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The following results are related to Rural Digital Europe. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2023-2023
  • Open Access
  • Publications
  • EE

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kärhä, Kalle; Seuri, Milla; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Acuna, Mauricio; +38 Authors

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of global long-distance road transportation of industrial roundwood. The study focused on the maximum gross vehicle weight (GVW) limits allowed with different timber truck configurations, typical payloads in timber trucking, the road transportation share of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume, and the average long-distance transportation distances and costs of industrial roundwood. The study was carried out as a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to timber transportation logistics experts and research scientists in the 30 countries with the largest industrial roundwood removals in Europe, as well as selected major forestry countries in the world (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Türkiye, the United States of America and Uruguay) in February 2022, and closed in May 2022. A total of 31 countries took part in the survey. The survey illustrated that timber trucking was the main long-distance transportation method of industrial roundwood in almost every country surveyed. Road transportation averaged 89% of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume. Timber truck configurations of 4 to 9 axles with GVW limits of around 30 tonnes to over 70 tonnes were most commonly used. The results indicated that higher GVW limits allowed significantly higher payloads in timber trucking, with the lowest payloads at less than 25 tonnes, and the highest payloads more than 45 tonnes. The average road transportation distance with industrial roundwood was 128 km, and the average long-distance transportation cost in timber trucking was €11.1 per tonne of timber transported. In the entire survey material, there was a direct relationship between transportation distance and transportation costs and an inverse relationship between maximum GVW limits and transportation costs. Consequently, in order to reduce transportation costs, it is essential to maximise payloads (within legal limits) and minimise haul distances. Several measures to increase cost- and energy-efficiency, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in road transportation logistics, are discussed in the paper. On the basis of the survey, it is recommended that up-to-date statistical data and novel research studies on the long-distance transportation of industrial roundwood be conducted in some countries in the future.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ivars Lusis; Vita Antane; Andres Waldmann;

    This study determined the impact of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs), such as the major and minor udder pathogens (MaPs and MiPs), on the somatic cell count (SCC) in cow milk and investigated the possibilities of indirect sensing of the udder pathogens using the mastitis detection index (MDi) (DeLaval, Tumba, Sweden). The MDi incorporates quarter-level milk electrical conductivity, blood in milk, and milking interval. The case group (n = 21; MDi ≥ 1.4) was compared with the control group (n = 24; MDi < 1.4) for the presence of IMIs. The microbiological investigation of udder quarter foremilk samples was performed two times with an interval of 10 to 14 days. The case and control groups differed in terms of the occurrence of MaPs and MiPs in milk. During the continuous subclinical IMI and the episodic MaP infection, a higher SCC was detected compared with the episodic MiP infection or quarters without IMI. The novel finding of this study was that by using the milk quality sensor for the sensing of subclinical IMIs, there was an indication for the successful detection of episodic MaPs. However, the sensing of the continuous subclinical IMIs was not possible in the current study and still needs to be investigated.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sensorsarrow_drop_down
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    Sensors
    Article . 2023
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    Sensors
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sensors
      Article . 2023
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      Sensors
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Leatrice Talita Rodrigues; Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract Complex mixtures of substances are in the atmosphere and they can cause diseases in humans and biological communities after acute or chronic exposition. This paper focuses on the physical measurement of particulate matter, a proxy for air pollution, and a biological method for mutation assessment due to plants’ exposure to air pollution. The objective of this research was to characterize the air pollution seasonality in municipalities in southern Brazil, and also to understand the relation between air pollution and the biological response of the Tradescantia sp. clone 4430. The optical sensor SDS011 was used for measurements of particulate matter (PM) and the Trad-SHM bioassay was chosen to quantify the mutagenic alterations that occurred in stamen hairs during the study period, with PM data being measured every 5 seconds and the flowers being harvested approximately every two weeks for laboratory analysis. The Pearson test was applied to verify the correlation between PM and mutations in stamen hair as a result of which it was observed that there is a positive correlation between these data, with the highest value found being r = 0.61. Also, the period with the highest occurrence of pink cells was between autumn and spring, the same period in which an unusual increase in PM concentrations was also observed, a period that corresponds to a less favorable dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The use of Tradescantia sp. clone 4430 showed sensitivity to the environments in which it was exposed. Biomonitoring is an important tool for understanding the effects of pollutants on the ecosystem.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mikko Buht; Allar Padari; Jürgen Aosaar; Mats Varik; +6 Authors

