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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Uusõue, Mirjam;

    Clean water is necessary for all living organisms, but human activities and climate change have deteriorated water quality in many regions. It is important to monitor water bodies to take the necessary measures. Conventional contact measurements have been carried out for decades. However, they are time-consuming and expensive and can cover only a small number of water bodies. This is insufficient as changes in waterbodies are often rapid and occur over large areas. Remote sensing methods have been introduced to fill these gaps in temporal and spatial coverage. On the other hand, there is a need to study parameters that impact the formation of water-leaving signal in order to increase the accuracy of remote sensing products. One such substance that requires further investigation is suspended particulate matter. It consists of mineral and organic particles suspended in the water column due to natural processes (waves, erosion, river transport) and human activities (trawling, dredging, construction). The high content of suspended particles increases the water turbidity, consequently reducing the light availability. In turn, this worsens aquatic organisms' living conditions and alters physical processes (like radiative heating) in the water environment. Suspended particles can contain harmful substances such as organic pollutants and heavy metals. We studied the behaviour of heavy metal-rich sediments in Portman Bay (one of the most polluted areas of the Mediterranean), in southern Spain, after trawling the sea bottom. Coarse and heavy particles and flocs settled quickly. Fine particles remained in suspension for a longer time. Therefore, the content of heavy metals in the water increased. From an optical point of view, the suspended particles mainly scatter light. The optical properties of suspended particles (light absorption, scattering, backscattering/scattering ratio) were studied in several Estonian coastal areas. The backscattering ratio, which is used as a constant in bio-optical remote sensing algorithms, was highly variable, depending on the conditions (algal bloom, storm). Such variability was also observed for other optical properties. It was found that small particles resuspended by a storm aggregated into larger flocs (> 30 μm), affecting the particles' optical properties in the Pärnu Bay, which has very low salinity and little organic content. This study shows that using an assumption that the backscattering ratio is a fixed constant reduces the accuracy of remote sensing products. Puhas vesi on eluks vajalik kõikidele elusolenditele, kuid inimtegevuse ja kliimamuutuste mõjul on paljudes piirkondades veekvaliteet halvenenud. Veekogude seisundi hindamiseks ja vajalike meetmete kasutusele võtmiseks, on tarvis neid seirata. Aastakümneid on tehtud kontaktmõõtmisi, kuid need on ajakulukad ja kallid ning nendega on keeruline jälgida kiireid muutusi suurtel aladel. Viimastel aastakümnetel on kasutusele võetud kaugseire meetodid, mis võimaldavad neid puudujääke täita. Selleks, et mõista mida kaugseire instrument mõõdab on vaja teada parameetreid, mis kaugseire signaali ja selle interpreteerimist mõjutavad. Üheks selliseks aineks on heljum. Heljum koosneb veemassis hõljuvatest mineraalsetest (setted) ja orgaanilistest osakestest ja see jõuab veemassi looduslike protsesside (lainetus, erosioon, jõgede transport) ja inimtegevuse (traalimine, süvendamine, ehitamine) tagajärjel. Kõrge heljumi sisaldus veemassis muudab vee häguseks, mõjutades valguse jõudmist sügavamatesse veekihtidesse, mis omakorda halvendab vee, kui elukeskkonna seisundit. Heljum võib sisaldada kahjulikke aineid, nagu orgaanilised saasteained ja raskemetallid. Seetõttu uurisime Portmani lahes (Vahemere üks reostatumaid alasid), Lõuna-Hispaanias põhjasetteid, milles on kõrge raskemetallide sisaldus, ning kuidas need setted jõuavad veesambasse traalimise mõjul. Suured osakesed settisid kiiresti. Väikesed osakesed, millega liitusid raskemetallid, jäid veemassi pikemaks ajaks. Seetõttu raskemetallide sisaldus vees tõusis. Eesti rannikualadel uuriti heljumi optilisi omadusi (valguse neeldumist, hajumist, tagasihajumise/hajumise suhet). Leiti, et tagasihajumise/hajumise suhe, mida kasutatakse bio-optilistes kaugseire algoritmides konstandina on tegelikult väga muutlik ning sõltub hetke tingimustest (vetikaõitseng, torm). Sellist varieeruvust täheldati ka muude optiliste omadustega seoses. Leiti, et väga väikese soolsuse ja vähese orgaanika sisaldusega Pärnu lahes agregeerisid väikesed tormi mõjul veemassi keerutatud osakesed suuremateks osakesteks (> 30 μm) mõjutades vee optilisi omadusi ning seega ka kaugseire signaali. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5553931

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    Authors: Änäkkälä, M.; Lehtilä, A.; Mäkelä, P.S.A.; Lajunen, A.;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: April 25th, 2023 ; Published: May 10th, 2023 ; Correspondence: mikael.anakkala@helsinki.fi Interest in forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation for livestock feed has grown in northern conditions. In addition, it is important to develop methods and tools to monitor crop development and other characteristics of the crop. For these purposes UAVs are very efficient and versatile tools. UAVs can be equipped with a variety of sensors like lidar or different types of cameras. Several studies have been conducted where data collected by UAVs are used to estimate different crop properties like yield and biomass. In this research, a forage maize field experiment was studied to examine how well the aerial multispectral data correlated with the different properties of the vegetation. The field test site is located in Helsinki, Finland. A multispectral camera (MicaSense Rededge 3) was used to take images from five spectral bands (Red, Green, Blue, Rededge and NIR). All the images were processed with Pix4D software to generate orthomosaic images. Several vegetation indices were calculated from the five spectral bands. During the growing season, crop height, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI), fresh and dry matter biomass were measured from the vegetation. From the five spectral bands, Rededge had the highest correlation with fresh biomass (R2 = 0.273). The highest correlation for a vegetation index was found between NDRE and chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.809). A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using selected spectral bands and vegetation indices as inputs showed high correlations with the field measurements.

