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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Änäkkälä, M.; Lehtilä, A.; Mäkelä, P.S.A.; Lajunen, A.;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: April 25th, 2023 ; Published: May 10th, 2023 ; Correspondence: mikael.anakkala@helsinki.fi Interest in forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation for livestock feed has grown in northern conditions. In addition, it is important to develop methods and tools to monitor crop development and other characteristics of the crop. For these purposes UAVs are very efficient and versatile tools. UAVs can be equipped with a variety of sensors like lidar or different types of cameras. Several studies have been conducted where data collected by UAVs are used to estimate different crop properties like yield and biomass. In this research, a forage maize field experiment was studied to examine how well the aerial multispectral data correlated with the different properties of the vegetation. The field test site is located in Helsinki, Finland. A multispectral camera (MicaSense Rededge 3) was used to take images from five spectral bands (Red, Green, Blue, Rededge and NIR). All the images were processed with Pix4D software to generate orthomosaic images. Several vegetation indices were calculated from the five spectral bands. During the growing season, crop height, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI), fresh and dry matter biomass were measured from the vegetation. From the five spectral bands, Rededge had the highest correlation with fresh biomass (R2 = 0.273). The highest correlation for a vegetation index was found between NDRE and chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.809). A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using selected spectral bands and vegetation indices as inputs showed high correlations with the field measurements.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Demikhov, Oleksii Ihorovych; Opanasiuk, Yuliia Anatoliivna; Demikhova, Nadiia Volodymyrivna; Merisalu, Е.;

    Цифровізація активно поширюється і широко впроваджується в системах охорони праці (OHS). Прогресивні технології дозволяють ефективно впроваджувати цифрові системи у всіх елементах циклу управління – від планування до моніторингу, оцінки та рішень у різних секторах економіки. Цілься. Мета статті – дати огляд поточного стану цифрової трансформації в політиці гігієни праці європейських країн та України та визначити позитивні та негативні аспекти цифровізації в системах управління охороною праці. метод. Огляд базується на повних дослідницьких статтях, звітах і матеріалах конференцій у Scopus, Web of Science і базі даних Google Scholar, де ключові слова «оцифрування», «гігієна праці», «безпека», «роботи» та «системи управління» для літератури пошук використовували. Результати. Загалом було проаналізовано 51 джерело, включаючи 23 повні дослідницькі статті та 28 публікацій від EU-OSHA, МОП та ОЕСР. Формування бази даних і використання систем великих даних та інструментів контролю для моніторингу та оцінки робочого середовища, цифрових інструкцій, законодавства та платформ електронного навчання є основними цифровими інструментами в системах управління охороною праці. Використання програм навігатора на робочому місці допомагає зібрати необхідну інформацію та внести правильні норми в закон. Застосування нових цифрових технологій дозволяє ефективніше виконувати функції інспекції охорони праці, обслуговування та запобігання ризикам, а також зменшити виробничі травми та захворювання. Висновки. Нова ідеологія державної політики щодо розробки цифрових систем управління охороною праці (DOHSS) зробить ефективними рішення, засновані на фактичних даних, і досягне високих стандартів безпеки, а також стимулюватиме зростання бізнесу окремих галузей на національному та європейському рівнях. Кращий європейський досвід цифрової трансформації в системи управління охороною праці може бути впроваджений і в Україні. Digitization is actively spreading and widely implemented in the occupational health and safety (OHS) systems. Progressive technologies make it possible to effectively implement digitalised systems in all the elements of management cycle - from planning to monitoring, evaluation and solutions in the different economy sectors. Aim. The purpose of the article is to give a review on the current state of digital transformation in OHS policy of European countries and Ukraine and identify the positive and negative aspects of digitization in OHS management systems. Method. The review is based on full research articles, reports and conference proceedings in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar database, where the keywords ‘digitization’, ‘occupational health’, ‘safety’, ‘robots’ and ‘management systems’ for literature search have used. Results. In total 51 sources were under analysis, including 23 full research articles and 28 publications from EU-OSHA, ILO and OECD. The database formation and use of big data systems and control tools for monitoring and assessing work environment, digital guidelines, legislation and e-teaching platforms are the main digital instruments in OHS management systems. Use of workplace navigator programs helps to collect necessary information and make right regulations by the law. Use of new digital technologies allows more effectively perform OHS inspection, service and risk prevention functions, and diminish work related injuries and illnesses. Conclusions. A new ideology of public policy in developing digitalised OHS management systems (DOHSS) will make the evidence-based solutions effective and achieve high safety standards and stimulate business growth of specific industries on the national and EU level. The best European experiences of digital transformation into OHS management systems can be implemented also in Ukraine.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EMU DSpacearrow_drop_down
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Kuusemets, Laura;

