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215 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kärhä, Kalle; Seuri, Milla; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Acuna, Mauricio; +38 Authors

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of global long-distance road transportation of industrial roundwood. The study focused on the maximum gross vehicle weight (GVW) limits allowed with different timber truck configurations, typical payloads in timber trucking, the road transportation share of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume, and the average long-distance transportation distances and costs of industrial roundwood. The study was carried out as a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to timber transportation logistics experts and research scientists in the 30 countries with the largest industrial roundwood removals in Europe, as well as selected major forestry countries in the world (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Türkiye, the United States of America and Uruguay) in February 2022, and closed in May 2022. A total of 31 countries took part in the survey. The survey illustrated that timber trucking was the main long-distance transportation method of industrial roundwood in almost every country surveyed. Road transportation averaged 89% of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume. Timber truck configurations of 4 to 9 axles with GVW limits of around 30 tonnes to over 70 tonnes were most commonly used. The results indicated that higher GVW limits allowed significantly higher payloads in timber trucking, with the lowest payloads at less than 25 tonnes, and the highest payloads more than 45 tonnes. The average road transportation distance with industrial roundwood was 128 km, and the average long-distance transportation cost in timber trucking was €11.1 per tonne of timber transported. In the entire survey material, there was a direct relationship between transportation distance and transportation costs and an inverse relationship between maximum GVW limits and transportation costs. Consequently, in order to reduce transportation costs, it is essential to maximise payloads (within legal limits) and minimise haul distances. Several measures to increase cost- and energy-efficiency, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in road transportation logistics, are discussed in the paper. On the basis of the survey, it is recommended that up-to-date statistical data and novel research studies on the long-distance transportation of industrial roundwood be conducted in some countries in the future.

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    Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mikko Buht; Allar Padari; Jürgen Aosaar; Mats Varik; +6 Authors

    The values of the fractional distribution of aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), root/shoot ratios (R/S) and stemwood density were estimated for silver (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) along site index and age gradients for Estonia. Biomass models were used, in which the diameter at breast height (D1.3, measured above root collar), tree height, age and site index served as independent variables. The models for AGB and BGB were elaborated based on the data of 117 and 30 model trees, respectively. Strong allometric relationships were revealed between D1.3 and total AGB (with foliage), stem mass and BGB. For trees with D1.3 < 15 cm, individual models predicted similar biomass patterns for both species, for larger trees, species-specific models are suggested. The relative share of stem mass in AGB was 80–90% for all site index and age classes, being significantly higher for silver birch. The average relative share of stembark, branches, leaves and the R/S, were significantly higher for downy birch. Mean oven-dry mass stemwood density for silver and downy birch was 0.573 g cm−3, there was no statistically significant difference between the species. The mean R/S ratio was 0.29 and 0.43 for silver and downy birch, respectively.

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    Other literature type . 2023
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    Other literature type . 2023
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    Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Other literature type . 2023
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      Other literature type . 2023
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      Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Suzanne Higgins; Saskia D. Keesstra; Žydrė Kadziuliene; Lionel Jordan‐Meille; +41 Authors