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    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Demikhov, Oleksii Ihorovych; Opanasiuk, Yuliia Anatoliivna; Demikhova, Nadiia Volodymyrivna; Merisalu, Е.;

    Цифровізація активно поширюється і широко впроваджується в системах охорони праці (OHS). Прогресивні технології дозволяють ефективно впроваджувати цифрові системи у всіх елементах циклу управління – від планування до моніторингу, оцінки та рішень у різних секторах економіки. Цілься. Мета статті – дати огляд поточного стану цифрової трансформації в політиці гігієни праці європейських країн та України та визначити позитивні та негативні аспекти цифровізації в системах управління охороною праці. метод. Огляд базується на повних дослідницьких статтях, звітах і матеріалах конференцій у Scopus, Web of Science і базі даних Google Scholar, де ключові слова «оцифрування», «гігієна праці», «безпека», «роботи» та «системи управління» для літератури пошук використовували. Результати. Загалом було проаналізовано 51 джерело, включаючи 23 повні дослідницькі статті та 28 публікацій від EU-OSHA, МОП та ОЕСР. Формування бази даних і використання систем великих даних та інструментів контролю для моніторингу та оцінки робочого середовища, цифрових інструкцій, законодавства та платформ електронного навчання є основними цифровими інструментами в системах управління охороною праці. Використання програм навігатора на робочому місці допомагає зібрати необхідну інформацію та внести правильні норми в закон. Застосування нових цифрових технологій дозволяє ефективніше виконувати функції інспекції охорони праці, обслуговування та запобігання ризикам, а також зменшити виробничі травми та захворювання. Висновки. Нова ідеологія державної політики щодо розробки цифрових систем управління охороною праці (DOHSS) зробить ефективними рішення, засновані на фактичних даних, і досягне високих стандартів безпеки, а також стимулюватиме зростання бізнесу окремих галузей на національному та європейському рівнях. Кращий європейський досвід цифрової трансформації в системи управління охороною праці може бути впроваджений і в Україні. Digitization is actively spreading and widely implemented in the occupational health and safety (OHS) systems. Progressive technologies make it possible to effectively implement digitalised systems in all the elements of management cycle - from planning to monitoring, evaluation and solutions in the different economy sectors. Aim. The purpose of the article is to give a review on the current state of digital transformation in OHS policy of European countries and Ukraine and identify the positive and negative aspects of digitization in OHS management systems. Method. The review is based on full research articles, reports and conference proceedings in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar database, where the keywords ‘digitization’, ‘occupational health’, ‘safety’, ‘robots’ and ‘management systems’ for literature search have used. Results. In total 51 sources were under analysis, including 23 full research articles and 28 publications from EU-OSHA, ILO and OECD. The database formation and use of big data systems and control tools for monitoring and assessing work environment, digital guidelines, legislation and e-teaching platforms are the main digital instruments in OHS management systems. Use of workplace navigator programs helps to collect necessary information and make right regulations by the law. Use of new digital technologies allows more effectively perform OHS inspection, service and risk prevention functions, and diminish work related injuries and illnesses. Conclusions. A new ideology of public policy in developing digitalised OHS management systems (DOHSS) will make the evidence-based solutions effective and achieve high safety standards and stimulate business growth of specific industries on the national and EU level. The best European experiences of digital transformation into OHS management systems can be implemented also in Ukraine.

