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136 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lucquin, Alexandre; Robson, Harry K.; Oras, Ester; Lundy, Jasmine; +26 Authors

    To investigate changes in culinary practices associated with the arrival of farming, we analysed the organic residues of over 1,000 pottery vessels from hunter-gatherer-fisher and early agricultural sites across Northern Europe from the Lower Rhine Basin to the Northeastern Baltic. Here, pottery was widely used by hunter-gatherer-fishers prior to the introduction of domesticated animals and plants. Overall, there was surprising continuity in the way that hunter-gatherer-fishers and farmers used pottery. Both aquatic products and wild plants remained prevalent, a pattern repeated consistently across the study area. We argue that the rapid adaptation of farming communities to exploit coastal and lagoonal resources facilitated their northerly expansion, and in some cases, hunting, gathering, and fishing became the most dominant subsistence strategy. Nevertheless, dairy products frequently appear in pottery associated with the earliest farming groups often mixed with wild plants and fish. Interestingly, we also find compelling evidence of dairy products in hunter-gatherer-fisher Ertebølle pottery, which predates the arrival of domesticated animals. We propose that Ertebølle hunter-gatherer-fishers frequently acquired dairy products through exchange with adjacent farming communities prior to the transition. The continuity observed in pottery use across the transition to farming contrasts with the analysis of human remains which shows substantial demographic change through ancient DNA and, in some cases, a reduction in marine consumption through stable isotope analysis. We postulate that farmers acquired the knowledge and skills they needed to succeed from local hunter-gatherer-fishers but without substantial admixture.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Chas-Amil, María-Luisa; Aquilué, Núria; Sil, Ângelo; +3 Authors

    In southern Europe, land abandonment and an unbalanced investment toward fire suppression instead of pre-vention has gradually increased wildfire risk, which calls for a paradigm change in fire management policies. Here we combined scenario analysis, fire landscape modelling, and economic tools to identify which land-use policies would reduce the expected wildfire-related losses in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve 'Geres-Xure ' s' (Spain-Portugal). To do so, we applied the least-cost-plus-net-value-change approach and estimated net changes in wildfire damages based on their implications for the 2010-2050 period and five ecosystem services: agriculture, pasture, timber, recreation and climate regulation. Four land-use scenarios were considered: (1) Business as Usual (BAU); (2) fire-smart, fostering more fire-resistant (less flammable) and/or fire-resilient landscapes (fire-smart); (3) High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf), wherein the abandonment of extensive agri-culture is reversed; and (4) a combination of HNVf and fire-smart. HNVf is the best scenario for suppression cost savings, but it generates the lowest net present value of societal benefits from climate regulation. In fact, the most efficient scenario with the lowest societal discounted net suppression costs and change on ecosystem services damages is the HNVf + fire-smart scenario, as it also generates suppression cost savings from agricultural expansion, and lead to a significant reduction in damages on timber and recreational benefits. Therefore, reverting land abandonment through recultivation and promoting fire-resistant tree species is the most efficient way to reduce wildfire hazard. In this sense, payments for ecosystem services should reward farmers and landowners for their role in wildfire prevention. This study improves the understanding of the financial and societal benefits derived from reducing fire suppression spending and ecosystem services damage by undertaking fire-smart land-use strategies, which can be essential to enhance local stakeholders' support for Payments of Ecosystem Services policies for wildfire prevention. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biblioteca Digital d...arrow_drop_down
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    Biblioteca Digital do IPB
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
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    MediaTUM
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: MediaTUM
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    Journal of Environmental Management
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biblioteca Digital d...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biblioteca Digital do IPB
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MediaTUM
      Article . 2022
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      Journal of Environmental Management
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Breaugh, Jessica; Rackwitz, Maike; Hammerschmid, Gerhard; Nõmmik, Steven; +5 Authors