    AbstractThe European Commission has set targets for a reduction in nutrient losses by at least 50% and a reduction in fertiliser use by at least 20% by 2030 while ensuring no deterioration in soil fertility. Within the mandate of the European Joint Programme EJP Soil ‘Towards climate‐smart sustainable management of agricultural soils’, the objective of this study was to assess current fertilisation practices across Europe and discuss the potential for harmonisation of fertilisation methodologies as a strategy to reduce nutrient loss and overall fertiliser use. A stocktake study of current methods of delivering fertilisation advice took place across 23 European countries. The stocktake was in the form of a questionnaire, comprising 46 questions. Information was gathered on a large range of factors, including soil analysis methods, along with soil, crop and climatic factors taken into consideration within fertilisation calculations. The questionnaire was completed by experts, who are involved in compiling fertilisation recommendations within their country. Substantial differences exist in the content, format and delivery of fertilisation guidelines across Europe. The barriers, constraints and potential benefits of a harmonised approach to fertilisation across Europe are discussed. The general consensus from all participating countries was that harmonisation of fertilisation guidelines should be increased, but it was unclear in what format this could be achieved. Shared learning in the delivery and format of fertilisation guidelines and mechanisms to adhere to environmental legislation were viewed as being beneficial. However, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to harmonise all soil test data and fertilisation methodologies at EU level due to diverse soil types and agro‐ecosystem influences. Nevertheless, increased future collaboration, especially between neighbouring countries within the same environmental zone, was seen as potentially very beneficial. This study is unique in providing current detail on fertilisation practices across European countries in a side‐by‐side comparison. The gathered data can provide a baseline for the development of scientifically based EU policy targets for nutrient loss and soil fertility evaluation.

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    dCOBISS.SI Digital Repository
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      dCOBISS.SI Digital Repository
      Article . 2023
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      Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Banoth Ravi; Blesson Varghese; Ilir Murturi; Praveen Kumar Donta; +3 Authors

    Funding: This work is partially supported by SERB, India, through grant CRG/2021/003888. We also thank financial support to UoH-IoE by MHRD, India (F11/9/2019-U3(A)). Digital twins and the Internet of Things (IoT) have gained significant research attention in recent years due to their potential advantages in various domains, and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are one such application. VANETs can provide a wide range of services for passengers and drivers, including safety, convenience, and information. The dynamic nature of these environments poses several challenges, including intermittent connectivity, quality of service (QoS), and heterogeneous applications. Combining intelligent technologies and software-defined networking (SDN) with VANETs (termed intelligent software-defined vehicular networks (iSDVNs)) meets these challenges. In this context, several types of research have been published, and we summarize their benefits and limitations. We also aim to survey stochastic modeling and performance analysis for iSDVNs and the uses of machine-learning algorithms through digital twin networks (DTNs), which are also part of iSDVNs. We first present a taxonomy of SDVN architectures based on their modes of operation. Next, we survey and classify the state-of-the-art iSDVN routing protocols, stochastic computations, and resource allocations. The evolution of SDN causes its complexity to increase, posing a significant challenge to efficient network management. Digital twins offer a promising solution to address these challenges. This paper explores the relationship between digital twins and SDN and also proposes a novel approach to improve network management in SDN environments by increasing digital twin capabilities. We analyze the pitfalls of these state-of-the-art iSDVN protocols and compare them using tables. Finally, we summarize several challenges faced by current iSDVNs and possible future directions to make iSDVNs autonomous. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

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    Computers
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Leho Tedersoo; Jaan Sepping; Alexey S. Morgunov; Martin Kiik; +9 Authors

    Societal Impact StatementHumankind is facing both climate and biodiversity crises. This article proposes the foundations of a scheme that offers tradable credits for combined aboveground and soil carbon and biodiversity. Multidiversity—as estimated based on high‐throughput molecular identification of soil meiofauna, fungi, bacteria, protists, plants and other organisms shedding DNA into soil, complemented by acoustic and video analyses of aboveground macrobiota—offers a cost‐effective method that captures much of the terrestrial biodiversity. Such a voluntary crediting system would increase the quality of carbon projects and contribute funding for delivering the Kunming‐Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.SummaryCarbon crediting and land offsets for biodiversity protection have been developed to tackle the challenges of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of global biodiversity. Unfortunately, these two mechanisms are not optimal when considered separately. Focusing solely on carbon capture—the primary goal of most carbon‐focused crediting and offsetting commitments—often results in the establishment of non‐native, fast‐growing monocultures that negatively affect biodiversity and soil‐related ecosystem services. Soil contributes a vast proportion of global biodiversity and contains traces of aboveground organisms. Here, we outline a carbon and biodiversity co‐crediting scheme based on the multi‐kingdom molecular and carbon analyses of soil samples, along with remote sensing estimation of aboveground carbon as well as video and acoustic analyses‐based monitoring of aboveground macroorganisms. Combined, such a co‐crediting scheme could help halt biodiversity loss by incentivising industry and governments to account for biodiversity in carbon sequestration projects more rigorously, explicitly and equitably than they currently do. In most cases, this would help prioritise protection before restoration and help promote more socially and environmentally sustainable land stewardship towards a ‘nature positive’ future.