    Master`s Thesis Environmental Governance and Adaptation to Climate Change Curriculum Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for crop growth production. The input of N in the form of fertilisers increases crop yield. On the other hand, agricultural nitrogen inputs can cause N leaching and the loss of N to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate whether and how different crop species and fertilisation norms affect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil microbiome using the closed chamber method and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. The study was done in the IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) experimental field. The crop species studied were barley, sorghum, and wheat. The fertiliser treatment is constituted of mineral N fertilisation and mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment. Three N fertiliser treatment norms were used: 0, 80 and 160 kg ha−1 . Samples were collected over seven months, from April 2022 to October 2022. qPCR was used to measure the abundance of bacterial and archaeal specific16S rRNA, nitrification (bacterial, archaeal and COMAMMOX amoA genes), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZI and nosZII genes) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; nrfA gene) marker genes from the soil samples. The results of this study indicate that different fertilisation rates influence N2O emissions and the highest N2O emissions are emitted from the highest N fertiliser treatment (160 kg ha−1). Crop species did not have a significant effect on N2O emissions. Sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment had slightly higher average N2O emissions compared to sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation without manure. The microbial analysis showed nitrification was the primary process resulting in N2O emissions. Lämmastik (N) on kriitilise tähtsusega toitaine taimekasvatuses. Lämmastiku lisamine väetisena tõstab põllukultuuride saagikust. Teisalt, lämmastiku lisamine võib kaasa tuua lämmastiku leostumise ja lämmastiku kaod atmosfääri, panustades globaalsesse kliima soojenemisse. Käesoleva uurimustöö põhieesmärk oli hinnata, kas ja kuidas erinevad põllukultuurid ja väetusnromid mõjutavad dilämmastikoksiidi (N2O) vooge ja mulla mikrobioomi kasutades staatilise pimekambri meetodit ja kvantitatiivset polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR). Uurimistöö tehti IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) katsepõllul. Uuritud põllukultuurid olid oder, sorgo ja nisu. Väetistöötlus koosnes väetamisest mineraalse lämmastikuga ja tahesõnnikuga kombineeritud mineraalväetamisest. Katses kasutati kolme erinevat mineraalväetise normi: 0, 80 ja 160 kg ha−1 N. Proove koguti seitsme kuu vältel aprillist oktoobrini aastal 2022. Mullaproovidest määrati bakterite ja arhede 16S rRNA, nitrifikatsiooni (bakterite, arhede ja COMAMMOX amoA geenid), denitrifikatsiooni (nirK, nirS, nosZI ja nosZII) ja dissimilatoorse nitraadi reduktsioon ammooniumiks (DNRA; nrfA geen) markergeenide arvukus reaal-aja polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR) meetodil. Töö tulemustest järeldus, et erinevad väetise normed mõjutasid N2O emissioonide kontsentratsiooni ja suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid suurima väetisenormiga lappidelt (160 kg ha−1). Põllukultuurid ei omanud statistiliselt olulist mõju N2O emissioonidele. Mineraalse lämmastiku ja sõnniku kooskasutamisel sorgo lapil olid keskmised N2O vood veidi suuremad võrreldes sorgo lappidega, kus kasutati vaid mineraalset lämmastikväetist. Mikrobioloogilised analüüsid näitasid, et suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid nitrifikatsiooni protsessist.