    This research deconstructs complexity as a key challenge of intergovernmental digitalisation projects. While much of the literature acknowledges that the fundamental restructuring coupled with technical capacity that these joint projects require leads to increased complexity, little is known about how different types of complexity interact within the collaborative process. Using established concepts of substantive, strategic, and institutional complexity, we apply complexity theory in collaborative digital environments. To do so, eight digital projects are analysed that differ by state structure and government level. Using a cross-case design with 50 semi-structured expert interviews, we find that each digitalisation project exhibits all types of complexity and that these complexities overlap. However, clear differences emerge between national and local level projects, suggesting that complexity in digitalisation processes presents different challenges for collaborative digitalisation projects across contexts. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This paper is funded under the TROPICO (Transforming into Open, Innovative and Collaborative Governments), www.tropico-project.eu. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 726840.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2023
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Public Policy and Administration
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Public Policy and Administration
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: SAGE TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Uusõue, Mirjam;

    Clean water is necessary for all living organisms, but human activities and climate change have deteriorated water quality in many regions. It is important to monitor water bodies to take the necessary measures. Conventional contact measurements have been carried out for decades. However, they are time-consuming and expensive and can cover only a small number of water bodies. This is insufficient as changes in waterbodies are often rapid and occur over large areas. Remote sensing methods have been introduced to fill these gaps in temporal and spatial coverage. On the other hand, there is a need to study parameters that impact the formation of water-leaving signal in order to increase the accuracy of remote sensing products. One such substance that requires further investigation is suspended particulate matter. It consists of mineral and organic particles suspended in the water column due to natural processes (waves, erosion, river transport) and human activities (trawling, dredging, construction). The high content of suspended particles increases the water turbidity, consequently reducing the light availability. In turn, this worsens aquatic organisms' living conditions and alters physical processes (like radiative heating) in the water environment. Suspended particles can contain harmful substances such as organic pollutants and heavy metals. We studied the behaviour of heavy metal-rich sediments in Portman Bay (one of the most polluted areas of the Mediterranean), in southern Spain, after trawling the sea bottom. Coarse and heavy particles and flocs settled quickly. Fine particles remained in suspension for a longer time. Therefore, the content of heavy metals in the water increased. From an optical point of view, the suspended particles mainly scatter light. The optical properties of suspended particles (light absorption, scattering, backscattering/scattering ratio) were studied in several Estonian coastal areas. The backscattering ratio, which is used as a constant in bio-optical remote sensing algorithms, was highly variable, depending on the conditions (algal bloom, storm). Such variability was also observed for other optical properties. It was found that small particles resuspended by a storm aggregated into larger flocs (> 30 μm), affecting the particles' optical properties in the Pärnu Bay, which has very low salinity and little organic content. This study shows that using an assumption that the backscattering ratio is a fixed constant reduces the accuracy of remote sensing products. Puhas vesi on eluks vajalik kõikidele elusolenditele, kuid inimtegevuse ja kliimamuutuste mõjul on paljudes piirkondades veekvaliteet halvenenud. Veekogude seisundi hindamiseks ja vajalike meetmete kasutusele võtmiseks, on tarvis neid seirata. Aastakümneid on tehtud kontaktmõõtmisi, kuid need on ajakulukad ja kallid ning nendega on keeruline jälgida kiireid muutusi suurtel aladel. Viimastel aastakümnetel on kasutusele võetud kaugseire meetodid, mis võimaldavad neid puudujääke täita. Selleks, et mõista mida kaugseire instrument mõõdab on vaja teada parameetreid, mis kaugseire signaali ja selle interpreteerimist mõjutavad. Üheks selliseks aineks on heljum. Heljum koosneb veemassis hõljuvatest mineraalsetest (setted) ja orgaanilistest osakestest ja see jõuab veemassi looduslike protsesside (lainetus, erosioon, jõgede transport) ja inimtegevuse (traalimine, süvendamine, ehitamine) tagajärjel. Kõrge heljumi sisaldus veemassis muudab vee häguseks, mõjutades valguse jõudmist sügavamatesse veekihtidesse, mis omakorda halvendab vee, kui elukeskkonna seisundit. Heljum võib sisaldada kahjulikke aineid, nagu orgaanilised saasteained ja raskemetallid. Seetõttu uurisime Portmani lahes (Vahemere üks reostatumaid alasid), Lõuna-Hispaanias põhjasetteid, milles on kõrge raskemetallide sisaldus, ning kuidas need setted jõuavad veesambasse traalimise mõjul. Suured osakesed settisid kiiresti. Väikesed osakesed, millega liitusid raskemetallid, jäid veemassi pikemaks ajaks. Seetõttu raskemetallide sisaldus vees tõusis. Eesti rannikualadel uuriti heljumi optilisi omadusi (valguse neeldumist, hajumist, tagasihajumise/hajumise suhet). Leiti, et tagasihajumise/hajumise suhe, mida kasutatakse bio-optilistes kaugseire algoritmides konstandina on tegelikult väga muutlik ning sõltub hetke tingimustest (vetikaõitseng, torm). Sellist varieeruvust täheldati ka muude optiliste omadustega seoses. Leiti, et väga väikese soolsuse ja vähese orgaanika sisaldusega Pärnu lahes agregeerisid väikesed tormi mõjul veemassi keerutatud osakesed suuremateks osakesteks (> 30 μm) mõjutades vee optilisi omadusi ning seega ka kaugseire signaali. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5553931