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    Plants, People, Planet
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    LSE Research Online
    Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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      Plants, People, Planet
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Apollo
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      LSE Research Online
      Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Roberts Matisons; Sandra Metslaid; Maris Hordo; Regino Kask; +3 Authors

    In the eastern Baltic region, the abundance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been predicted to shift due to changes in height growth and competitiveness. Under such conditions, the relationships between tree growth and meteorological/climatic conditions can provide valuable information on the ecological plasticity and adaptability of local populations. Regarding the climatic dependence of productivity and competitiveness, height increment is an informative proxy, although data gathering is laborious. In this study, meteorological sensitivity of the height increment of Scots pine across the climatic gradient of north-eastern Baltic region was assessed by the means of timeseries deconstruction and generalized additive regression. Previously published time series from sites in Latvia, Estonia, and Finland were reanalysed. The local linear weather–growth relationships showed gradual changes in sensitivity to low summer temperature to conditions related to water availability in summer in Finland and the Baltics, respectively. The regional generalization of responses indicated the prevalence of temporary and spatially stationary effects of temperature in winter and summer, which had a complex influence (direct and carry-over effects). The prevailing linearity of the regional responses suggested that, regarding height growth, the studied populations appeared adapted to a wider climatic gradient than the studied one.

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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Valentyna Meshkova; Oleksandr Borysenko; Tetiana Kucheryavenko; Yuriy Skrylnyk; +2 Authors

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a phloem-boring beetle, native to East Asia that has become a serious invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America and European Russia since the early 2000s. In 2019, EAB was detected in Ukraine. It had spread over 300 km from the entry point over two years and killed hundreds of Fraxinus excelsior and F. pennsylvanica trees. EAB poses a threat to the ash forests of neighboring European countries, which have already been damaged by the invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. The purpose of this research was (i) to reveal the traits of EAB and the climatic variables that affect its survival; (ii) to predict the EAB expansion range in Ukraine and westward; and (iii) to compare the most significant bioclimatic variables in the native, invasive ranges of EAB, as well as outside these ranges. The results demonstrated the following: (i) in all ranges, EAB has adapted to the seasonal temperature variations; (ii) the MaxEnt model predicted the potential distribution of EAB with high accuracy (AUC = 0.988); the predicted area of EAB invasion covered 87%, 48%, and 32% in Luhansk, Kharkiv, and Donetsk regions, respectively; and (iii) the ranges of climatic variables in EAB-inhabited regions demonstrated the high ecological plasticity of this pest. However, the predictions could be improved by considering forest structure, as well as the localization of roads.

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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Änäkkälä, M.; Lehtilä, A.; Mäkelä, P.S.A.; Lajunen, A.;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: April 25th, 2023 ; Published: May 10th, 2023 ; Correspondence: mikael.anakkala@helsinki.fi Interest in forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation for livestock feed has grown in northern conditions. In addition, it is important to develop methods and tools to monitor crop development and other characteristics of the crop. For these purposes UAVs are very efficient and versatile tools. UAVs can be equipped with a variety of sensors like lidar or different types of cameras. Several studies have been conducted where data collected by UAVs are used to estimate different crop properties like yield and biomass. In this research, a forage maize field experiment was studied to examine how well the aerial multispectral data correlated with the different properties of the vegetation. The field test site is located in Helsinki, Finland. A multispectral camera (MicaSense Rededge 3) was used to take images from five spectral bands (Red, Green, Blue, Rededge and NIR). All the images were processed with Pix4D software to generate orthomosaic images. Several vegetation indices were calculated from the five spectral bands. During the growing season, crop height, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI), fresh and dry matter biomass were measured from the vegetation. From the five spectral bands, Rededge had the highest correlation with fresh biomass (R2 = 0.273). The highest correlation for a vegetation index was found between NDRE and chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.809). A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using selected spectral bands and vegetation indices as inputs showed high correlations with the field measurements.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Bumbiere, K.; Sereda, S.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D.;