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    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
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    Authors: Sampaio de Lima, Raul;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Protection. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks keskkonnakaitse erialal. Introduction. Climate changes are affecting the world, making wildfire understanding vital, and Estonia might experience an increase in the frequency of wildfires in the forthcoming years. Despite efforts to integrate fire management actions and research, many findings remain in "grey literature." This gap calls for formal research to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. Recently, Estonian initiatives seek to foster collaboration between research and government entities. This thesis thus aims to contribute to the topic by developing knowledge on remote sensing, particularly UAV-based approaches, to improve fire management frameworks. Methods. The study involved various Estonian locations. Paper I examined how UAV flight parameters affect data quality in Lahemaa National Park. Papers II and IV estimated aboveground biomass using multispectral imagery and hyperspectral data from the Agricultural Research Centre in Kuusiku, employing diverse machine learning methods and approaches. Paper III predicted soil moisture in Lavassaare Natural Reserve using optical UAV data and partial least squares regression. Lastly, Paper V maps Rosa rugosa occurrence across Estonian coast using UAVs, integrating these findings into a satellite dataset. Results and Conclusions. The study unveiled an optimal UAV collection strategy for Estonian forests, ensuring canopy and forest floor reconstruction. Machine learning and AutoML frameworks proved effective in estimating biomass, paving the way for automated algorithms. Developing distinct models or conducting field surveys at various periods emerged as the most effective approach for accurate soil moisture modelling. Lastly, a UAV-based methods aided post-fire monitoring and species mapping, allowing assessments beyond surveyed areas. Thus, the importance of these datasets shifted across management stages. Multispectral data aided pre-fire soil moisture estimation, while post-fire used photogrammetry for exposed areas. Integrating diverse remote sensing data improved modelling results, overcoming transferability challenges. Complementary use of RS and field data enhanced modelling, particularly in complex environments. Findings underlined potential in merging remote sensing data for precise variable modelling, enhancing accuracy and agreement toward improved fire management systems. Sissejuhatus. Kliimamuutused mõjutavad maailma, muutes metsatulekahjude mõistmise hädavajalikuks, ning Eestis võib lähiaastatel sageneda metsatulekahjude esinemissagedus. Hoolimata jõupingutustest integreerida tuleohjamise meetmeid ja teadustööd, jäävad paljud uuringud "halli kirjandusse". See lünk nõuab formaalset uurimustööd nende strateegiate tõhususe hindamiseks. Hiljutised Eesti algatused püüavad edendada koostööd teadus- ja valitsusasutuste vahel. Seetõttu eesmärk ongi käesoleva doktoritööga arendada teadmisi kaugseire valdkonnas, eriti mehitamata õhusõidukite (UAV) põhiste lähenemiste kaudu, et parandada tuleohjamise raamistikke. Materjal ja metoodika. Uuring hõlmas erinevaid Eesti asukohti. Artikkel I uuris, kuidas UAV lendude parameetrid mõjutavad andmete kvaliteeti Lahemaa rahvuspargis. Artiklid II ja IV hindasid ülemise maa biomassi kasutades multispektraalseid ja hüperspektraalseid andmeid Põllumajandusuuringute Keskusest Kuusikust, rakendades mitmekesiseid masinõppe meetodeid ja lähenemisi. Artikkel III prognoosis pinnase niiskust Lavassaare looduskaitsealal, kasutades optilisi UAV andmeid ja osalist vähimruutude regressiooni. Lõpuks, artikkel V kaardistas Rosa rugosa esinemist üle Eesti rannajoone, kasutades UAV-sid ja ühendades need leiud satelliidi andmestikuga. Tulemused ja järeldused. Uuring näitas optimaalset UAV andmete kogumise strateegiat Eesti metsades, tagades krooni ja metsapõranda rekonstrueerimise võrreldes laserskaneerimise andmekvaliteediga. Masinõppe ja AutoML raamistikud osutusid tõhusaks ülemise maa biomassi hindamisel, avades tee automatiseeritud algoritmidele. Erinevate mudelite arendamine või välitööde teostamine erinevatel perioodidel osutus kõige tõhusamaks meetodiks täpse pinnase niiskuse modelleerimisel. Lõpuks aitas UAV-põhine meetod jälgida tulekahjude järelvalvet ja liikide kaardistamist, võimaldades hindamist ka välitööde piirkondade kaugemale. Seega muutus nende andmete tähtsus tuleohjamise etappide vahel. Multispektraalsed andmed aitasid ennetavalt hinnata pinnase niiskust, samas kui järeltulekahjude kontekstis kasutati fotogrammetriat paljastatud alade jaoks. Erinevate kaugseire andmete integreerimine parandas modelleerimistulemusi, ületades ülekantavuse väljakutsed. Kaugseire ja välitööde andmete komplementaarne kasutamine täiustas modelleerimist, eriti keerulistes keskkondades. Leiud rõhutasid kaugseire andmete ühendamise potentsiaali täpseks muutuva muutuja modelleerimiseks, suurendades täpsust ja kokkulepet paremate tuleohjamissüsteemide poole. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences and by the Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology, created under the auspices of the European Social Fund.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2023
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      Doctoral thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Esmaeilzadeh Salestani, Keyvan;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks põllumajanduse erialal. Crop production needs to be more sustainable. Farmers are confronted with the challenge to use less nutrients while maintaining food security and other ecosystem services. Therefore, it is essential to examine the agricultural strategies that address sustainability. This dissertation compared the effects of conventional and organic cropping systems on soil biodiversity and gene expression patterns of barley in a five-field crop rotation. Soil DNA analysis showed that all treatments in organic cropping system as well as conventional treatments with low to medium rates of mineral fertilizers increased the diversity and changed the relative abundance of the soil microbiome. Conventional treatment with no added nutrients decreased bacterial and fungal diversity. Yield is important for food security, and thus it is important to understand the processes in the barley plant. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in conventional treatments, particularly in N2 that received 80 kg of mineral nitrogen per hectare and provided the highest yield, compared to organic treatments. Amide and peptide metabolism and response to acid chemical and inorganic substances were enriched biological processes in studied conventional treatments whereas polysaccharide and glucan metabolic processes were among the dominant biological processes under organic treatments. Expression of ammonium transporters was analysed more precicely over the early stages of crop growth. Up-regulation of HvAMT1;1 started at the anthesis growth stage in the conventional system and its activity had a strong correlation with the nitrogen content of leaves and 1000-kernel weight. Knowledge about the mechanisms being impacted by different nitrogen rates and cropping systems are valuable for agronomists and crop breeders in increasing the sustainability in crop production. Taimekasvatus peab muutuma jätkusuutlikumaks. Taimekasvatajate ees on väljakutse vähema toitainete kogusega säilitada toiduga varustatus ja ökosüsteemi teenuste kättesaadavus. Sellest tulenevalt on võtmetähtsusega uurida kestlikkusele suunatud põllumajanduslikke strateegiaid. Käesolevas doktoritöös uuriti tava- ja mahetaimekasvatuslike süsteemide mõju mulla mikroorganismide mitmekesisusele ja suviodra geeniekspressiooni mustritele viieväljalises külvikorrakatses. Mulla DNA uurimisest tulenes, et maheviljelussüsteem ning madala kuni keskmise mineraalväetise normiga tavaviljeluse variandid parandasid oluliselt mulla mikrobioloogilist mitmekesisust ja mullabakterite ja –seente suhtelist arvukust. Stabiilse saagikuse jaoks on oluline mõista protsesse odrataime sees. Tavaviljeluse variantides oli rohkem erinevalt ekspresseeritud geene võrreldes mahevariantidega. Kõige rohkem aktiivseid geene oli variandis N2 (väetusnorm 80 kg /ha), mis andis ka kõrgeima saagi ja tuhande tera massi. Tavaviljelussüsteemis olid peamised aktiveeritud bioloogilised protsessid amiidide ja peptiidide metabolism ning reaktsioon happe- ja anorgaanilistele ühenditele, samas kui maheviljelussüsteemi variantides olid peamisteks protsessideks polüsahhariidide and glükaani metabolism. Täpsemalt mõõdeti lämmastiku omastamise eest vastutavate geenide nagu ammoonium-transporterite aktiivsust kasvuperioodi esimeses pooles. Geeni HvAMT1;1 ekspressioon kasvas ajas ning oli kõrgeim tavaviljeluse katsevariantides õitsemisfaasis. Selle geeni aktiivsus oli tugevas korrelatsioonis lehtede lämmastikusisalduse ja 1000 tera massiga. Teadmised protsesside ja geenide kohta, mis on mõjutatud mineraallämmastiku erinevast normist ning viljelusviisist on olulised agronoomidele ja sordiaretajatele tegemaks jätkusuutlikumaid valikuid. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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    Authors: Lajunen, Antti; Pietarinen, Julius Into;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: June 16th, 2023 ; Published: July 6th, 2023 ; Correspondence: antti.lajunen@helsinki.fi The objective of this research is to assess positioning accuracy of a custom-built RTK (Real Time Kinematic) base station. Setting up a RTK base station with open-source tools is rather straightforward process requiring only few components and basic programming skills. The base station and receiver unit were developed by using a SparkFun GPS-RTK2 Board with U-Blox ZED-F9P module. The board was paired with U-blox Multi band GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The board can use GNSS satellite signals from Galileo, BeiDou, Glonass and GPS systems. The positioning accuracy was evaluated in a fixed position and during operations in agricultural fields. The RTK correction signal was used in connection with soil scanning measurements in different crop fields of the Viikki Research Farm of the University of Helsinki. For accuracy assessment, comparative measurements were carried out with a commercial network RTK (NRTK) correction signal. The vertical and horizontal accuracy of the positioning signal were evaluated based on the accuracy variables calculated by the receiver. The vertical accuracy was also evaluated by mapping the scanned trajectories on the height map which was obtained from NSL (National Land Survey of Finland) open map data service. The custom-built RTK positioning system accuracy was considered generally precise enough for autonomous field work, but the reliability of the observed accuracy should be confirmed with more extensive measurements. The commercial NRTK signal accuracy was considered very good and reliable also for the vertical direction.