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    EMU DSpace
    Master thesis . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Master thesis . 2023
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
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    Authors: Sampaio de Lima, Raul;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Protection. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks keskkonnakaitse erialal. Introduction. Climate changes are affecting the world, making wildfire understanding vital, and Estonia might experience an increase in the frequency of wildfires in the forthcoming years. Despite efforts to integrate fire management actions and research, many findings remain in "grey literature." This gap calls for formal research to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. Recently, Estonian initiatives seek to foster collaboration between research and government entities. This thesis thus aims to contribute to the topic by developing knowledge on remote sensing, particularly UAV-based approaches, to improve fire management frameworks. Methods. The study involved various Estonian locations. Paper I examined how UAV flight parameters affect data quality in Lahemaa National Park. Papers II and IV estimated aboveground biomass using multispectral imagery and hyperspectral data from the Agricultural Research Centre in Kuusiku, employing diverse machine learning methods and approaches. Paper III predicted soil moisture in Lavassaare Natural Reserve using optical UAV data and partial least squares regression. Lastly, Paper V maps Rosa rugosa occurrence across Estonian coast using UAVs, integrating these findings into a satellite dataset. Results and Conclusions. The study unveiled an optimal UAV collection strategy for Estonian forests, ensuring canopy and forest floor reconstruction. Machine learning and AutoML frameworks proved effective in estimating biomass, paving the way for automated algorithms. Developing distinct models or conducting field surveys at various periods emerged as the most effective approach for accurate soil moisture modelling. Lastly, a UAV-based methods aided post-fire monitoring and species mapping, allowing assessments beyond surveyed areas. Thus, the importance of these datasets shifted across management stages. Multispectral data aided pre-fire soil moisture estimation, while post-fire used photogrammetry for exposed areas. Integrating diverse remote sensing data improved modelling results, overcoming transferability challenges. Complementary use of RS and field data enhanced modelling, particularly in complex environments. Findings underlined potential in merging remote sensing data for precise variable modelling, enhancing accuracy and agreement toward improved fire management systems. Sissejuhatus. Kliimamuutused mõjutavad maailma, muutes metsatulekahjude mõistmise hädavajalikuks, ning Eestis võib lähiaastatel sageneda metsatulekahjude esinemissagedus. Hoolimata jõupingutustest integreerida tuleohjamise meetmeid ja teadustööd, jäävad paljud uuringud "halli kirjandusse". See lünk nõuab formaalset uurimustööd nende strateegiate tõhususe hindamiseks. Hiljutised Eesti algatused püüavad edendada koostööd teadus- ja valitsusasutuste vahel. Seetõttu eesmärk ongi käesoleva doktoritööga arendada teadmisi kaugseire valdkonnas, eriti mehitamata õhusõidukite (UAV) põhiste lähenemiste kaudu, et parandada tuleohjamise raamistikke. Materjal ja metoodika. Uuring hõlmas erinevaid Eesti asukohti. Artikkel I uuris, kuidas UAV lendude parameetrid mõjutavad andmete kvaliteeti Lahemaa rahvuspargis. Artiklid II ja IV hindasid ülemise maa biomassi kasutades multispektraalseid ja hüperspektraalseid andmeid Põllumajandusuuringute Keskusest Kuusikust, rakendades mitmekesiseid masinõppe meetodeid ja lähenemisi. Artikkel III prognoosis pinnase niiskust Lavassaare looduskaitsealal, kasutades optilisi UAV andmeid ja osalist vähimruutude regressiooni. Lõpuks, artikkel V kaardistas Rosa rugosa esinemist üle Eesti rannajoone, kasutades UAV-sid ja ühendades need leiud satelliidi andmestikuga. Tulemused ja järeldused. Uuring näitas optimaalset UAV andmete kogumise strateegiat Eesti metsades, tagades krooni ja metsapõranda rekonstrueerimise võrreldes laserskaneerimise andmekvaliteediga. Masinõppe ja AutoML raamistikud osutusid tõhusaks ülemise maa biomassi hindamisel, avades tee automatiseeritud algoritmidele. Erinevate mudelite arendamine või välitööde teostamine erinevatel perioodidel osutus kõige tõhusamaks meetodiks täpse pinnase niiskuse modelleerimisel. Lõpuks aitas UAV-põhine meetod jälgida tulekahjude järelvalvet ja liikide kaardistamist, võimaldades hindamist ka välitööde piirkondade kaugemale. Seega muutus nende andmete tähtsus tuleohjamise etappide vahel. Multispektraalsed andmed aitasid ennetavalt hinnata pinnase niiskust, samas kui järeltulekahjude kontekstis kasutati fotogrammetriat paljastatud alade jaoks. Erinevate kaugseire andmete integreerimine parandas modelleerimistulemusi, ületades ülekantavuse väljakutsed. Kaugseire ja välitööde andmete komplementaarne kasutamine täiustas modelleerimist, eriti keerulistes keskkondades. Leiud rõhutasid kaugseire andmete ühendamise potentsiaali täpseks muutuva muutuja modelleerimiseks, suurendades täpsust ja kokkulepet paremate tuleohjamissüsteemide poole. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences and by the Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology, created under the auspices of the European Social Fund.

