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  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • Metsanduslikud Uurimused

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leatrice Talita Rodrigues; Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract Complex mixtures of substances are in the atmosphere and they can cause diseases in humans and biological communities after acute or chronic exposition. This paper focuses on the physical measurement of particulate matter, a proxy for air pollution, and a biological method for mutation assessment due to plants’ exposure to air pollution. The objective of this research was to characterize the air pollution seasonality in municipalities in southern Brazil, and also to understand the relation between air pollution and the biological response of the Tradescantia sp. clone 4430. The optical sensor SDS011 was used for measurements of particulate matter (PM) and the Trad-SHM bioassay was chosen to quantify the mutagenic alterations that occurred in stamen hairs during the study period, with PM data being measured every 5 seconds and the flowers being harvested approximately every two weeks for laboratory analysis. The Pearson test was applied to verify the correlation between PM and mutations in stamen hair as a result of which it was observed that there is a positive correlation between these data, with the highest value found being r = 0.61. Also, the period with the highest occurrence of pink cells was between autumn and spring, the same period in which an unusual increase in PM concentrations was also observed, a period that corresponds to a less favorable dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The use of Tradescantia sp. clone 4430 showed sensitivity to the environments in which it was exposed. Biomonitoring is an important tool for understanding the effects of pollutants on the ecosystem.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Toomas Tamm; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract The carbon and water fluxes and their inter-relations are key aspects of ecosystem dynamics. In this study, regionalization was used in transferring parameters from the GR4J-Cemaneige model calibrated in Reola hydrographic basin to predict daily flows in Kalli basin; both watersheds are located in the southeast of Estonia. Evapotranspiration data was collected from the MODIS sensor of the Terra satellite and from the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR Estonia). Precipitation data was collected from Tartu–Tõravere and SMEAR Estonia stations and river flow from Reola hydrometric station. The year 2011 was used for model warm-up, model calibration was done in 2012–2017 and the 2018–2020 period was used for validation. The GR4J-Cemaneige model was calibrated at Reola Basin, with a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index of 0.73. The 6 constants of Reola subbasin were transferred to Kalli subbasin for river flow simulation. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was measured at the 70 m SMEAR tower with the eddy covariance technique. The balances indicate that the ecosystem at Kalli watershed is slowly becoming a source of carbon and less water is available at the catchment reservoir. NEE has increased from -1.23 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2015 to -0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2020, while the delta water storage decreased from 0.24 mm in 2015 to -0.05 mm in 2020. This behavior may increase soil drying and oxidation, and it will probably release more carbon in the future. This research allows a better understanding of the Järvselja hemi-boreal forest water-carbon dynamics.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Allar Padari; Andres Kiviste; Diana Laarmann; Ahto Kangur;

    Abstract The stand level gross volume increment models are used to estimate the future production of tree stands. Very often, the stand growth and yield in the models used in practice are described by the tree volume increment that includes the diameter growth function with the tree height together with stem taper as the input variables. The currently used function of stand volume increment in Estonia included also stand relative density as an additional input variable. In the current study, we developed a basal area increment function based on the periodic measurement data of the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP). As in the earlier model of stand volume increment developed by Priit Kohava, in the current model the basal area increment of tree species is developed for a pure stand, and for mixed stands, the proportion of the tree species’ basal area is used. The tests in our data indicated that the periodic increment prognosis had good fit in the case of variable share of tree species in the main storey and coincide with the earlier studies by Finnish and Swedish colleagues. The developed model of basal area increment predictions are expectedly higher than the earlier model predictions for the most tree species and stand relative densities.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Azadeh Rezapour; Mohammadreza Labbafi; Tõnu Oja;