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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Bumbiere, K.; Sereda, S.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D.;

    Received: January 30th, 2023 ; Accepted: April 8th, 2023 ; Published: May 3rd , 2023 ; Correspondence: ketija.bumbiere@rtu.lv Agriculture is one of the most energy-consuming sectors in the EU’s economy. Implementing sustainable agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency through energy management is a crucial strategy to tackle climate change. In this paper, the role of energy management in the agricultural sector is studied, and experiences from Europe and the world have been considered. Literature analysis regarding the chosen topic has been conducted, including the methodology of energy management plan development and its implementation in the case study of Latvia. Data from Latvia’s agricultural and other sectors have been analysed and compared. Latvia’s Inventory Report regarding GHG emissions in the agricultural sector was reviewed, and all emission sources in the agricultural sector were highlighted. The primary purpose of the study is to find out if energy management were introduced in an agricultural company, what would be the potential GHG emission, energy savings and additional advantages. Two companies working in Latvia were surveyed, and potential emission and energy consumption reduction measures in agriculture that would be applied to companies were developed. The research showed that by implementing the basic principles of energy management, it would be possible to reduce the average energy consumption by 17%. If measures are applied to reduce GHG emissions from agricultural companies, the average emissions would be reduced by 43%.

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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Mass, Jakob;

    Värkvõrk, ehk Asjade Internet (Internet of Things, lüh IoT) edendab lahendusi nagu nn tark linn, kus meid igapäevaselt ümbritsevad objektid on ühendatud infosüsteemidega ja ka üksteisega. Selliseks näiteks võib olla teekatete seisukorra monitoorimissüsteem. Võrku ühendatud sõidukitelt (nt bussidelt) kogutakse videomaterjali, mida seejärel töödeldakse, et tuvastada löökauke või lume kogunemist. Tavaliselt hõlmab selline lahendus keeruka tsentraalse süsteemi ehitamist. Otsuste langetamiseks (nt milliseid sõidukeid parasjagu protsessi kaasata) vajab keskne süsteem pidevat ühendust kõigi IoT seadmetega. Seadmete hulga kasvades võib keskne lahendus aga muutuda pudelikaelaks. Selliste protsesside disaini, haldust, automatiseerimist ja seiret hõlbustavad märkimisväärselt äriprotsesside halduse (Business Process Management, lüh BPM) valdkonna standardid ja tööriistad. Paraku ei ole BPM tehnoloogiad koheselt kasutatavad uute paradigmadega nagu Udu- ja Servaarvutus, mis tuleviku värkvõrgu jaoks vajalikud on. Nende puhul liigub suur osa otsustustest ja arvutustest üksikutest andmekeskustest servavõrgu seadmetele, mis asuvad lõppkasutajatele ja IoT seadmetele lähemal. Videotöötlust võiks teostada mini-andmekeskustes, mis on paigaldatud üle linna, näiteks bussipeatustesse. Arvestades IoT seadmete üha suurenevat hulka, vähendab selline koormuse jaotamine vähendab riski, et tsentraalne andmekeskust ülekoormamist. Doktoritöö uurib, kuidas mobiilsusega seonduvaid IoT protsesse taoliselt ümber korraldada, kohanedes pidevalt muutlikule, liikuvate seadmetega täidetud servavõrgule. Nimelt on ühendused katkendlikud, mistõttu otsuste langetus ja planeerimine peavad arvestama muuhulgas mobiilseadmete liikumistrajektoore. Töö raames valminud prototüüpe testiti Android seadmetel ja simulatsioonides. Lisaks valmis tööriistakomplekt STEP-ONE, mis võimaldab teadlastel hõlpsalt simuleerida ja analüüsida taolisi probleeme erinevais realistlikes stsenaariumites nagu seda on tark linn. The Internet of Things (IoT) promotes solutions such as a smart city, where everyday objects connect with info systems and each other. One example is a road condition monitoring system, where connected vehicles, such as buses, capture video, which is then processed to detect potholes and snow build-up. Building such a solution typically involves establishing a complex centralised system. The centralised approach may become a bottleneck as the number of IoT devices keeps growing. It relies on constant connectivity to all involved devices to make decisions, such as which vehicles to involve in the process. Designing, automating, managing, and monitoring such processes can greatly be supported using the standards and software systems provided by the field of Business Process Management (BPM). However, BPM techniques are not directly applicable to new computing paradigms, such as Fog Computing and Edge Computing, on which the future of IoT relies. Here, a lot of decision-making and processing is moved from central data-centers to devices in the network edge, near the end-users and IoT sensors. For example, video could be processed in mini-datacenters deployed throughout the city, e.g., at bus stops. This load distribution reduces the risk of the ever-growing number of IoT devices overloading the data center. This thesis studies how to reorganise the process execution in this decentralised fashion, where processes must dynamically adapt to the volatile edge environment filled with moving devices. Namely, connectivity is intermittent, so decision-making and planning need to involve factors such as the movement trajectories of mobile devices. We examined this issue in simulations and with a prototype for Android smartphones. We also showcase the STEP-ONE toolset, allowing researchers to conveniently simulate and analyse these issues in different realistic scenarios, such as those in a smart city. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5525514