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    EMU DSpace
    Doctoral thesis . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
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    Authors: Madsen, Helena; Luik, Anne; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Mäeorg, Erkki; +1 Authors

    Saabunud / Received 27.01.2023 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 24.06.2023 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 15.08.2023 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author Helena Madsen ; helena.madsen@emu.ee The effects of long term (established in 2008) five-field crop rotation (barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with undersown red clover (Trifoium pratense L.), red clover, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)) on the biomass, abundance and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) of weeds in three organic (Org) and two conventional (Conv) systems after the second rotation were investigated. The results include data from the second rotation in 2013 – 2017. The control system (Org 0) followed only the crop rotation. In the organic systems Org I and Org II winter cover crops were used. In Org II system composted cattle manure was also applied. The conventional cropping systems were treated with herbicides and fungicides and system Conv 0 acted as control (no fertilizer use). Mineral fertilizer was used in Conv II. In general, the significant differences were evident between conventional and organic cropping systems. There were also some differences depending on the crop. The weed biomass was the lowest in barley and potato plots, with significantly higher values in organic than in conventional systems. In clover plots the highest biomass of weeds occurred in Conv II whilst the lowest in Org I. In winter wheat plots the biomass of weeds was significantly lower in conventional systems than in any of the organic systems. Pea plots had the highest biomass, abundance and diversity of weeds in all systems within all rotational crops. Slight tendencies showed the decrease of weed abundance and diversity at the end of the rotation in systems with cover crops (Org I and Org II). This could be explained by better growing conditions due to higher microbial activity and organic carbon content in the soil of organic systems.

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    Book of Abstracts. 13th International Conference on Biosystems Engineering 2023, May 10–12, 2023 Tartu, Estonia. Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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    Authors: Esmaeilzadeh Salestani, Keyvan;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks põllumajanduse erialal. Crop production needs to be more sustainable. Farmers are confronted with the challenge to use less nutrients while maintaining food security and other ecosystem services. Therefore, it is essential to examine the agricultural strategies that address sustainability. This dissertation compared the effects of conventional and organic cropping systems on soil biodiversity and gene expression patterns of barley in a five-field crop rotation. Soil DNA analysis showed that all treatments in organic cropping system as well as conventional treatments with low to medium rates of mineral fertilizers increased the diversity and changed the relative abundance of the soil microbiome. Conventional treatment with no added nutrients decreased bacterial and fungal diversity. Yield is important for food security, and thus it is important to understand the processes in the barley plant. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in conventional treatments, particularly in N2 that received 80 kg of mineral nitrogen per hectare and provided the highest yield, compared to organic treatments. Amide and peptide metabolism and response to acid chemical and inorganic substances were enriched biological processes in studied conventional treatments whereas polysaccharide and glucan metabolic processes were among the dominant biological processes under organic treatments. Expression of ammonium transporters was analysed more precicely over the early stages of crop growth. Up-regulation of HvAMT1;1 started at the anthesis growth stage in the conventional system and its activity had a strong correlation with the nitrogen content of leaves and 1000-kernel weight. Knowledge about the mechanisms being impacted by different nitrogen rates and cropping systems are valuable for agronomists and crop breeders in increasing the sustainability in crop production. Taimekasvatus peab muutuma jätkusuutlikumaks. Taimekasvatajate ees on väljakutse vähema toitainete kogusega säilitada toiduga varustatus ja ökosüsteemi teenuste kättesaadavus. Sellest tulenevalt on võtmetähtsusega uurida kestlikkusele suunatud põllumajanduslikke strateegiaid. Käesolevas doktoritöös uuriti tava- ja mahetaimekasvatuslike süsteemide mõju mulla mikroorganismide mitmekesisusele ja suviodra geeniekspressiooni mustritele viieväljalises külvikorrakatses. Mulla DNA uurimisest tulenes, et maheviljelussüsteem ning madala kuni keskmise mineraalväetise normiga tavaviljeluse variandid parandasid oluliselt mulla mikrobioloogilist mitmekesisust ja mullabakterite ja –seente suhtelist arvukust. Stabiilse saagikuse jaoks on oluline mõista protsesse odrataime sees. Tavaviljeluse variantides oli rohkem erinevalt ekspresseeritud geene võrreldes mahevariantidega. Kõige rohkem aktiivseid geene oli variandis N2 (väetusnorm 80 kg /ha), mis andis ka kõrgeima saagi ja tuhande tera massi. Tavaviljelussüsteemis olid peamised aktiveeritud bioloogilised protsessid amiidide ja peptiidide metabolism ning reaktsioon happe- ja anorgaanilistele ühenditele, samas kui maheviljelussüsteemi variantides olid peamisteks protsessideks polüsahhariidide and glükaani metabolism. Täpsemalt mõõdeti lämmastiku omastamise eest vastutavate geenide nagu ammoonium-transporterite aktiivsust kasvuperioodi esimeses pooles. Geeni HvAMT1;1 ekspressioon kasvas ajas ning oli kõrgeim tavaviljeluse katsevariantides õitsemisfaasis. Selle geeni aktiivsus oli tugevas korrelatsioonis lehtede lämmastikusisalduse ja 1000 tera massiga. Teadmised protsesside ja geenide kohta, mis on mõjutatud mineraallämmastiku erinevast normist ning viljelusviisist on olulised agronoomidele ja sordiaretajatele tegemaks jätkusuutlikumaid valikuid. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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    Authors: Lajunen, Antti; Pietarinen, Julius Into;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: June 16th, 2023 ; Published: July 6th, 2023 ; Correspondence: antti.lajunen@helsinki.fi The objective of this research is to assess positioning accuracy of a custom-built RTK (Real Time Kinematic) base station. Setting up a RTK base station with open-source tools is rather straightforward process requiring only few components and basic programming skills. The base station and receiver unit were developed by using a SparkFun GPS-RTK2 Board with U-Blox ZED-F9P module. The board was paired with U-blox Multi band GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The board can use GNSS satellite signals from Galileo, BeiDou, Glonass and GPS systems. The positioning accuracy was evaluated in a fixed position and during operations in agricultural fields. The RTK correction signal was used in connection with soil scanning measurements in different crop fields of the Viikki Research Farm of the University of Helsinki. For accuracy assessment, comparative measurements were carried out with a commercial network RTK (NRTK) correction signal. The vertical and horizontal accuracy of the positioning signal were evaluated based on the accuracy variables calculated by the receiver. The vertical accuracy was also evaluated by mapping the scanned trajectories on the height map which was obtained from NSL (National Land Survey of Finland) open map data service. The custom-built RTK positioning system accuracy was considered generally precise enough for autonomous field work, but the reliability of the observed accuracy should be confirmed with more extensive measurements. The commercial NRTK signal accuracy was considered very good and reliable also for the vertical direction.