    Abstract We compiled data from 149 paired observations from 43 publications and performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the variability of trees’ fine root trait responses under various global soil warming experiments. The impacts of warming magnitude, soil depth, and different tree species (deciduous vs. coniferous), on the responses of fine root biomass (FRB), and fine root morphology were assessed in this study. Our results confirmed that soil warming increased FRB while having no significant effect on fine root morphological traits, such as specific root length (SRL), specific root area (SRA), and diameter (D). The effect of warming on FRB decreased significantly at higher warming magnitude. The effect of tree species was also evident in the response of FRB to soil warming magnitude. Furthermore, warming effects on SRA and D increased in deeper soil horizons. The present meta-analysis provides an improved understanding of trees’ fine roots and the tree species-specific adaptive strategy under future soil warming episodes. Our results suggest that trees will resist the altering soil warming conditions by modifications more in fine root biomass allocation rather than morphological adjustments.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eneli Põldveer; Diana Laarmann; Henn Korjus;

    Abstract As the focus in forestry is moving from timber production to prioritized economic benefits and better integration of ecological-social functions, practical forest management is shifting towards promoting diverse stand structures. Promoting stand structural heterogeneity requires accurate and profound evaluations of spatial stand structure that are generally not provided during conventional forest inventories. In this paper, different indices describing the heterogeneity of the stand and the spatial arrangement of trees, including their size, condition and species were assessed. Indices were applied to the inventory data collected from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots. The results show that the studied structural indices are useful in assessment of Estonian forest stands. The practical importance of structural indices will increase in future as there will be a need for methods for characterizing forest stand structural diversity at a large scale, for example, derived from high-resolution remote sensing data.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mait Lang; Jaan Praks;

    Abstract The view angle range of Sentinel-1 SAR in the Interferometric Wide swath (IW) measurement mode is 29.1° – 46.0°. The dependence of backscatter on the arbitrary local incidence angle is usually corrected using a linear regression model where the incidence angle is a predictor variable. We analysed the whole time series of Sentinel-1 SAR VV-polarised backscatter over the flat 15×15 km test site in Laeva, Estonia (26° 26′ 43″ E; 58° 31′ 56″ N). Time series containing measurements from three different orbits were constructed for 3,159 stands from nighttime data and for 1,105 stands from daytime data. We can confirm that daytime backscatter is systematically greater than nighttime backscatter. We found a significant deviation from linearity in the backscatter dependence on local incidence angle. The empirical finding may be caused by the microwave scattering dependence on local incidence angle or by the influence of Sentinel-1 SAR sub-swath configuration in the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans SAR (TOPSAR) method that is used for the measurements.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Andres Kiviste; Allar Padari; Sandra Metslaid;

    Abstract Knowledge about the seasonal dynamics of tree growth and its relationship with environmental factors is necessary to eliminate the uncertainty due to ongoing climate change and for more precise growth modelling when re-measurements are done periodically. Despite the increasing number of studies monitoring seasonal wood formation, a considerable part of European forests, including Estonia, lacks such information. In this article, we present a date-dependent model for determining the share of seasonal radial growth for the three most common tree species in the region (Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch) for Estonian conditions. Since seasonal tree growth monitoring data were unavailable for Estonia, we used published seasonal radial growth data from Lithuania by Dr Adomas Vitas (2011). We tested four functions (Kumaraswamy, Weibull, Gompertz and logistic) on obtained data to approximate the seasonal development of radial growth. Kumaraswamy’s function could track the course of seasonal radial growth gains the best; thus, this function was chosen for further use. We obtained data on intra-annual radial growth from published research studies from neighbouring countries and determined the dates of growth initiation and cessation for Estonian conditions. Finally, we combined Kumaraswamy’s function and the predicted radial growth onset and cessation dates into the model that could predict the seasonal growth course and thus were able to estimate the share of newly formed increment from the dates.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kaupo Kokamägi; Rauno Künnapuu; Natalja Liba;

    Abstract This paper provides an overview of a small research project. The object of the research was a 16 km2 forested area located in the territory of Järvselja Study and Experimental Forest, Estonia, which was damaged by storms in June 2021. The aim of the study was to investigate whether it is possible and reasonable to estimate the area of storm damage using orthophotos created from photographs collected from unmanned aircraft. The surveying was carried out on July 13–15, 2021. The data was collected via unmanned aerial vehicles with RGB-cameras on board. A multi-rotor drone DJI Phantom 3 Professional and a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft eBee X were used. In total, the eBee drone was flown 11 times to obtain 11,989 photos and the DJI drone 18 times to obtain 2,471 photos. During the project, it became clear that if there are open fields available, it is more efficient to use a fixed-wing type drone for this kind of research. However, in more difficult conditions where there are no clearances suitable for take-off and landing, a multi-rotor drone, such as the DJI, can be used instead. It can be concluded from the results of the work that although it is possible to use an unmanned aircraft for aerial photography of large forested areas, it takes a considerable amount of time for both photography and post-processing. It took 96 man-hours to collect the data and four working weeks to process the data.