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    Authors: Montibeller, Bruno;

    Forests are strongly impacted by human activities. While the deforestation is very likely the most common examples of human impact on forested areas, the remaining standing forests are susceptible to other types of direct or indirect forest degradation by humans. The direct human-induced impacts can be exemplified by forest fragmentation or selective logging while the indirect human-induced impacts can be related to the changes in the ecosystem services (e.g., carbon and water cycling) induced by anthropogenic climate change. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate two processes related to forest degradation: (i) fragmentation of tropical forest cover in the Brazilian Amazon and (ii) changes in forest evapotranspiration over/across the Baltic countries and the carbon cycle in undisturbed forest areas across Europe. Satellite derived data and spatial analyses were used to assess the impacts of forest degradation in these three different case studies. The results of this thesis showed that although the anti-deforestation initiatives have played an important role in reducing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region, the forest fragmentation has increased mainly because of the decrease in the size of forest loss patches and the spatial shift into areas previously isolated areas. Hence, more forest areas are potentially being degraded because of the edge effects (e.g., tree mortality) caused by the fragmentation. For the Baltic region, the results indicated an intensification of the evapotranspiration rates over undisturbed forest areas. The intensification occurred mainly during spring and early autumn months because of the longer growing season induced by the increasing temperatures during these periods. Changes in the climate patterns were also the potential cause for changes in the carbon assimilation rates over the European forests. Approximately 25% of the undisturbed European forests showed reduced total carbon assimilation. That shows the vulnerability and incapacity of certain forest areas to act as carbon sink. Metsaökosüsteemid võivad siduda kuni 12% inimtekkelisest süsihappegaasist ning tagastada atmosfääri kuni 40% kohalikest sademetest. Seetõttu on metsaökosüsteemidel oluline roll süsihappegaasi emissioonide vähendamisel ja veeringe reguleerimisel. Samal ajal väheneb metsade pindala ning metsad degradeeruvad läbi killustumise ning nende süsiniku- ja veeringe reguleerimise võime võib väheneda kliimamuutuste tõttu. Käesoleva doktoritöö eesmärgiks oli hinnata kahte metsade degradeerumisega seotud protsessi: (1) troopilise vihmametsa killustumist Brasiilia Amasoonias ja (2) muutuseid evapotranspiratsioonis ja süsinikuringes Baltikumi ja Eurooma muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides. Käesoleva doktoritöö tulemused näitasid, et kuigi Brasiilias on metsatustumise vastased poliitikad vähendanud metsade raadamist, siis samal ajal on suurenenud metsade killustumine, sest raiutakse väiksemate eraldiste kaupa ja liikudes endiselt varem raadamata aladele. Killustunud metsas on rohkem metsaserva, kust on süsinikukaod suuremad nii leostumise kui ka gaasilise emissioonina. Baltikumis leiti, et pikem taimekasvuperiood on suurendanud evapotranspiratsiooni kevadel ja sügisel, kuid samal ajal on suvel evapotranspiratsioon mõnedes piirkondades vähenenud. Kuigi evapotranspiratsiooni suurenemisel ei ole metsade ökosüsteemile otseselt negatiivset mõju, siis võib sellel olla ebasoovitav mõju regiooni veeringele, sest suurenenud evapotranspiratsioon suurendab tõenäosust, et suveperioodil on mullas vähem vett, mis omakorda suurendab põuaohtu. Lisaks selgus, et neljandikus Euroopa muutumatuna püsinud metsamassiivides on süsiniku sidumine vähenenud. Vähenenud süsiniku sidumisega metsamassiivid paiknesid üle kogu Euroopa ning hõlmasid erinevaid metsatüüpe. Kliimamuutuste mõjul võib metsade süsiniku sidumine väheneda veelgi rohkem, mis seab kahtluse alla varasemalt eeldatud metsade võimekuse leevendada kliimamuutuste mõjusid. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5519495

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    Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized as one of the leading actors for the next evolutionary stage in the computing world. IoT-based applications have already produced a plethora of novel services and are improving the living standard by enabling innovative and smart solutions. However, along with its rapid adoption, IoT technology also creates complex challenges regarding the management of IoT networks due to its resource limitations (computational power, energy, and security). Hence, it is urgently needed to refine the IoT-based application’s architectures to robustly manage the overall IoT infrastructure. Software-defined networking (SDN) has emerged as a paradigm that offers software-based controllers to manage hardware infrastructure and traffic flow on a network effectively. SDN architecture has the potential to provide efficient and reliable IoT network management. This research provides a comprehensive survey investigating the published studies on SDN-based frameworks to address IoT management issues in the dimensions of fault tolerance, energy management, scalability, load balancing, and security service provisioning within the IoT networks. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the research studies (published from 2010 to 2022) focusing on SDN-based IoT management frameworks. We provide an extensive discussion on various aspects of SDN-based IoT solutions and architectures. We elaborate a taxonomy of the existing SDN-based IoT frameworks and solutions by classifying them into categories such as network function virtualization, middleware, OpenFlow adaptation, and blockchain-based management. We present the research gaps by identifying and analyzing the key architectural requirements and management issues in IoT infrastructures. Finally, we highlight various challenges and a range of promising opportunities for future research to provide a roadmap for addressing the weaknesses and identifying the benefits from the potentials offered by SDN-based IoT solutions.