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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Bumbiere, K.; Sereda, S.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D.;

    Received: January 30th, 2023 ; Accepted: April 8th, 2023 ; Published: May 3rd , 2023 ; Correspondence: ketija.bumbiere@rtu.lv Agriculture is one of the most energy-consuming sectors in the EU’s economy. Implementing sustainable agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency through energy management is a crucial strategy to tackle climate change. In this paper, the role of energy management in the agricultural sector is studied, and experiences from Europe and the world have been considered. Literature analysis regarding the chosen topic has been conducted, including the methodology of energy management plan development and its implementation in the case study of Latvia. Data from Latvia’s agricultural and other sectors have been analysed and compared. Latvia’s Inventory Report regarding GHG emissions in the agricultural sector was reviewed, and all emission sources in the agricultural sector were highlighted. The primary purpose of the study is to find out if energy management were introduced in an agricultural company, what would be the potential GHG emission, energy savings and additional advantages. Two companies working in Latvia were surveyed, and potential emission and energy consumption reduction measures in agriculture that would be applied to companies were developed. The research showed that by implementing the basic principles of energy management, it would be possible to reduce the average energy consumption by 17%. If measures are applied to reduce GHG emissions from agricultural companies, the average emissions would be reduced by 43%.

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    Authors: Kägo, Riho; Vellak, Priit; Ehrpais, Hendrik; Noorma, Mart; +1 Authors

    Received: June 1st, 2021 ; Accepted: January 3rd, 2022 ; Published: January 11th, 2022 ; Correspondence: riho.kago@emu.ee In this article, power characteristics of a state-of-the-art unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) are characterised. It is demonstrated that in terms of power characteristics requirements, purposebuilt computer aided autonomous UGV systems are capable of replacing systems that utilise conventional tractors in peat field operations, with milled peat extraction operations as a case study. The authors demonstrate the viability of the UGV in achieving optimal mobility capabilities in operating on peatland surface. The UGV of interest was assessed for two operations of milled peat extraction: milling and harrowing. For both operations, the power consumption of the UGV and the drawbar pull of the implements (passive miller and harrower) were measured and analysed. The required drawbar pull values of the investigated implements remained in the range of 4–8 kN, which corresponded to the drawbar power of 14–36 kW. It was found that the UGV of interest is capable of carrying out milled peat operations in terms of traction capacity. However, it was found that the power supply capacity to be insufficient, thus requiring an improved solution.