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at Tartu Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Merit Sutri; Merrit Shanskiy; Mari Ivask; Endla Reintam;

    Soil quality indicates the soil’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Reducing the tillage intensity has been suggested as an alternative to conventional tillage for sustaining soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil tillage systems on individual soil quality indicators in comparison to those on grassland with Stagnic Luvisol soil in Estonia. Four soil management systems were compared: no-tillage (NT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and grassland (G) as a reference. Soil quality indicators included physical (bulk density, water-stable aggregates, porosity, air-filled pores, moisture content, water-holding capacity, penetration resistance and water permeability), chemical (total N, total soil organic C, permanganate oxidisable C, pH, P, K, Ca and Mg) and biological (earthworm abundance) parameters. CT soils had a significantly lower aggregate stability compared to MT and G soils. The higher penetration resistance of CT under an arable layer suggested the presence of a plough pan. NT improved the soil’s physical quality at 5–10 cm, which was indicated by higher moisture content, water-holding capacity and porosity and a lower bulk density, whereas penetration resistance exceeded 2 MPa in the lower part of the topsoil. NT also had significantly lower total soil organic C and total N compared to MT and G. The absence of tillage in the NT and G systems may have improved the soil’s resistance to moisture loss under dry conditions, which, in turn, improved the soil habitability for earthworms a despite higher density. In general, NT or MT stabilised or increased the soil quality compared to CT.

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    Agriculture
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Agriculture
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Thouverai, Elisa; Marcantonio, Matteo; Lenoir, Jonathan; Galfré, Mariasole; +20 Authors

    Spatio-ecological heterogeneity is strongly linked to many ecological processes and functions such as plant species diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, and gene flow. Remote sensing is particularly useful for measuring spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems over wide regions with repeated measurements in space and time. Besides, developing free and open source algorithms for ecological modelling from space is vital to allow to prove workflows of analysis reproducible. From this point of view, NASA developed programs like the Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) to support the development of algorithms for exploiting spaceborne remotely sensed data to provide a relatively fast but accurate estimate of ecological properties in vast areas over time. Most of the indices to measure heterogeneity from space are point descriptors : they catch only part of the whole heterogeneity spectrum. Under the SBG umbrella, in this paper we provide a new R function part of the rasterdiv R package which allows to calculate spatio-ecological heterogeneity and its variation over time by considering all its possible facets. The new function was tested on two different case studies, on multi- and hyperspectral images, proving to be an effective tool to measure heterogeneity and detect its changes over time.