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114 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Uusõue, Mirjam;

    Clean water is necessary for all living organisms, but human activities and climate change have deteriorated water quality in many regions. It is important to monitor water bodies to take the necessary measures. Conventional contact measurements have been carried out for decades. However, they are time-consuming and expensive and can cover only a small number of water bodies. This is insufficient as changes in waterbodies are often rapid and occur over large areas. Remote sensing methods have been introduced to fill these gaps in temporal and spatial coverage. On the other hand, there is a need to study parameters that impact the formation of water-leaving signal in order to increase the accuracy of remote sensing products. One such substance that requires further investigation is suspended particulate matter. It consists of mineral and organic particles suspended in the water column due to natural processes (waves, erosion, river transport) and human activities (trawling, dredging, construction). The high content of suspended particles increases the water turbidity, consequently reducing the light availability. In turn, this worsens aquatic organisms' living conditions and alters physical processes (like radiative heating) in the water environment. Suspended particles can contain harmful substances such as organic pollutants and heavy metals. We studied the behaviour of heavy metal-rich sediments in Portman Bay (one of the most polluted areas of the Mediterranean), in southern Spain, after trawling the sea bottom. Coarse and heavy particles and flocs settled quickly. Fine particles remained in suspension for a longer time. Therefore, the content of heavy metals in the water increased. From an optical point of view, the suspended particles mainly scatter light. The optical properties of suspended particles (light absorption, scattering, backscattering/scattering ratio) were studied in several Estonian coastal areas. The backscattering ratio, which is used as a constant in bio-optical remote sensing algorithms, was highly variable, depending on the conditions (algal bloom, storm). Such variability was also observed for other optical properties. It was found that small particles resuspended by a storm aggregated into larger flocs (> 30 μm), affecting the particles' optical properties in the Pärnu Bay, which has very low salinity and little organic content. This study shows that using an assumption that the backscattering ratio is a fixed constant reduces the accuracy of remote sensing products. Puhas vesi on eluks vajalik kõikidele elusolenditele, kuid inimtegevuse ja kliimamuutuste mõjul on paljudes piirkondades veekvaliteet halvenenud. Veekogude seisundi hindamiseks ja vajalike meetmete kasutusele võtmiseks, on tarvis neid seirata. Aastakümneid on tehtud kontaktmõõtmisi, kuid need on ajakulukad ja kallid ning nendega on keeruline jälgida kiireid muutusi suurtel aladel. Viimastel aastakümnetel on kasutusele võetud kaugseire meetodid, mis võimaldavad neid puudujääke täita. Selleks, et mõista mida kaugseire instrument mõõdab on vaja teada parameetreid, mis kaugseire signaali ja selle interpreteerimist mõjutavad. Üheks selliseks aineks on heljum. Heljum koosneb veemassis hõljuvatest mineraalsetest (setted) ja orgaanilistest osakestest ja see jõuab veemassi looduslike protsesside (lainetus, erosioon, jõgede transport) ja inimtegevuse (traalimine, süvendamine, ehitamine) tagajärjel. Kõrge heljumi sisaldus veemassis muudab vee häguseks, mõjutades valguse jõudmist sügavamatesse veekihtidesse, mis omakorda halvendab vee, kui elukeskkonna seisundit. Heljum võib sisaldada kahjulikke aineid, nagu orgaanilised saasteained ja raskemetallid. Seetõttu uurisime Portmani lahes (Vahemere üks reostatumaid alasid), Lõuna-Hispaanias põhjasetteid, milles on kõrge raskemetallide sisaldus, ning kuidas need setted jõuavad veesambasse traalimise mõjul. Suured osakesed settisid kiiresti. Väikesed osakesed, millega liitusid raskemetallid, jäid veemassi pikemaks ajaks. Seetõttu raskemetallide sisaldus vees tõusis. Eesti rannikualadel uuriti heljumi optilisi omadusi (valguse neeldumist, hajumist, tagasihajumise/hajumise suhet). Leiti, et tagasihajumise/hajumise suhe, mida kasutatakse bio-optilistes kaugseire algoritmides konstandina on tegelikult väga muutlik ning sõltub hetke tingimustest (vetikaõitseng, torm). Sellist varieeruvust täheldati ka muude optiliste omadustega seoses. Leiti, et väga väikese soolsuse ja vähese orgaanika sisaldusega Pärnu lahes agregeerisid väikesed tormi mõjul veemassi keerutatud osakesed suuremateks osakesteks (> 30 μm) mõjutades vee optilisi omadusi ning seega ka kaugseire signaali. Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone https://www.ester.ee/record=b5553931

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at Tartu Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Änäkkälä, M.; Lehtilä, A.; Mäkelä, P.S.A.; Lajunen, A.;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: April 25th, 2023 ; Published: May 10th, 2023 ; Correspondence: mikael.anakkala@helsinki.fi Interest in forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation for livestock feed has grown in northern conditions. In addition, it is important to develop methods and tools to monitor crop development and other characteristics of the crop. For these purposes UAVs are very efficient and versatile tools. UAVs can be equipped with a variety of sensors like lidar or different types of cameras. Several studies have been conducted where data collected by UAVs are used to estimate different crop properties like yield and biomass. In this research, a forage maize field experiment was studied to examine how well the aerial multispectral data correlated with the different properties of the vegetation. The field test site is located in Helsinki, Finland. A multispectral camera (MicaSense Rededge 3) was used to take images from five spectral bands (Red, Green, Blue, Rededge and NIR). All the images were processed with Pix4D software to generate orthomosaic images. Several vegetation indices were calculated from the five spectral bands. During the growing season, crop height, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI), fresh and dry matter biomass were measured from the vegetation. From the five spectral bands, Rededge had the highest correlation with fresh biomass (R2 = 0.273). The highest correlation for a vegetation index was found between NDRE and chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.809). A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using selected spectral bands and vegetation indices as inputs showed high correlations with the field measurements.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Demikhov, Oleksii Ihorovych; Opanasiuk, Yuliia Anatoliivna; Demikhova, Nadiia Volodymyrivna; Merisalu, Е.;