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    Authors: Änäkkälä, M.; Lehtilä, A.; Mäkelä, P.S.A.; Lajunen, A.;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: April 25th, 2023 ; Published: May 10th, 2023 ; Correspondence: mikael.anakkala@helsinki.fi Interest in forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation for livestock feed has grown in northern conditions. In addition, it is important to develop methods and tools to monitor crop development and other characteristics of the crop. For these purposes UAVs are very efficient and versatile tools. UAVs can be equipped with a variety of sensors like lidar or different types of cameras. Several studies have been conducted where data collected by UAVs are used to estimate different crop properties like yield and biomass. In this research, a forage maize field experiment was studied to examine how well the aerial multispectral data correlated with the different properties of the vegetation. The field test site is located in Helsinki, Finland. A multispectral camera (MicaSense Rededge 3) was used to take images from five spectral bands (Red, Green, Blue, Rededge and NIR). All the images were processed with Pix4D software to generate orthomosaic images. Several vegetation indices were calculated from the five spectral bands. During the growing season, crop height, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI), fresh and dry matter biomass were measured from the vegetation. From the five spectral bands, Rededge had the highest correlation with fresh biomass (R2 = 0.273). The highest correlation for a vegetation index was found between NDRE and chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.809). A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using selected spectral bands and vegetation indices as inputs showed high correlations with the field measurements.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Demikhov, Oleksii Ihorovych; Opanasiuk, Yuliia Anatoliivna; Demikhova, Nadiia Volodymyrivna; Merisalu, Е.;

    Цифровізація активно поширюється і широко впроваджується в системах охорони праці (OHS). Прогресивні технології дозволяють ефективно впроваджувати цифрові системи у всіх елементах циклу управління – від планування до моніторингу, оцінки та рішень у різних секторах економіки. Цілься. Мета статті – дати огляд поточного стану цифрової трансформації в політиці гігієни праці європейських країн та України та визначити позитивні та негативні аспекти цифровізації в системах управління охороною праці. метод. Огляд базується на повних дослідницьких статтях, звітах і матеріалах конференцій у Scopus, Web of Science і базі даних Google Scholar, де ключові слова «оцифрування», «гігієна праці», «безпека», «роботи» та «системи управління» для літератури пошук використовували. Результати. Загалом було проаналізовано 51 джерело, включаючи 23 повні дослідницькі статті та 28 публікацій від EU-OSHA, МОП та ОЕСР. Формування бази даних і використання систем великих даних та інструментів контролю для моніторингу та оцінки робочого середовища, цифрових інструкцій, законодавства та платформ електронного навчання є основними цифровими інструментами в системах управління охороною праці. Використання програм навігатора на робочому місці допомагає зібрати необхідну інформацію та внести правильні норми в закон. Застосування нових цифрових технологій дозволяє ефективніше виконувати функції інспекції охорони праці, обслуговування та запобігання ризикам, а також зменшити виробничі травми та захворювання. Висновки. Нова ідеологія державної політики щодо розробки цифрових систем управління охороною праці (DOHSS) зробить ефективними рішення, засновані на фактичних даних, і досягне високих стандартів безпеки, а також стимулюватиме зростання бізнесу окремих галузей на національному та європейському рівнях. Кращий європейський досвід цифрової трансформації в системи управління охороною праці може бути впроваджений і в Україні. Digitization is actively spreading and widely implemented in the occupational health and safety (OHS) systems. Progressive technologies make it possible to effectively implement digitalised systems in all the elements of management cycle - from planning to monitoring, evaluation and solutions in the different economy sectors. Aim. The purpose of the article is to give a review on the current state of digital transformation in OHS policy of European countries and Ukraine and identify the positive and negative aspects of digitization in OHS management systems. Method. The review is based on full research articles, reports and conference proceedings in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar database, where the keywords ‘digitization’, ‘occupational health’, ‘safety’, ‘robots’ and ‘management systems’ for literature search have used. Results. In total 51 sources were under analysis, including 23 full research articles and 28 publications from EU-OSHA, ILO and OECD. The database formation and use of big data systems and control tools for monitoring and assessing work environment, digital guidelines, legislation and e-teaching platforms are the main digital instruments in OHS management systems. Use of workplace navigator programs helps to collect necessary information and make right regulations by the law. Use of new digital technologies allows more effectively perform OHS inspection, service and risk prevention functions, and diminish work related injuries and illnesses. Conclusions. A new ideology of public policy in developing digitalised OHS management systems (DOHSS) will make the evidence-based solutions effective and achieve high safety standards and stimulate business growth of specific industries on the national and EU level. The best European experiences of digital transformation into OHS management systems can be implemented also in Ukraine.