    The values of the fractional distribution of aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), root/shoot ratios (R/S) and stemwood density were estimated for silver (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) along site index and age gradients for Estonia. Biomass models were used, in which the diameter at breast height (D1.3, measured above root collar), tree height, age and site index served as independent variables. The models for AGB and BGB were elaborated based on the data of 117 and 30 model trees, respectively. Strong allometric relationships were revealed between D1.3 and total AGB (with foliage), stem mass and BGB. For trees with D1.3 < 15 cm, individual models predicted similar biomass patterns for both species, for larger trees, species-specific models are suggested. The relative share of stem mass in AGB was 80–90% for all site index and age classes, being significantly higher for silver birch. The average relative share of stembark, branches, leaves and the R/S, were significantly higher for downy birch. Mean oven-dry mass stemwood density for silver and downy birch was 0.573 g cm−3, there was no statistically significant difference between the species. The mean R/S ratio was 0.29 and 0.43 for silver and downy birch, respectively.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    License: CC BY
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    Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2023
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      Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Toomas Tamm; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract The carbon and water fluxes and their inter-relations are key aspects of ecosystem dynamics. In this study, regionalization was used in transferring parameters from the GR4J-Cemaneige model calibrated in Reola hydrographic basin to predict daily flows in Kalli basin; both watersheds are located in the southeast of Estonia. Evapotranspiration data was collected from the MODIS sensor of the Terra satellite and from the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR Estonia). Precipitation data was collected from Tartu–Tõravere and SMEAR Estonia stations and river flow from Reola hydrometric station. The year 2011 was used for model warm-up, model calibration was done in 2012–2017 and the 2018–2020 period was used for validation. The GR4J-Cemaneige model was calibrated at Reola Basin, with a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index of 0.73. The 6 constants of Reola subbasin were transferred to Kalli subbasin for river flow simulation. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was measured at the 70 m SMEAR tower with the eddy covariance technique. The balances indicate that the ecosystem at Kalli watershed is slowly becoming a source of carbon and less water is available at the catchment reservoir. NEE has increased from -1.23 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2015 to -0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2020, while the delta water storage decreased from 0.24 mm in 2015 to -0.05 mm in 2020. This behavior may increase soil drying and oxidation, and it will probably release more carbon in the future. This research allows a better understanding of the Järvselja hemi-boreal forest water-carbon dynamics.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Allar Padari; Andres Kiviste; Diana Laarmann; Ahto Kangur;

    Abstract The stand level gross volume increment models are used to estimate the future production of tree stands. Very often, the stand growth and yield in the models used in practice are described by the tree volume increment that includes the diameter growth function with the tree height together with stem taper as the input variables. The currently used function of stand volume increment in Estonia included also stand relative density as an additional input variable. In the current study, we developed a basal area increment function based on the periodic measurement data of the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP). As in the earlier model of stand volume increment developed by Priit Kohava, in the current model the basal area increment of tree species is developed for a pure stand, and for mixed stands, the proportion of the tree species’ basal area is used. The tests in our data indicated that the periodic increment prognosis had good fit in the case of variable share of tree species in the main storey and coincide with the earlier studies by Finnish and Swedish colleagues. The developed model of basal area increment predictions are expectedly higher than the earlier model predictions for the most tree species and stand relative densities.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lucquin, Alexandre; Robson, Harry K.; Oras, Ester; Lundy, Jasmine; +26 Authors

