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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrzej Tukiendorf; Grażyna Kamińska-Winciorek; Marcus D. Lancé; Katarzyna Olszak-Wąsik; +3 Authors

    4K cases) in Central Europe, focusing on the agricultural sector. The data comprised all the registered cancer cases (C43, according to the International Classification of Diseases after the 10th Revision) between the years 2004–2013 by the Regional Cancer Registries (RCRs) in Opole and Gliwice. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), spatio-temporal growth rates (GRs), and disease cluster relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Based on the regression coefficients, we have indicated irregularities of spatial variance in cutaneous malignant melanoma, especially in older women (≥60), and a possible age-migrating effect of agricultural population density on the risk of malignant melanoma in Upper Silesia. All the estimates were illustrated in choropleth thematic maps. The aim of the present study was to create spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) incidence in Upper Silesia, Poland, using the largest MM database (<

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anna Bontšutšnaja; Reet Karise; Marika Mänd; Guy Smagghe;

    Simple Summary Pollinators make a strong contribution to ecosystem stability. However, nowadays, they also need protection and sustainable habitat to live and develop. Not all regions can provide suitable habitats due to agricultural intensification, urbanization, climate changes and corresponding impacts. Our study was conducted in the late spring in south Estonia where arable lands were surrounded by forest patches and rural areas. For better performance, we used both light microscopy and DNA metabarcoding methods for pollen identification. We found that bumble bees foraged on the diverse food sources showing preferences for several main plant families. Additionally, in our case, land-use types did not show important effects on bumble bee food choices and foraging decisions. Various landscape features can provide diverse food sources at the early development stages and support nest longevity. Here, we can say that a better understanding of pollinators’ food preferences can help in the application of more suitable measures for their conservation. Abstract Agricultural landscapes usually provide higher quantities of single-source food, which are noticeably lacking in diversity and might thus have low nutrient value for bumble bee colony development. Here, in this study, we analysed the pollen foraging preferences over a large territory of a heterogeneous agricultural landscape: southern Estonia. We aimed to assess the botanical diversity of bumble bee food plants in the spring time there. We looked for preferences for some food plants or signs of food shortage that could be associated with any particular landscape features. For this purpose, we took Bombus terrestris commercial hives to the landscape, performed microscopy analyses and improved the results with the innovative DNA metabarcoding technique to determine the botanical origin of bumble bee-collected pollen. We found high variability of forage plants with no strong relationship with any particular landscape features. Based on the low number of plant species in single flights, we deduce that the availability of main forage plants is sufficient indicating rich forage availabilities. Despite specific limitations, we saw strong correlations between microscopy and DNA metabarcoding data usable for quantification analyses. As a conclusion, we saw that the spring-time vegetation in southern Estonia can support bumble bee colony development regardless of the detailed landscape structure. The absence of clearly dominating food preference by the tested generalist bumble bee species B. terrestris makes us suggest that other bumble bee species, at least food generalists, should also find plenty of forage in their early development phase.

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    Insects
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Insects
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      Insects
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Insects
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sikandar M. Zulqarnain Khan; Yannick Le Moullec; Muhammad Mahtab Alam;

    Machine Learning (ML) techniques can play a pivotal role in energy efficient IoT networks by reducing the unnecessary data from transmission. With such an aim, this work combines a low-power, yet computationally capable processing unit, with an NB-IoT radio into a smart gateway that can run ML algorithms to smart transmit visual data over the NB-IoT network. The proposed smart gateway utilizes supervised and unsupervised ML algorithms to optimize the visual data in terms of their size and quality before being transmitted over the air. This relaxes the channel occupancy from an individual NB-IoT radio, reduces its energy consumption and also minimizes the transmission time of data. Our on-field results indicate up to 93% reductions in the number of NB-IoT radio transmissions, up to 90.5% reductions in the NB-IoT radio energy consumption and up to 90% reductions in the data transmission time.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sensorsarrow_drop_down
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    Sensors
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Sensors
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Sensors
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sensorsarrow_drop_down
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      Sensors
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Joan Casanelles-Abella; David Frey; Stefanie Müller; Cristiana Aleixo; +9 Authors