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    EMU DSpace
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: EMU DSpace
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kuusemets, Laura;

    Master`s Thesis Environmental Governance and Adaptation to Climate Change Curriculum Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for crop growth production. The input of N in the form of fertilisers increases crop yield. On the other hand, agricultural nitrogen inputs can cause N leaching and the loss of N to the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate whether and how different crop species and fertilisation norms affect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil microbiome using the closed chamber method and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. The study was done in the IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) experimental field. The crop species studied were barley, sorghum, and wheat. The fertiliser treatment is constituted of mineral N fertilisation and mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment. Three N fertiliser treatment norms were used: 0, 80 and 160 kg ha−1 . Samples were collected over seven months, from April 2022 to October 2022. qPCR was used to measure the abundance of bacterial and archaeal specific16S rRNA, nitrification (bacterial, archaeal and COMAMMOX amoA genes), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZI and nosZII genes) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; nrfA gene) marker genes from the soil samples. The results of this study indicate that different fertilisation rates influence N2O emissions and the highest N2O emissions are emitted from the highest N fertiliser treatment (160 kg ha−1). Crop species did not have a significant effect on N2O emissions. Sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation combined with farmyard manure amendment had slightly higher average N2O emissions compared to sorghum plots with mineral N fertilisation without manure. The microbial analysis showed nitrification was the primary process resulting in N2O emissions. Lämmastik (N) on kriitilise tähtsusega toitaine taimekasvatuses. Lämmastiku lisamine väetisena tõstab põllukultuuride saagikust. Teisalt, lämmastiku lisamine võib kaasa tuua lämmastiku leostumise ja lämmastiku kaod atmosfääri, panustades globaalsesse kliima soojenemisse. Käesoleva uurimustöö põhieesmärk oli hinnata, kas ja kuidas erinevad põllukultuurid ja väetusnromid mõjutavad dilämmastikoksiidi (N2O) vooge ja mulla mikrobioomi kasutades staatilise pimekambri meetodit ja kvantitatiivset polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR). Uurimistöö tehti IOSDV (International Organic Nitrogen Long-term Fertilisation Experiment) katsepõllul. Uuritud põllukultuurid olid oder, sorgo ja nisu. Väetistöötlus koosnes väetamisest mineraalse lämmastikuga ja tahesõnnikuga kombineeritud mineraalväetamisest. Katses kasutati kolme erinevat mineraalväetise normi: 0, 80 ja 160 kg ha−1 N. Proove koguti seitsme kuu vältel aprillist oktoobrini aastal 2022. Mullaproovidest määrati bakterite ja arhede 16S rRNA, nitrifikatsiooni (bakterite, arhede ja COMAMMOX amoA geenid), denitrifikatsiooni (nirK, nirS, nosZI ja nosZII) ja dissimilatoorse nitraadi reduktsioon ammooniumiks (DNRA; nrfA geen) markergeenide arvukus reaal-aja polümeraasi ahelreaktsiooni (qPCR) meetodil. Töö tulemustest järeldus, et erinevad väetise normed mõjutasid N2O emissioonide kontsentratsiooni ja suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid suurima väetisenormiga lappidelt (160 kg ha−1). Põllukultuurid ei omanud statistiliselt olulist mõju N2O emissioonidele. Mineraalse lämmastiku ja sõnniku kooskasutamisel sorgo lapil olid keskmised N2O vood veidi suuremad võrreldes sorgo lappidega, kus kasutati vaid mineraalset lämmastikväetist. Mikrobioloogilised analüüsid näitasid, et suurimad N2O emissioonid tulenesid nitrifikatsiooni protsessist.