    To investigate changes in culinary practices associated with the arrival of farming, we analysed the organic residues of over 1,000 pottery vessels from hunter-gatherer-fisher and early agricultural sites across Northern Europe from the Lower Rhine Basin to the Northeastern Baltic. Here, pottery was widely used by hunter-gatherer-fishers prior to the introduction of domesticated animals and plants. Overall, there was surprising continuity in the way that hunter-gatherer-fishers and farmers used pottery. Both aquatic products and wild plants remained prevalent, a pattern repeated consistently across the study area. We argue that the rapid adaptation of farming communities to exploit coastal and lagoonal resources facilitated their northerly expansion, and in some cases, hunting, gathering, and fishing became the most dominant subsistence strategy. Nevertheless, dairy products frequently appear in pottery associated with the earliest farming groups often mixed with wild plants and fish. Interestingly, we also find compelling evidence of dairy products in hunter-gatherer-fisher Ertebølle pottery, which predates the arrival of domesticated animals. We propose that Ertebølle hunter-gatherer-fishers frequently acquired dairy products through exchange with adjacent farming communities prior to the transition. The continuity observed in pottery use across the transition to farming contrasts with the analysis of human remains which shows substantial demographic change through ancient DNA and, in some cases, a reduction in marine consumption through stable isotope analysis. We postulate that farmers acquired the knowledge and skills they needed to succeed from local hunter-gatherer-fishers but without substantial admixture.

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    Authors: Idan Kopler; Uri Marchaim; Ildikó E. Tikász; Sebastian Opaliński; +7 Authors

    More efficient livestock production systems are necessary, considering that only 41% of global meat demand will be met by 2050. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis has clearly illustrated the necessity of building sustainable and stable agri-food systems. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) offers the continuous capacity of agriculture to contribute to overall human and animal welfare by providing sufficient goods and services through the application of technical innovations like digitalization. However, adopting new technologies is a challenging issue for farmers, extension services, agri-business and policymakers. We present a review of operational concepts and technological solutions in the pig and poultry sectors, as reflected in 41 and 16 European projects from the last decade, respectively. The European trend of increasing broiler-meat production, which is soon to outpace pork, stresses the need for more outstanding research efforts in the poultry industry. We further present a review of farmers’ attitudes and obstacles to the acceptance of technological solutions in the pig and poultry sectors using examples and lessons learned from recent European projects. Despite the low resonance at the research level, the investigation of farmers’ attitudes and concerns regarding the acceptance of technological solutions in the livestock sector should be incorporated into any technological development.

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    Animals
    Article . 2023
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    Animals
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Animals
      Article . 2023
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      Animals
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Suzanne Higgins; Saskia D. Keesstra; Žydrė Kadziuliene; Lionel Jordan‐Meille; +41 Authors

    AbstractThe European Commission has set targets for a reduction in nutrient losses by at least 50% and a reduction in fertiliser use by at least 20% by 2030 while ensuring no deterioration in soil fertility. Within the mandate of the European Joint Programme EJP Soil ‘Towards climate‐smart sustainable management of agricultural soils’, the objective of this study was to assess current fertilisation practices across Europe and discuss the potential for harmonisation of fertilisation methodologies as a strategy to reduce nutrient loss and overall fertiliser use. A stocktake study of current methods of delivering fertilisation advice took place across 23 European countries. The stocktake was in the form of a questionnaire, comprising 46 questions. Information was gathered on a large range of factors, including soil analysis methods, along with soil, crop and climatic factors taken into consideration within fertilisation calculations. The questionnaire was completed by experts, who are involved in compiling fertilisation recommendations within their country. Substantial differences exist in the content, format and delivery of fertilisation guidelines across Europe. The barriers, constraints and potential benefits of a harmonised approach to fertilisation across Europe are discussed. The general consensus from all participating countries was that harmonisation of fertilisation guidelines should be increased, but it was unclear in what format this could be achieved. Shared learning in the delivery and format of fertilisation guidelines and mechanisms to adhere to environmental legislation were viewed as being beneficial. However, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to harmonise all soil test data and fertilisation methodologies at EU level due to diverse soil types and agro‐ecosystem influences. Nevertheless, increased future collaboration, especially between neighbouring countries within the same environmental zone, was seen as potentially very beneficial. This study is unique in providing current detail on fertilisation practices across European countries in a side‐by‐side comparison. The gathered data can provide a baseline for the development of scientifically based EU policy targets for nutrient loss and soil fertility evaluation.