    This article summarizes the data of a survey of flowering plants in 80 sites in five European cities and urban agglomerations (Antwerp, Belgium; greater Paris, France; Poznan, Poland; Tartu, Estonia; and Zurich, Switzerland). Sampling sites were selected based on a double orthogonal gradient of size and connectivity and were urban green areas (e.g. parks, cemeteries). To characterize the flowering plants, two sampling methodologies were applied between April and July 2018. First, a floristic inventory of the occurrence of all flowering plants in the five cities. Second, flower counts in sampling plots of standardized size (1 m2) only in Zurich. We sampled 2146 plant species (contained in 824 genera and 137 families) and across the five cities. For each plant species, we provide its origin status (i.e. whether the plants are native from Europe or not) and 11 functional traits potentially important for plant-pollinator interactions. For each study site, we provide the number of species, genera, and families recorded, the Shannon diversity as well as the proportion of exotic species, herbs, shrubs and trees. In addition, we provide information on the patch size, connectivity, and urban intensity, using four remote sensing-based proxies measured at 100- and 800-m radii. Data in Brief, 37 ISSN:2352-3409

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    Data in Brief
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Universidade de Lisboa: Repositório.UL
    Other literature type . 2021
    License: CC BY
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    Data in Brief
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2021
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2021
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      Data in Brief
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Universidade de Lisboa: Repositório.UL
      Other literature type . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2021
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Victor R. Kebande; Feras M. Awaysheh; Richard Adeyemi Ikuesan; Sadi Alawadi; +1 Authors

    Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled Internet-of-Things (IoT)-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines and Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or ineffective authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected edge to cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication were proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on the Dolev–Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) triad. Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-09-09 (beamah);Forskningsfinansiärer: European Regional Development Funds (MOBTT75); Taif University Researchers Supporting Project (TURSP-2020/126)

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    Sensors
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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      Article . 2021
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      https://europepmc.org/articles...
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    Authors: Luigi Orrù; Loredana Canfora; Alessandra Trinchera; Melania Migliore; +4 Authors

    Massive sequencing of fungal communities showed that climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, are feasible predictors of fungal richness and community composition. This study, based on a long-term field experiment with tillage and no-tillage management since 1995 and with a crop rotation introduced in 2009, confirmed that tillage practices shape soil properties and impact soil fungal communities. Results highlighted higher biodiversity of saprotrophic fungi in soil sites with low disturbance and an inverse correlation between the biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. We speculated how their mutual exclusion could be due to a substrate-mediated niche partitioning or by space segregation. Moreover, where the soil was ploughed, the species were evenly distributed. There was higher spatial variability in the absence of ploughing, with fungal taxa distributed according to a small-scale pattern, corresponding to micro-niches that probably remained undisturbed and heterogeneously distributed. Many differentially represented OTUs in all the conditions investigated were unidentified species or OTUs matching at high taxa level (i.e., phylum, class, order). Among the fungi with key roles in all the investigated conditions, there were several yeast species known to have pronounced endemism in soil and are also largely unidentified. In addition to yeasts, other fungal species emerged as either indicator of a kind of management or as strongly associated with a specific condition. Plant residues played a substantial role in defining the assortment of species.

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    Frontiers in Microbiology
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      Frontiers in Microbiology
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    Authors: Raul Vicente; Raul Vicente; Youssef Mohamed; Victor M. Eguíluz; +7 Authors

    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has brought the world to a standstill. Healthcare systems are critical to maintain during pandemics, however, providing service to sick patients has posed a hazard to frontline healthcare workers (HCW) and particularly those caring for elderly patients. Various approaches are investigated to improve safety for HCW and patients. One promising avenue is the use of robots. Here, we model infectious spread based on real spatio-temporal precise personal interactions from a geriatric unit and test different scenarios of robotic integration. We find a significant mitigation of contamination rates when robots specifically replace a moderate fraction of high-risk healthcare workers, who have a high number of contacts with patients and other HCW. While the impact of robotic integration is significant across a range of reproductive number R0, the largest effect is seen when R0 is slightly above its critical value. Our analysis suggests that a moderate-sized robotic integration can represent an effective measure to significantly reduce the spread of pathogens with Covid-19 transmission characteristics in a small hospital unit. RV thanks the financial support from the Estonian Center of Excellence in IT (EXCITE) funded by the European Regional Development Fund, through the research grant TK148. This research was funded by “la Caixa” Foundation’s Social Research Call 2021 under the project code SR20-00386 to VME, and by grants from the Heidi Demetriades Foundation, the ETH Zurich Foundation, and the Henan Provincial People’s Hospital Outstanding Talents Founding Grant Project to AZ. Peer reviewed