    Цифровізація активно поширюється і широко впроваджується в системах охорони праці (OHS). Прогресивні технології дозволяють ефективно впроваджувати цифрові системи у всіх елементах циклу управління – від планування до моніторингу, оцінки та рішень у різних секторах економіки. Цілься. Мета статті – дати огляд поточного стану цифрової трансформації в політиці гігієни праці європейських країн та України та визначити позитивні та негативні аспекти цифровізації в системах управління охороною праці. метод. Огляд базується на повних дослідницьких статтях, звітах і матеріалах конференцій у Scopus, Web of Science і базі даних Google Scholar, де ключові слова «оцифрування», «гігієна праці», «безпека», «роботи» та «системи управління» для літератури пошук використовували. Результати. Загалом було проаналізовано 51 джерело, включаючи 23 повні дослідницькі статті та 28 публікацій від EU-OSHA, МОП та ОЕСР. Формування бази даних і використання систем великих даних та інструментів контролю для моніторингу та оцінки робочого середовища, цифрових інструкцій, законодавства та платформ електронного навчання є основними цифровими інструментами в системах управління охороною праці. Використання програм навігатора на робочому місці допомагає зібрати необхідну інформацію та внести правильні норми в закон. Застосування нових цифрових технологій дозволяє ефективніше виконувати функції інспекції охорони праці, обслуговування та запобігання ризикам, а також зменшити виробничі травми та захворювання. Висновки. Нова ідеологія державної політики щодо розробки цифрових систем управління охороною праці (DOHSS) зробить ефективними рішення, засновані на фактичних даних, і досягне високих стандартів безпеки, а також стимулюватиме зростання бізнесу окремих галузей на національному та європейському рівнях. Кращий європейський досвід цифрової трансформації в системи управління охороною праці може бути впроваджений і в Україні. Digitization is actively spreading and widely implemented in the occupational health and safety (OHS) systems. Progressive technologies make it possible to effectively implement digitalised systems in all the elements of management cycle - from planning to monitoring, evaluation and solutions in the different economy sectors. Aim. The purpose of the article is to give a review on the current state of digital transformation in OHS policy of European countries and Ukraine and identify the positive and negative aspects of digitization in OHS management systems. Method. The review is based on full research articles, reports and conference proceedings in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar database, where the keywords ‘digitization’, ‘occupational health’, ‘safety’, ‘robots’ and ‘management systems’ for literature search have used. Results. In total 51 sources were under analysis, including 23 full research articles and 28 publications from EU-OSHA, ILO and OECD. The database formation and use of big data systems and control tools for monitoring and assessing work environment, digital guidelines, legislation and e-teaching platforms are the main digital instruments in OHS management systems. Use of workplace navigator programs helps to collect necessary information and make right regulations by the law. Use of new digital technologies allows more effectively perform OHS inspection, service and risk prevention functions, and diminish work related injuries and illnesses. Conclusions. A new ideology of public policy in developing digitalised OHS management systems (DOHSS) will make the evidence-based solutions effective and achieve high safety standards and stimulate business growth of specific industries on the national and EU level. The best European experiences of digital transformation into OHS management systems can be implemented also in Ukraine.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Sampaio de Lima, Raul;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Protection. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks keskkonnakaitse erialal. Introduction. Climate changes are affecting the world, making wildfire understanding vital, and Estonia might experience an increase in the frequency of wildfires in the forthcoming years. Despite efforts to integrate fire management actions and research, many findings remain in "grey literature." This gap calls for formal research to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. Recently, Estonian initiatives seek to foster collaboration between research and government entities. This thesis thus aims to contribute to the topic by developing knowledge on remote sensing, particularly UAV-based approaches, to improve fire management frameworks. Methods. The study involved various Estonian locations. Paper I examined how UAV flight parameters affect data quality in Lahemaa National Park. Papers II and IV estimated aboveground biomass using multispectral imagery and hyperspectral data from the Agricultural Research Centre in Kuusiku, employing diverse machine learning methods and approaches. Paper III predicted soil moisture in Lavassaare Natural Reserve using optical UAV data and partial least squares regression. Lastly, Paper V maps Rosa rugosa occurrence across Estonian coast using UAVs, integrating these findings into a satellite dataset. Results and Conclusions. The study unveiled an optimal UAV collection strategy for Estonian forests, ensuring canopy and forest floor reconstruction. Machine learning and AutoML frameworks proved effective in estimating biomass, paving the way for automated algorithms. Developing distinct models or conducting field surveys at various periods emerged as the most effective approach for accurate soil moisture modelling. Lastly, a UAV-based methods aided post-fire monitoring and species mapping, allowing assessments beyond surveyed areas. Thus, the importance of these datasets shifted across management stages. Multispectral data aided pre-fire soil moisture estimation, while post-fire used photogrammetry for exposed areas. Integrating diverse remote sensing data improved modelling results, overcoming transferability challenges. Complementary use of RS and field data enhanced modelling, particularly in complex environments. Findings underlined potential in merging remote sensing data for precise variable modelling, enhancing accuracy and agreement toward improved fire management systems. Sissejuhatus. Kliimamuutused mõjutavad maailma, muutes metsatulekahjude mõistmise hädavajalikuks, ning Eestis võib lähiaastatel sageneda metsatulekahjude esinemissagedus. Hoolimata jõupingutustest integreerida tuleohjamise meetmeid ja teadustööd, jäävad paljud uuringud "halli kirjandusse". See lünk nõuab formaalset uurimustööd nende strateegiate tõhususe hindamiseks. Hiljutised Eesti algatused püüavad edendada koostööd teadus- ja valitsusasutuste vahel. Seetõttu eesmärk ongi käesoleva doktoritööga arendada teadmisi kaugseire valdkonnas, eriti mehitamata õhusõidukite (UAV) põhiste lähenemiste kaudu, et parandada tuleohjamise raamistikke. Materjal ja metoodika. Uuring hõlmas erinevaid Eesti asukohti. Artikkel I uuris, kuidas UAV lendude parameetrid mõjutavad andmete kvaliteeti Lahemaa rahvuspargis. Artiklid II ja IV hindasid ülemise maa biomassi kasutades multispektraalseid ja hüperspektraalseid andmeid Põllumajandusuuringute Keskusest Kuusikust, rakendades mitmekesiseid masinõppe meetodeid ja lähenemisi. Artikkel III prognoosis pinnase niiskust Lavassaare looduskaitsealal, kasutades optilisi UAV andmeid ja osalist vähimruutude regressiooni. Lõpuks, artikkel V kaardistas Rosa rugosa esinemist üle Eesti rannajoone, kasutades UAV-sid ja ühendades need leiud satelliidi andmestikuga. Tulemused ja järeldused. Uuring näitas optimaalset UAV andmete kogumise strateegiat Eesti metsades, tagades krooni ja metsapõranda rekonstrueerimise võrreldes laserskaneerimise andmekvaliteediga. Masinõppe ja AutoML raamistikud osutusid tõhusaks ülemise maa biomassi hindamisel, avades tee automatiseeritud algoritmidele. Erinevate mudelite arendamine või välitööde teostamine erinevatel perioodidel osutus kõige tõhusamaks meetodiks täpse pinnase niiskuse modelleerimisel. Lõpuks aitas UAV-põhine meetod jälgida tulekahjude järelvalvet ja liikide kaardistamist, võimaldades hindamist ka välitööde piirkondade kaugemale. Seega muutus nende andmete tähtsus tuleohjamise etappide vahel. Multispektraalsed andmed aitasid ennetavalt hinnata pinnase niiskust, samas kui järeltulekahjude kontekstis kasutati fotogrammetriat paljastatud alade jaoks. Erinevate kaugseire andmete integreerimine parandas modelleerimistulemusi, ületades ülekantavuse väljakutsed. Kaugseire ja välitööde andmete komplementaarne kasutamine täiustas modelleerimist, eriti keerulistes keskkondades. Leiud rõhutasid kaugseire andmete ühendamise potentsiaali täpseks muutuva muutuja modelleerimiseks, suurendades täpsust ja kokkulepet paremate tuleohjamissüsteemide poole. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences and by the Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology, created under the auspices of the European Social Fund.