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    dCOBISS.SI Digital Repository
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      dCOBISS.SI Digital Repository
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      Research@WUR; European Journal of Soil Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Katarina Kyllmar; Marianne Bechmann; Gitte Blicher-Mathiesen; Franziska Katharina Fischer; +5 Authors

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses via agricultural drainage water have negative impacts on receiving water bodies and large-scale programmes to reduce nutrient losses have been established in the Nordic and Baltic countries, together with agricultural catchment monitoring programmes. This study evaluated time series (9–40 years) of data from 34 selected Nordic-Baltic catchments for spatial and temporal variations in area-specific water discharge (mm) and in concentrations and transport of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Water discharge from the catchments varied from 125 mm (Denmark) to > 1000 mm (Norway). Catchments with low TN concentrations (≤3 mg L-1) were dominated by clay or grass leys or were undrained with reduction of nitrate (NO3) in shallow groundwater. Catchments with high TN concentrations (≥10 mg L-1) had loams and cereal crops. TP concentrations were highest (≥0.45 mg L-1) in catchments with erosive soils, relatively high water discharge and cereal crops, and lowest (≤0.07 mg L-1) in catchments with permeable soils. Generalised additive mixed model (GAMM) analysis of time series of transport and flow-weighted concentrations of TN and TP for temporal patterns revealed decreases in TN concentrations in seven catchments and increases in eight, while four had periods with opposing trends. TN concentrations decreased in Denmark and Sweden in 1990–2010, following introduction of mitigation programmes. TP concentrations decreased in eight catchments and increased in six, while one showed opposing trends. Decreases in TP coincided with improved P balance in catchments with sand and loam. To further reduce N and P losses, a tailored set of mitigation measures is needed for each combination of soil, climate, geohydrology and agricultural production. Intensive monitoring of small catchments can reveal how N and P losses relate to natural conditions and to changes in agricultural production.

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    CATENA
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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    NIBIO Brage
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NIBIO Brage
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      CATENA
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref; VIRTA
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      NIBIO Brage
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kärhä, Kalle; Seuri, Milla; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Acuna, Mauricio; +38 Authors

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of global long-distance road transportation of industrial roundwood. The study focused on the maximum gross vehicle weight (GVW) limits allowed with different timber truck configurations, typical payloads in timber trucking, the road transportation share of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume, and the average long-distance transportation distances and costs of industrial roundwood. The study was carried out as a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to timber transportation logistics experts and research scientists in the 30 countries with the largest industrial roundwood removals in Europe, as well as selected major forestry countries in the world (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Türkiye, the United States of America and Uruguay) in February 2022, and closed in May 2022. A total of 31 countries took part in the survey. The survey illustrated that timber trucking was the main long-distance transportation method of industrial roundwood in almost every country surveyed. Road transportation averaged 89% of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume. Timber truck configurations of 4 to 9 axles with GVW limits of around 30 tonnes to over 70 tonnes were most commonly used. The results indicated that higher GVW limits allowed significantly higher payloads in timber trucking, with the lowest payloads at less than 25 tonnes, and the highest payloads more than 45 tonnes. The average road transportation distance with industrial roundwood was 128 km, and the average long-distance transportation cost in timber trucking was €11.1 per tonne of timber transported. In the entire survey material, there was a direct relationship between transportation distance and transportation costs and an inverse relationship between maximum GVW limits and transportation costs. Consequently, in order to reduce transportation costs, it is essential to maximise payloads (within legal limits) and minimise haul distances. Several measures to increase cost- and energy-efficiency, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in road transportation logistics, are discussed in the paper. On the basis of the survey, it is recommended that up-to-date statistical data and novel research studies on the long-distance transportation of industrial roundwood be conducted in some countries in the future.

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    Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ivars Lusis; Vita Antane; Andres Waldmann;

    This study determined the impact of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs), such as the major and minor udder pathogens (MaPs and MiPs), on the somatic cell count (SCC) in cow milk and investigated the possibilities of indirect sensing of the udder pathogens using the mastitis detection index (MDi) (DeLaval, Tumba, Sweden). The MDi incorporates quarter-level milk electrical conductivity, blood in milk, and milking interval. The case group (n = 21; MDi ≥ 1.4) was compared with the control group (n = 24; MDi < 1.4) for the presence of IMIs. The microbiological investigation of udder quarter foremilk samples was performed two times with an interval of 10 to 14 days. The case and control groups differed in terms of the occurrence of MaPs and MiPs in milk. During the continuous subclinical IMI and the episodic MaP infection, a higher SCC was detected compared with the episodic MiP infection or quarters without IMI. The novel finding of this study was that by using the milk quality sensor for the sensing of subclinical IMIs, there was an indication for the successful detection of episodic MaPs. However, the sensing of the continuous subclinical IMIs was not possible in the current study and still needs to be investigated.

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    Sensors
    Article . 2023
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    Sensors
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sensors
      Article . 2023
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      Sensors
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Leatrice Talita Rodrigues; Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract Complex mixtures of substances are in the atmosphere and they can cause diseases in humans and biological communities after acute or chronic exposition. This paper focuses on the physical measurement of particulate matter, a proxy for air pollution, and a biological method for mutation assessment due to plants’ exposure to air pollution. The objective of this research was to characterize the air pollution seasonality in municipalities in southern Brazil, and also to understand the relation between air pollution and the biological response of the Tradescantia sp. clone 4430. The optical sensor SDS011 was used for measurements of particulate matter (PM) and the Trad-SHM bioassay was chosen to quantify the mutagenic alterations that occurred in stamen hairs during the study period, with PM data being measured every 5 seconds and the flowers being harvested approximately every two weeks for laboratory analysis. The Pearson test was applied to verify the correlation between PM and mutations in stamen hair as a result of which it was observed that there is a positive correlation between these data, with the highest value found being r = 0.61. Also, the period with the highest occurrence of pink cells was between autumn and spring, the same period in which an unusual increase in PM concentrations was also observed, a period that corresponds to a less favorable dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The use of Tradescantia sp. clone 4430 showed sensitivity to the environments in which it was exposed. Biomonitoring is an important tool for understanding the effects of pollutants on the ecosystem.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
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    Authors: Mikko Buht; Allar Padari; Jürgen Aosaar; Mats Varik; +6 Authors

    The values of the fractional distribution of aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), root/shoot ratios (R/S) and stemwood density were estimated for silver (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) along site index and age gradients for Estonia. Biomass models were used, in which the diameter at breast height (D1.3, measured above root collar), tree height, age and site index served as independent variables. The models for AGB and BGB were elaborated based on the data of 117 and 30 model trees, respectively. Strong allometric relationships were revealed between D1.3 and total AGB (with foliage), stem mass and BGB. For trees with D1.3 < 15 cm, individual models predicted similar biomass patterns for both species, for larger trees, species-specific models are suggested. The relative share of stem mass in AGB was 80–90% for all site index and age classes, being significantly higher for silver birch. The average relative share of stembark, branches, leaves and the R/S, were significantly higher for downy birch. Mean oven-dry mass stemwood density for silver and downy birch was 0.573 g cm−3, there was no statistically significant difference between the species. The mean R/S ratio was 0.29 and 0.43 for silver and downy birch, respectively.