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15,866 Research products, page 1 of 1,587

  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    Special Program for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR) was established in 1985 to foster collaboration in agricultural research and development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) between donor organizations and African agricultural research systems. It also sought to enable Africa to benefit from the accumulated knowledge of global agricultural research and technology generation and transfer. The SPAAR membership consists of twenty-three donor organizations, comprising of bilateral and multilateral donors, international, autonomous and regional agencies. Its Secretariat is housed in the World Bank. In 1994, SPAAR donors decided to open SPAAR membership to all the national agricultural research systems (NARSs) in SSA.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mogaka, Hezron; Gichere, Samuel; Davis, Richard; Hirji, Rafik;
    Publisher: Washington, DC: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This report attempts to fill that gap for two of the most important water-related issues facing the effects of climate variability and the steady degradation of the nation's water resources. The study reported here concluded that the El Niño-La Niña episode from 1997-2000 cost the country Ksh 290 billion (about 14 percent of GDP during that period). During El Niño-induced floods, this cost primarily arises from destruction of infrastructure such as roads, water supply infrastructure, and pipe networks. The largest costs incurred during the La Niña droughts (1998-2000) were from loss of industrial production and other costs arising from reduced hydropower generation, as well as from crop and livestock losses. These costs are felt throughout Kenyan society.

  • Other research product . 1941
    Open Access
    Publisher: Virginia Tech
    Country: United States

    View of broken rows in tobacco field which broke terrace shown in background and caused severe erosion and silting below. Danville W-III.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Finnish
    Authors: 
    Haikonen, Joona;
    Country: Finland

    Tutkimuksen tarkoitus on selvittää teollisuus 4.0:n vaikutuksia autoteollisuuteen ja perehtyä sen luomaan lisäarvoon yrityksille. Tutkimus on toteutettu kirjallisuuskatsauksena ja materiaali on autoteollisuuteen sekä teollisuus 4.0:aan pohjautuvaa. Nykyisessä digitaalisessa maailmassa autoteollisuus on murroksessa. Tämä muutos, jota kutsutaan nimellä teollisuus 4.0 johtuu siitä, että ajoneuvojen valmistus ja yritystoiminta yleisesti on tullut yhä riippuvaisemmaksi digitaalisesta teknologiasta. Teollisuus 4.0:n lupaus autonvalmistajille merkitsee uusia toimintamalleja, tuotantomenetelmiä ja parannuksia tehokkuuteen, jos ne pystyvät määrittelemään uudelleen toimintatapansa. Uusiin digitaalisiin ja fyysisiin teknologioihin, teollisuus 4.0:aan, liittyy haasteita, mutta oikealla lähestymistavalla teollisuus 4.0:n mahdollisuudet ovat merkittäviä. Autoteollisuuden jo nyt korkea automaatioaste ja nopea uusien teknologioiden käyttöönotto luo hyvän pohjan teollisuus 4.0:lle, jossa järjestelmät, verkot ja muut laitteet ovat jatkuvasti vuorovaikutuksessa keskenään. The aim of the study is to explore the impact of Industry 4.0 on the automotive industry and the added value it will bring to businesses. The study has been carried out as a literature review and the material is based on the automotive industry and Industry 4.0. In today's digital world, the automotive industry is in a state of transformation. This transformation, known as Industry 4.0 is driven by the fact that vehicle manufacturing and busi-ness in general has become increasingly dependent on digital technology. The promise of Industry 4.0 for vehicle manufacturers means new operating models, production methods and efficiency improvements if they can redefine the way they operate. The new digital and physical technologies, Industry 4.0, present challenges, but with the right approach the possibilities of Industry 4.0 are significant. The already high level of automation and rapid adoption of new technologies in the automotive industry provides a good basis for Industry 4.0, where systems, networks and other devices are constantly interacting.

  • Other research product . 1958
    Open Access
    Publisher: Virginia Tech
    Country: United States

    FWI stage recorder

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Motuzaitė-Matuzevičiūtė, Giedrė;