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    Authors: Valdek Tamme; Alar Jänes; Tavo Romann; Hannes Tamme; +2 Authors

    Abstract Wood moisture content (MC) has a significant impact on all electrical properties of wood. Regarding the development of the (so-called polarization-type) wood moisture meter with the electrical charging effect for monitoring and controlling the wood drying process, it is of interest to expand the theoretical background of this type of novel wood moisture meter by means of modelling. Two mediums were selected for modelling – raw birch wood and, as a reference medium, birch liquid sap – into which two symmetrical carbon fibre measuring electrodes were inserted. In both mediums, direct current and alternating current were passed between electrodes at different electrode potentials. The electrical field and electrical response of the current-affected mediums were then measured and modelled in the time domain and frequency domain. The numerical results of modelling are comparable both in the time domain and frequency domain (i.e. if E = 1.8V, then Cs = 0.5 mF and C1,int = 0.7 mF). The concept of energetic chargeability (CHA(W)) of wood was defined and compared to conventional chargeability as defined by C. Schlumberger in 1913. Empirical dependencies of CHA(W) on electrode potential and primary energy W1 transmitted through the wood (sap) medium were found. In the frequency domain, frequency dependencies were found to distinguish between adsorption processes and mixed kinetics ranges in birch sap and in raw birch wood.

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    Authors: Paavo Kaimre; Vivika Kängsepp;

    Abstract The article provides an overview of the experience of using shelterwood systems in Estonia and the methodological aspects of their economic assessment. The methodology is tested with calculations made on the management alternatives of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Rhodococcum site type. Based on the Estonian forest management rules and the results of previous silvicultural studies, the management models were elaborated for different types of shelterwood harvesting. The difference model was used when predicting stand development, the actual prices of different wood assortments and the actual cost of management activities were used in calculations. The net present value of cash flows is used as a criterion, which allows comparing management periods of different lengths. Calculations were performed for three different periods: one regeneration felling cycle, two regeneration felling cycles and perpetual management cycles. The results of different types of shelterwood systems are compared with the results of clear-cutting scenarios. The calculations indicate that in the short term, the net present value of the different types of shelterwood harvesting and clear-cutting are quite similar. The results of the first cycle of regeneration felling are most affected by the costs of cultivation and tending of a plantation and young forest. In the long run, clear-cutting will have an advantage over shelterwood harvesting, as the stand regeneration period is shorter.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leatrice Talita Rodrigues; Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract Complex mixtures of substances are in the atmosphere and they can cause diseases in humans and biological communities after acute or chronic exposition. This paper focuses on the physical measurement of particulate matter, a proxy for air pollution, and a biological method for mutation assessment due to plants’ exposure to air pollution. The objective of this research was to characterize the air pollution seasonality in municipalities in southern Brazil, and also to understand the relation between air pollution and the biological response of the Tradescantia sp. clone 4430. The optical sensor SDS011 was used for measurements of particulate matter (PM) and the Trad-SHM bioassay was chosen to quantify the mutagenic alterations that occurred in stamen hairs during the study period, with PM data being measured every 5 seconds and the flowers being harvested approximately every two weeks for laboratory analysis. The Pearson test was applied to verify the correlation between PM and mutations in stamen hair as a result of which it was observed that there is a positive correlation between these data, with the highest value found being r = 0.61. Also, the period with the highest occurrence of pink cells was between autumn and spring, the same period in which an unusual increase in PM concentrations was also observed, a period that corresponds to a less favorable dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The use of Tradescantia sp. clone 4430 showed sensitivity to the environments in which it was exposed. Biomonitoring is an important tool for understanding the effects of pollutants on the ecosystem.