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    Master thesis . 2023
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      Master thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Sampaio de Lima, Raul;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Protection. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks keskkonnakaitse erialal. Introduction. Climate changes are affecting the world, making wildfire understanding vital, and Estonia might experience an increase in the frequency of wildfires in the forthcoming years. Despite efforts to integrate fire management actions and research, many findings remain in "grey literature." This gap calls for formal research to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. Recently, Estonian initiatives seek to foster collaboration between research and government entities. This thesis thus aims to contribute to the topic by developing knowledge on remote sensing, particularly UAV-based approaches, to improve fire management frameworks. Methods. The study involved various Estonian locations. Paper I examined how UAV flight parameters affect data quality in Lahemaa National Park. Papers II and IV estimated aboveground biomass using multispectral imagery and hyperspectral data from the Agricultural Research Centre in Kuusiku, employing diverse machine learning methods and approaches. Paper III predicted soil moisture in Lavassaare Natural Reserve using optical UAV data and partial least squares regression. Lastly, Paper V maps Rosa rugosa occurrence across Estonian coast using UAVs, integrating these findings into a satellite dataset. Results and Conclusions. The study unveiled an optimal UAV collection strategy for Estonian forests, ensuring canopy and forest floor reconstruction. Machine learning and AutoML frameworks proved effective in estimating biomass, paving the way for automated algorithms. Developing distinct models or conducting field surveys at various periods emerged as the most effective approach for accurate soil moisture modelling. Lastly, a UAV-based methods aided post-fire monitoring and species mapping, allowing assessments beyond surveyed areas. Thus, the importance of these datasets shifted across management stages. Multispectral data aided pre-fire soil moisture estimation, while post-fire used photogrammetry for exposed areas. Integrating diverse remote sensing data improved modelling results, overcoming transferability challenges. Complementary use of RS and field data enhanced modelling, particularly in complex environments. Findings underlined potential in merging remote sensing data for precise variable modelling, enhancing accuracy and agreement toward improved fire management systems. Sissejuhatus. Kliimamuutused mõjutavad maailma, muutes metsatulekahjude mõistmise hädavajalikuks, ning Eestis võib lähiaastatel sageneda metsatulekahjude esinemissagedus. Hoolimata jõupingutustest integreerida tuleohjamise meetmeid ja teadustööd, jäävad paljud uuringud "halli kirjandusse". See lünk nõuab formaalset uurimustööd nende strateegiate tõhususe hindamiseks. Hiljutised Eesti algatused püüavad edendada koostööd teadus- ja valitsusasutuste vahel. Seetõttu eesmärk ongi käesoleva doktoritööga arendada teadmisi kaugseire valdkonnas, eriti mehitamata õhusõidukite (UAV) põhiste lähenemiste kaudu, et parandada tuleohjamise raamistikke. Materjal ja metoodika. Uuring hõlmas erinevaid Eesti asukohti. Artikkel I uuris, kuidas UAV lendude parameetrid mõjutavad andmete kvaliteeti Lahemaa rahvuspargis. Artiklid II ja IV hindasid ülemise maa biomassi kasutades multispektraalseid ja hüperspektraalseid andmeid Põllumajandusuuringute Keskusest Kuusikust, rakendades mitmekesiseid masinõppe meetodeid ja lähenemisi. Artikkel III prognoosis pinnase niiskust Lavassaare looduskaitsealal, kasutades optilisi UAV andmeid ja osalist vähimruutude regressiooni. Lõpuks, artikkel V kaardistas Rosa rugosa esinemist üle Eesti rannajoone, kasutades UAV-sid ja ühendades need leiud satelliidi andmestikuga. Tulemused ja järeldused. Uuring näitas optimaalset UAV andmete kogumise strateegiat Eesti metsades, tagades krooni ja metsapõranda rekonstrueerimise võrreldes laserskaneerimise andmekvaliteediga. Masinõppe ja AutoML raamistikud osutusid tõhusaks ülemise maa biomassi hindamisel, avades tee automatiseeritud algoritmidele. Erinevate mudelite arendamine või välitööde teostamine erinevatel perioodidel osutus kõige tõhusamaks meetodiks täpse pinnase niiskuse modelleerimisel. Lõpuks aitas UAV-põhine meetod jälgida tulekahjude järelvalvet ja liikide kaardistamist, võimaldades hindamist ka välitööde piirkondade kaugemale. Seega muutus nende andmete tähtsus tuleohjamise etappide vahel. Multispektraalsed andmed aitasid ennetavalt hinnata pinnase niiskust, samas kui järeltulekahjude kontekstis kasutati fotogrammetriat paljastatud alade jaoks. Erinevate kaugseire andmete integreerimine parandas modelleerimistulemusi, ületades ülekantavuse väljakutsed. Kaugseire ja välitööde andmete komplementaarne kasutamine täiustas modelleerimist, eriti keerulistes keskkondades. Leiud rõhutasid kaugseire andmete ühendamise potentsiaali täpseks muutuva muutuja modelleerimiseks, suurendades täpsust ja kokkulepet paremate tuleohjamissüsteemide poole. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences and by the Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology, created under the auspices of the European Social Fund.

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    EMU DSpace
    Doctoral thesis . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Doctoral thesis . 2023
      Data sources: EMU DSpace
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Madsen, Helena; Luik, Anne; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Mäeorg, Erkki; +1 Authors