    2005-2006 metais trys kernai buvo paimti iš bronzos amžiaus pabaigos - geležies amžiaus pradžios Luoke-sų I ežerinės gyvenvietės, kuri šiuo metu yra 1,5-2 m gylyje. Šiuose gyvenvietės stratigrafiją rodančiuose kernuose buvo nustatytas magnetinis imlumas, kaitinimo nuostoliai, dalelių dydis ir mikromorfologija. Šių tyrimų pagrindinis tikslas buvo atsakyti į klausimus: koks buvo vandens lygis Luokesų I gyvenvietės egzistavimo metu? Ar ši gyvenvietė buvo pastatyta virš vandens? Kokią įtaką Luokesų I gyvenvietės pastatų tipo nustatymui gali daryti žinios apie tuometinį vandens lygį. Atlikti tyrimai parodė, kad Luokesų I gyvenvietė buvo statyta ant nedidelės salelės, susidariusios nusekus ežerui. Tai, kad gyvenvietės teritorijoje buvo sausuma, parodė mikromorfologiniuose šlifuose aptikti dirvožemio faunos (sliekų, dirvožemio erkių) veiklos pėdsakai ir ryški organikos oksidacija, aiškiai matoma per visą Luokesų I gyvenvietės stratigrafinį pjūvį, bei organikos in situ degimo žymės. Šie požymiai nuosėdose galėjo susidaryti tik sausumoje, deguonies aplinkoje. Periodiškai saloje buvo gan drėgna, todėl Luokesų gyventojai ją tvirtino smėliu, atsineštais rieduliais ir medinėmis konstrukcijomis. Pastatai gyvenvietėje galėjo stovėti ant grotelinės konstrukcijos pagrindo, šiek tiek pakelto virš žemės paviršiaus. Lake dwellings are a well-known phenomenon in European prehistory. Two submerged sites in Lake Luokesai (Luokesai I and Luokesai II) are the only known lake dwellings from the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Lithuania. Soil analysis methods aimed to answer some crucial questions connected with Lake Luokesai's inhabitants during the period of the occupation of Luokesai I.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Speakman, John; Rysova, Annoula;
    Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC
    Country: United States

    This report is part of a broader effort by the World Bank Group to understand the motives and challenges of small entrepreneurs in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). The report's key finding is that, compared to entrepreneurs elsewhere, entrepreneurs in FCS have different characteristics, face significantly different challenges, and thus may be subject to different incentives and have different motives. Therefore, it is recommended that both the current analytical approach and the operational strategy of the World Bank be informed by the findings that follow. The publication is organized in the following manner: (i) Overview of the Entrepreneur's Challenges in FCS; (ii) Observations of FCS Firms, Sectors, and Business Environments; (iii) Implications of findings; and (iv) Conclusions and Recommendations. Included are also appendices, boxes, figures, and tables.

  • Other research product . 2013
    English
    Authors: 
    Laurie BOITHIAS;
    Publisher: Long-Term Ecosystem Research in Europe

    Dong Cao is a small agricultural catchment (47 ha) of northern Vietnam, located at 70 km from Hanoi, in a sloping land environment. The objective is to monitor the impacts of land use changes (from cassava to fodder and tree plantations) and possible climate changes upon hydrological and sedimentary fluxes and budgets. The catchment has an elevation of 125 m to 485 m and slopes range from 15 to 120%. Monitoring devices include an automatic meteorological station, and weirs to monitor discharge, suspended sediment and bedload. More information is available on https://mtropics.obs-mip.fr/ and in the following paper: Valentin, C., et al., 2008. Runoff and sediment losses from 27 upland catchments in Southeast Asia: Impact of rapid land use changes and conservation practices. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 128, 225–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.06.004

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    World Bank;
    Publisher: World Bank
    Country: United States

    This is the second part of land studies on Northern Uganda designed to inform the Peace, Recovery and Development Plan (PRDP). This second part of the study, undertaken during the second half of 2007 in the Lango and Acholi regions, builds on the first phase conducted in 2006 in the Teso region. This second study has been designed to present a more quantitative analysis of trends on disputes and claims on land before displacement, during displacement and on return of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the greater conflict areas of Acholi and Lango regions. The study found that the return from IDP camps to original homes was progressing with varied results tied to the length of time spent in the camps, from 5 to 15 years. About 85 percent of the respondents had experienced threats to tenure security, and many felt these threats were significant. Misgivings exist about the Central Government's intentions towards land. Disputes mainly occurred on land abandoned upon displacement, with border disputes being the most prevalent. The study also looked into land administration, land titling and registration, extremely vulnerable individuals, and legal loopholes. It gives several recommendations, both immediate and long term actions, which can be incorporated and implemented as part of the PRDP.

  • Open Access
    Publisher: Virginia Tech
    Country: United States

    Toledo scales used for rapid weighting of soil and plan samples where quick weights are essential. This instrument weighs to the closest gram and can be easily interpolated to the nearest 1/2 gram. Soil and Water Conservation Laboratory, Seitz Hall.