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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emílio Graciliano Ferreira Mercuri; Toomas Tamm; Steffen Manfred Noe;

    Abstract The carbon and water fluxes and their inter-relations are key aspects of ecosystem dynamics. In this study, regionalization was used in transferring parameters from the GR4J-Cemaneige model calibrated in Reola hydrographic basin to predict daily flows in Kalli basin; both watersheds are located in the southeast of Estonia. Evapotranspiration data was collected from the MODIS sensor of the Terra satellite and from the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR Estonia). Precipitation data was collected from Tartu–Tõravere and SMEAR Estonia stations and river flow from Reola hydrometric station. The year 2011 was used for model warm-up, model calibration was done in 2012–2017 and the 2018–2020 period was used for validation. The GR4J-Cemaneige model was calibrated at Reola Basin, with a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index of 0.73. The 6 constants of Reola subbasin were transferred to Kalli subbasin for river flow simulation. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was measured at the 70 m SMEAR tower with the eddy covariance technique. The balances indicate that the ecosystem at Kalli watershed is slowly becoming a source of carbon and less water is available at the catchment reservoir. NEE has increased from -1.23 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2015 to -0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 in 2020, while the delta water storage decreased from 0.24 mm in 2015 to -0.05 mm in 2020. This behavior may increase soil drying and oxidation, and it will probably release more carbon in the future. This research allows a better understanding of the Järvselja hemi-boreal forest water-carbon dynamics.

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    Authors: Allar Padari; Andres Kiviste; Diana Laarmann; Ahto Kangur;

    Abstract The stand level gross volume increment models are used to estimate the future production of tree stands. Very often, the stand growth and yield in the models used in practice are described by the tree volume increment that includes the diameter growth function with the tree height together with stem taper as the input variables. The currently used function of stand volume increment in Estonia included also stand relative density as an additional input variable. In the current study, we developed a basal area increment function based on the periodic measurement data of the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP). As in the earlier model of stand volume increment developed by Priit Kohava, in the current model the basal area increment of tree species is developed for a pure stand, and for mixed stands, the proportion of the tree species’ basal area is used. The tests in our data indicated that the periodic increment prognosis had good fit in the case of variable share of tree species in the main storey and coincide with the earlier studies by Finnish and Swedish colleagues. The developed model of basal area increment predictions are expectedly higher than the earlier model predictions for the most tree species and stand relative densities.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Azadeh Rezapour; Mohammadreza Labbafi; Tõnu Oja;

    Abstract We compiled data from 149 paired observations from 43 publications and performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the variability of trees’ fine root trait responses under various global soil warming experiments. The impacts of warming magnitude, soil depth, and different tree species (deciduous vs. coniferous), on the responses of fine root biomass (FRB), and fine root morphology were assessed in this study. Our results confirmed that soil warming increased FRB while having no significant effect on fine root morphological traits, such as specific root length (SRL), specific root area (SRA), and diameter (D). The effect of warming on FRB decreased significantly at higher warming magnitude. The effect of tree species was also evident in the response of FRB to soil warming magnitude. Furthermore, warming effects on SRA and D increased in deeper soil horizons. The present meta-analysis provides an improved understanding of trees’ fine roots and the tree species-specific adaptive strategy under future soil warming episodes. Our results suggest that trees will resist the altering soil warming conditions by modifications more in fine root biomass allocation rather than morphological adjustments.

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    Authors: Eneli Põldveer; Diana Laarmann; Henn Korjus;

    Abstract As the focus in forestry is moving from timber production to prioritized economic benefits and better integration of ecological-social functions, practical forest management is shifting towards promoting diverse stand structures. Promoting stand structural heterogeneity requires accurate and profound evaluations of spatial stand structure that are generally not provided during conventional forest inventories. In this paper, different indices describing the heterogeneity of the stand and the spatial arrangement of trees, including their size, condition and species were assessed. Indices were applied to the inventory data collected from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots. The results show that the studied structural indices are useful in assessment of Estonian forest stands. The practical importance of structural indices will increase in future as there will be a need for methods for characterizing forest stand structural diversity at a large scale, for example, derived from high-resolution remote sensing data.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref