor; Stech, José; +1 Authors

    Long-term environmental time series of continuously collected data are fundamental to identify and classify pulses and determine their role in aquatic systems. This paper presents a web based archive for limnological and meteorological data collected by integrated system for environmental monitoring (SIMA). The environmental parameters that are measured by SIMA are: chlorophyll-a (µg/L), water surface temperature (ºC), water column temperature by a thermistor string (ºC), turbidity (NTU), pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/L), electric conductivity (µS/cm), wind speed (m/s) and direction (º), relative humidity (%), short wave radiation (W/m**2), barometric pressure (hPa). The data are collected in preprogrammed time interval (1 hour) and are transmitted by satellite in quasi-real time for any user in a range of 2500 km from the acquisition point. So far 11 hydroelectric reservoirs being monitored using the SIMA buoy. A basic statistics (mean and standard deviation) for some parameters and an example of time series were displayed. The main observed problem are divided into sensors and satellite. The sensors problems is due to the environmental characteristics of each water body. In acid waters the sensors of water quality rapidly degrade, and the collected data are invalid. Another problem is the infestation of periphyton in the sensor. SIMA buoy makes the parameters readings every hour, or 24 readings per day. However, not always received all readings because the system requires satellites passing over the buoy antenna to complete the transfer and due to the satellite constellation position, some locations inland are not met as often as necessary to complete all transmissions. This is the more often causes for lack in the time series.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    This basic Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) documents and analyzes information on the volume and structure of Liberia's past public expenditure on the agriculture sector and draws conclusions that can provide an orientation for future policies in view of the effectiveness of spending. The AgPER's focus is on the sectors of agriculture, including crops, fisheries, and forestry, in line with the New Partnership for African Development's (NEPAD) definition of the sectors of focus. This is in accordance with the Maputo Declaration and its target that governments devote ten percent of public expenditure for agricultural development with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction.

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