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    ZENODO
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    ZENODO
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    ZENODO
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    Ecological Complexity
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ecological Complexity
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    Authors: Greaves, C; Crivellaro, A; Piermattei, A; Krusic, PJ; +7 Authors

    Abstract Key message An exceptionally high number of blue rings were formed within and between Scots pine trees from Estonia in 1976: a year that is well known for its outstanding summer heatwave over Western Europe, but its extreme autumnal cooling over Eastern Europe has so far been neglected in scientific literature. Abstract ‘Blue rings’ (BRs) are visual indicators of less lignified cell walls typically formed towards the end of a tree’s growing season. Though BRs have been associated with ephemeral surface cooling, often following large volcanic eruptions, the intensity of cold spells necessary to produce BRs, as well as the consistency of their formation within and between trees still remains uncertain. Here, we report an exceptionally high BR occurrence within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees at two sites in Estonia, including the first published whole-stem analysis for BRs. Daily meteorological measurements from a nearby station allowed us to investigate the role temperature has played in BR formation since the beginning of the twentieth century. The single year in which BRs were consistently formed within and amongst most trees was 1976. While the summer of 1976 is well known for an exceptional heatwave in Northwest Europe, mean September and October temperatures were remarkably low over Eastern Europe, and 3.8 °C below the 1961–1990 mean at our sites. Our findings contribute to a better eco-physiological interpretation of BRs, and further demonstrate their ability to reveal ephemeral cooling not captured by dendrochronological ring width and latewood density measurements. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (project SF0170014s08), Estonian Science Foundation (Grant 8890), Järvseja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Estonian Environmental Investment Centre, Estonian University of Life Sciences ASTRA project “Value-chain based bio-economy” (supported by the European Union, European Regional Development Fund). CG received funding from Natural Environment Research Council—United Kingdom Research and Innovation. UB received funding from the SustES project—Adaptation strategies for sustainable ecosystem services and food security under adverse environmental conditions (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000797), and the ERC Advanced project Monostar (AdG 882727). S.M received funding from the Estonian University of Life Sciences project P200189MIMP. Funder: Natural Environment Research Council; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270 Funder: European Regional Development Fund Funder: European Union

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    Trees
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Apollo
    Article . 2023
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      Trees
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      Apollo
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      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Guillaume Debaene; Aleksandra Ukalska-Jaruga; Bożena Smreczak; Ewa Papierowska;

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS) is a fast and simple method increasingly used in soil science. This study aimed to investigate VIS-NIRS applicability to predict soil black carbon (BC) content and the method’s suitability for rapid BC-level screening. Forty-three soil samples were collected in an agricultural area remaining under strong industrial impact. Soil texture, pH, total nitrogen (Ntot) and total carbon (Ctot), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM), and BC were analyzed. Samples were divided into three classes according to BC content (low, medium, and high BC content) and scanned in the 350–2500 nm range. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to develop prediction models of soil properties. Partial least-square with SVM (PLS-SVM) was used to classify samples for screening purposes. Prediction models of soil properties were at best satisfactory (Ntot: R2 = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.59 g kg−1, RPIQ = 0.65), due to large kurtosis and data skewness. The RMSECV were large (16.86 g kg−1 for SOC), presumably due to the limited number of samples available and the wide data spread. Given our results, the VIS-NIRS method seems efficient for classifying soil samples from an industrialized area according to BC content level (training accuracy of 77% and validation accuracy of 81%).

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    Molecules
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Molecules
    Article . 2022
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      Molecules
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      Molecules
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Rocchini, Duccio; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Féret, Jean‐Baptiste; +26 Authors