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    Authors: Esmaeilzadeh Salestani, Keyvan;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks põllumajanduse erialal. Crop production needs to be more sustainable. Farmers are confronted with the challenge to use less nutrients while maintaining food security and other ecosystem services. Therefore, it is essential to examine the agricultural strategies that address sustainability. This dissertation compared the effects of conventional and organic cropping systems on soil biodiversity and gene expression patterns of barley in a five-field crop rotation. Soil DNA analysis showed that all treatments in organic cropping system as well as conventional treatments with low to medium rates of mineral fertilizers increased the diversity and changed the relative abundance of the soil microbiome. Conventional treatment with no added nutrients decreased bacterial and fungal diversity. Yield is important for food security, and thus it is important to understand the processes in the barley plant. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in conventional treatments, particularly in N2 that received 80 kg of mineral nitrogen per hectare and provided the highest yield, compared to organic treatments. Amide and peptide metabolism and response to acid chemical and inorganic substances were enriched biological processes in studied conventional treatments whereas polysaccharide and glucan metabolic processes were among the dominant biological processes under organic treatments. Expression of ammonium transporters was analysed more precicely over the early stages of crop growth. Up-regulation of HvAMT1;1 started at the anthesis growth stage in the conventional system and its activity had a strong correlation with the nitrogen content of leaves and 1000-kernel weight. Knowledge about the mechanisms being impacted by different nitrogen rates and cropping systems are valuable for agronomists and crop breeders in increasing the sustainability in crop production. Taimekasvatus peab muutuma jätkusuutlikumaks. Taimekasvatajate ees on väljakutse vähema toitainete kogusega säilitada toiduga varustatus ja ökosüsteemi teenuste kättesaadavus. Sellest tulenevalt on võtmetähtsusega uurida kestlikkusele suunatud põllumajanduslikke strateegiaid. Käesolevas doktoritöös uuriti tava- ja mahetaimekasvatuslike süsteemide mõju mulla mikroorganismide mitmekesisusele ja suviodra geeniekspressiooni mustritele viieväljalises külvikorrakatses. Mulla DNA uurimisest tulenes, et maheviljelussüsteem ning madala kuni keskmise mineraalväetise normiga tavaviljeluse variandid parandasid oluliselt mulla mikrobioloogilist mitmekesisust ja mullabakterite ja –seente suhtelist arvukust. Stabiilse saagikuse jaoks on oluline mõista protsesse odrataime sees. Tavaviljeluse variantides oli rohkem erinevalt ekspresseeritud geene võrreldes mahevariantidega. Kõige rohkem aktiivseid geene oli variandis N2 (väetusnorm 80 kg /ha), mis andis ka kõrgeima saagi ja tuhande tera massi. Tavaviljelussüsteemis olid peamised aktiveeritud bioloogilised protsessid amiidide ja peptiidide metabolism ning reaktsioon happe- ja anorgaanilistele ühenditele, samas kui maheviljelussüsteemi variantides olid peamisteks protsessideks polüsahhariidide and glükaani metabolism. Täpsemalt mõõdeti lämmastiku omastamise eest vastutavate geenide nagu ammoonium-transporterite aktiivsust kasvuperioodi esimeses pooles. Geeni HvAMT1;1 ekspressioon kasvas ajas ning oli kõrgeim tavaviljeluse katsevariantides õitsemisfaasis. Selle geeni aktiivsus oli tugevas korrelatsioonis lehtede lämmastikusisalduse ja 1000 tera massiga. Teadmised protsesside ja geenide kohta, mis on mõjutatud mineraallämmastiku erinevast normist ning viljelusviisist on olulised agronoomidele ja sordiaretajatele tegemaks jätkusuutlikumaid valikuid. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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