    Received: January 30th, 2023 ; Accepted: April 8th, 2023 ; Published: May 3rd , 2023 ; Correspondence: ketija.bumbiere@rtu.lv Agriculture is one of the most energy-consuming sectors in the EU’s economy. Implementing sustainable agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency through energy management is a crucial strategy to tackle climate change. In this paper, the role of energy management in the agricultural sector is studied, and experiences from Europe and the world have been considered. Literature analysis regarding the chosen topic has been conducted, including the methodology of energy management plan development and its implementation in the case study of Latvia. Data from Latvia’s agricultural and other sectors have been analysed and compared. Latvia’s Inventory Report regarding GHG emissions in the agricultural sector was reviewed, and all emission sources in the agricultural sector were highlighted. The primary purpose of the study is to find out if energy management were introduced in an agricultural company, what would be the potential GHG emission, energy savings and additional advantages. Two companies working in Latvia were surveyed, and potential emission and energy consumption reduction measures in agriculture that would be applied to companies were developed. The research showed that by implementing the basic principles of energy management, it would be possible to reduce the average energy consumption by 17%. If measures are applied to reduce GHG emissions from agricultural companies, the average emissions would be reduced by 43%.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
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    Authors: Merit Sutri; Merrit Shanskiy; Mari Ivask; Endla Reintam;

    Soil quality indicates the soil’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Reducing the tillage intensity has been suggested as an alternative to conventional tillage for sustaining soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil tillage systems on individual soil quality indicators in comparison to those on grassland with Stagnic Luvisol soil in Estonia. Four soil management systems were compared: no-tillage (NT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and grassland (G) as a reference. Soil quality indicators included physical (bulk density, water-stable aggregates, porosity, air-filled pores, moisture content, water-holding capacity, penetration resistance and water permeability), chemical (total N, total soil organic C, permanganate oxidisable C, pH, P, K, Ca and Mg) and biological (earthworm abundance) parameters. CT soils had a significantly lower aggregate stability compared to MT and G soils. The higher penetration resistance of CT under an arable layer suggested the presence of a plough pan. NT improved the soil’s physical quality at 5–10 cm, which was indicated by higher moisture content, water-holding capacity and porosity and a lower bulk density, whereas penetration resistance exceeded 2 MPa in the lower part of the topsoil. NT also had significantly lower total soil organic C and total N compared to MT and G. The absence of tillage in the NT and G systems may have improved the soil’s resistance to moisture loss under dry conditions, which, in turn, improved the soil habitability for earthworms a despite higher density. In general, NT or MT stabilised or increased the soil quality compared to CT.

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    Agriculture
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Agriculture
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kärhä, Kalle; Seuri, Milla; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Acuna, Mauricio; +38 Authors