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    Frontiers in Robotics and AI
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Robotics and AI
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    Authors: Zsófia Benedek; Imre Fertő; Cristina Marreiros; Pâmela Mossmann de Aguiar; +5 Authors

    This paper explores to what extent product and marketing channel diversification contributed to the economic success of small-scale agricultural producers involved in short food supply chains after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was conducted between April and July 2020 in four countries of the European Union–Estonia, Hungary, Portugal and Romania,–resulting in a relatively large sample of farmers (N = 421). The analysis was built on a semi-nonparametric approach. Approximately 19 percent of small-scale producers were able to increase sales during the first wave of the pandemic, although country-level variation was significant. Fruits and vegetables were by far the most popular products. The importance of specific channels varied across countries, but farm gate sales were among the most important marketing channels both before and during the first wave. The importance of channels that were based on digital resources and home delivery increased. Our evidence indicates that diversification was a strategy that paid off, both in terms of marketing channels and different product categories. However, the impact appears to be nonlinear; the initial advantage generated by diversification rapidly tapered off, either temporarily (in the case of products), or permanently (in the case of marketing channels). Later research may clarify whether these findings are generalizable in other socio-economic contexts, as well as in a non-COVID situation.

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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
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    Authors: Minaxi Sharma; Rajeev Bhat; Zeba Usmani; David Julian McClements; +3 Authors

    Received: 14 May 2021; Accepted: 17 May 2021; Published: 20 May 2021. Currently, there is a strong enduring interest towards obtaining high-value, sustainable bio-based bioactive compounds from natural resources, as there is great demand for these compounds in various market sectors such as agriculture, food, pharma, cosmeceuticals, and others. This demand has encouraged researchers to isolate, identify and characterize novel natural bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic and commercial values with industrial importance [1]. These bioactive compounds are generally secondary metabolites (synthesized via plant biosynthetic pathways) and include polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, sterols, dietary fiber, essential vitamins, coenzyme Q, phytosterols, glucosinolates and others with potential beneficial roles as nutraceuticals, surfactants and bio-stimulants. Understanding the molecular characteristics, physicochemical properties, biological activity, and stability of these bioactives under different conditions is vital for their commercial exploitation. The efficacy of these bioactives can often be improved by encapsulating them in nanobased-formulations designed for application in the agriculture, food, pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems can be designed to increase the dispersibility, stability, bioavailability, and bioactivity imparted by the bioactives. Moreover, they may be useful for minimizing undesirable side-effects, facilitating targeted delivery to certain cells, and enhancing the shelf life of food products. The bioactive molecules are partly or wholly derived from resources of biological origin mainly those of plants, animal and microbial resources (e.g., biomass/feed stock from agri-food sector, food wastes and by-products, algae, marine organisms, etc.). These molecules have recently emerged on the global market as a highly reliable environmentally friendly alternative to chemically synthesized compounds. The natural bioactive compounds provide additional benefits to health and overall wellbeing beyond basic nutrition. For instance, bioactive compounds have been well established for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-hypertensive and other biological activities under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The isolation, purification and safety efficacy of these compounds obtained from natural resources is a vital criterion that needs to be considered. Funding: V.K.G. would like to acknowledge the institutional research funding supported by the Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC), UK. Authors (M.S. and R.B.) acknowledge ERA-Chair for Food (By-) Products Valorization Technologies of the Estonian University of Life Sciences (VALORTECH) which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 810630.

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    Biomolecules
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
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    Authors: Rocchini; Duccio; Thouverai; Elisa; +66 Authors

    AbstractEcosystem heterogeneity has been widely recognized as a key ecological feature, influencing several ecological functions, since it is strictly related to several ecological functions like diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, population connectivity, or gene flow.In this paper, we present a new R package - rasterdiv - to calculate heterogeneity indices based on remotely sensed data. We also provide an ecological application at the landscape scale and demonstrate its power in revealing potentially hidden heterogeneity patterns.The rasterdiv package allows calculating multiple indices, robustly rooted in Information Theory, and based on reproducible open source algorithms.

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    Methods in Ecology and Evolution
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    Methods in Ecology and Evolution
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