    Biodiversity monitoring is an almost inconceivable challenge at the scale of the entire Earth. The current (and soon to be flown) generation of spaceborne and airborne optical sensors (i.e., imaging spectrometers) can collect detailed information at unprecedented spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. These new data streams are preceded by a revolution in modeling and analytics that can utilize the richness of these datasets to measure a wide range of plant traits, community composition, and ecosystem functions. At the heart of this framework for monitoring plant biodiversity is the idea of remotely identifying species by making use of the 'spectral species' concept. In theory, the spectral species concept can be defined as a species characterized by a unique spectral signature and thus remotely detectable within pixel units of a spectral image. In reality, depending on spatial resolution, pixels may contain several species which renders species-specific assignment of spectral information more challenging. The aim of this paper is to review the spectral species concept and relate it to underlying ecological principles, while also discussing the complexities, challenges and opportunities to apply this concept given current and future scientific advances in remote sensing. Plain Language Summary Biodiversity monitoring based on field data is almost inconceivable at the scale of the entire Earth. Over the past decades, remote sensing has opened possibilities for Earth observation from air and space, allowing us to monitor ecological change, primarily expressed by changes in vegetation cover, distribution, and functioning, which can be subsequently linked to drivers of change in space and time, from local to global scale. Recently, the spectral species concept—an algorithm that clusterizes pixels from spectral images having a similar spectral signal (referred to as ‘spectral species’)—has brought attention. The aim of this paper is to review the ecological functioning principles of the spectral species concept and to refine its definition by a better linkage with field observations of plant species distribution data (i.e., presence-absence data) available from vegetation surveys. Key Points • Remote sensing has opened possibilities for Earth observation from air and space, allowing us to monitor ecological change • Biodiversity monitoring based on field data is almost inconceivable at the scale of the entire Earth • The spectral species concept, relating field to remotely sensed data, can open new ways to measure diversity from space

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2022
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    KITopen
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maksimova, Mariia; Alishani, Art; Solvak, Mihkel; Krimmer, Robert;

    As interest in the digital transformation of public administration grows, the main challenge remains to improve government governance systems and integrate a wider range of evidence into decisionmaking processes. The successful digitalization and application of such approaches improves the quality, responsiveness and flexibility of public administrations. The digialtization of processes has made it possible to use micro-level data to assess the impact of a policy or program and apply the feedback to improve the design and delivery of public services. Evidence-based policy-making evaluates programs based on their visible impacts. Large-scale data collected through digitized governance, coupled with econometric impact assessment, provides an ideal working toolkit for this. However, the current situation of European governments is one of slow adoption, as they are often slow to respond to new challenges. This is due to the static one-off impact assessment approaches used, the results of which quickly become outdated. With further digitalization, improvement of systems, and a rapidly changing situation, there is a need to speed up institutions’ ability to quickly draw working solutions to offset the effects of unexpected events in society and economy and react without delays if policy effects dissipate. This paper demonstrates how a high level of digitalization in government allows addressing such issues by automating causal impact assessment and making it a continuous part of the service delivery. The use case is an automated system for assessing active labour market policies in Estonia using individual-level data from government digital registers. Building on this, it shows how impact assessment automation depends on automatically generated data, only available due to the digitalization of other public services, and how versatile it is when it comes to proving casual evidence in a suddenly changing environment.

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    DSpace at Tartu University Library
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY NC ND
    https://doi.org/10.1145/354343...
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lucquin, Alexandre; Robson, Harry K.; Oras, Ester; Lundy, Jasmine; +26 Authors

    To investigate changes in culinary practices associated with the arrival of farming, we analysed the organic residues of over 1,000 pottery vessels from hunter-gatherer-fisher and early agricultural sites across Northern Europe from the Lower Rhine Basin to the Northeastern Baltic. Here, pottery was widely used by hunter-gatherer-fishers prior to the introduction of domesticated animals and plants. Overall, there was surprising continuity in the way that hunter-gatherer-fishers and farmers used pottery. Both aquatic products and wild plants remained prevalent, a pattern repeated consistently across the study area. We argue that the rapid adaptation of farming communities to exploit coastal and lagoonal resources facilitated their northerly expansion, and in some cases, hunting, gathering, and fishing became the most dominant subsistence strategy. Nevertheless, dairy products frequently appear in pottery associated with the earliest farming groups often mixed with wild plants and fish. Interestingly, we also find compelling evidence of dairy products in hunter-gatherer-fisher Ertebølle pottery, which predates the arrival of domesticated animals. We propose that Ertebølle hunter-gatherer-fishers frequently acquired dairy products through exchange with adjacent farming communities prior to the transition. The continuity observed in pottery use across the transition to farming contrasts with the analysis of human remains which shows substantial demographic change through ancient DNA and, in some cases, a reduction in marine consumption through stable isotope analysis. We postulate that farmers acquired the knowledge and skills they needed to succeed from local hunter-gatherer-fishers but without substantial admixture.

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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