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of global long-distance road transportation of industrial roundwood. The study focused on the maximum gross vehicle weight (GVW) limits allowed with different timber truck configurations, typical payloads in timber trucking, the road transportation share of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume, and the average long-distance transportation distances and costs of industrial roundwood. The study was carried out as a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to timber transportation logistics experts and research scientists in the 30 countries with the largest industrial roundwood removals in Europe, as well as selected major forestry countries in the world (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Türkiye, the United States of America and Uruguay) in February 2022, and closed in May 2022. A total of 31 countries took part in the survey. The survey illustrated that timber trucking was the main long-distance transportation method of industrial roundwood in almost every country surveyed. Road transportation averaged 89% of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume. Timber truck configurations of 4 to 9 axles with GVW limits of around 30 tonnes to over 70 tonnes were most commonly used. The results indicated that higher GVW limits allowed significantly higher payloads in timber trucking, with the lowest payloads at less than 25 tonnes, and the highest payloads more than 45 tonnes. The average road transportation distance with industrial roundwood was 128 km, and the average long-distance transportation cost in timber trucking was €11.1 per tonne of timber transported. In the entire survey material, there was a direct relationship between transportation distance and transportation costs and an inverse relationship between maximum GVW limits and transportation costs. Consequently, in order to reduce transportation costs, it is essential to maximise payloads (within legal limits) and minimise haul distances. Several measures to increase cost- and energy-efficiency, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in road transportation logistics, are discussed in the paper. On the basis of the survey, it is recommended that up-to-date statistical data and novel research studies on the long-distance transportation of industrial roundwood be conducted in some countries in the future.

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    Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mikko Buht; Allar Padari; Jürgen Aosaar; Mats Varik; +6 Authors

    The values of the fractional distribution of aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), root/shoot ratios (R/S) and stemwood density were estimated for silver (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) along site index and age gradients for Estonia. Biomass models were used, in which the diameter at breast height (D1.3, measured above root collar), tree height, age and site index served as independent variables. The models for AGB and BGB were elaborated based on the data of 117 and 30 model trees, respectively. Strong allometric relationships were revealed between D1.3 and total AGB (with foliage), stem mass and BGB. For trees with D1.3 < 15 cm, individual models predicted similar biomass patterns for both species, for larger trees, species-specific models are suggested. The relative share of stem mass in AGB was 80–90% for all site index and age classes, being significantly higher for silver birch. The average relative share of stembark, branches, leaves and the R/S, were significantly higher for downy birch. Mean oven-dry mass stemwood density for silver and downy birch was 0.573 g cm−3, there was no statistically significant difference between the species. The mean R/S ratio was 0.29 and 0.43 for silver and downy birch, respectively.

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    Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Suzanne Higgins; Saskia D. Keesstra; Žydrė Kadziuliene; Lionel Jordan‐Meille; +41 Authors

    AbstractThe European Commission has set targets for a reduction in nutrient losses by at least 50% and a reduction in fertiliser use by at least 20% by 2030 while ensuring no deterioration in soil fertility. Within the mandate of the European Joint Programme EJP Soil ‘Towards climate‐smart sustainable management of agricultural soils’, the objective of this study was to assess current fertilisation practices across Europe and discuss the potential for harmonisation of fertilisation methodologies as a strategy to reduce nutrient loss and overall fertiliser use. A stocktake study of current methods of delivering fertilisation advice took place across 23 European countries. The stocktake was in the form of a questionnaire, comprising 46 questions. Information was gathered on a large range of factors, including soil analysis methods, along with soil, crop and climatic factors taken into consideration within fertilisation calculations. The questionnaire was completed by experts, who are involved in compiling fertilisation recommendations within their country. Substantial differences exist in the content, format and delivery of fertilisation guidelines across Europe. The barriers, constraints and potential benefits of a harmonised approach to fertilisation across Europe are discussed. The general consensus from all participating countries was that harmonisation of fertilisation guidelines should be increased, but it was unclear in what format this could be achieved. Shared learning in the delivery and format of fertilisation guidelines and mechanisms to adhere to environmental legislation were viewed as being beneficial. However, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to harmonise all soil test data and fertilisation methodologies at EU level due to diverse soil types and agro‐ecosystem influences. Nevertheless, increased future collaboration, especially between neighbouring countries within the same environmental zone, was seen as potentially very beneficial. This study is unique in providing current detail on fertilisation practices across European countries in a side‐by‐side comparison. The gathered data can provide a baseline for the development of scientifically based EU policy targets for nutrient loss and soil fertility evaluation.

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    Article . 2023
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    Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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