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933 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paavo Kaimre; Vivika Kängsepp;

    Abstract The article provides an overview of the experience of using shelterwood systems in Estonia and the methodological aspects of their economic assessment. The methodology is tested with calculations made on the management alternatives of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Rhodococcum site type. Based on the Estonian forest management rules and the results of previous silvicultural studies, the management models were elaborated for different types of shelterwood harvesting. The difference model was used when predicting stand development, the actual prices of different wood assortments and the actual cost of management activities were used in calculations. The net present value of cash flows is used as a criterion, which allows comparing management periods of different lengths. Calculations were performed for three different periods: one regeneration felling cycle, two regeneration felling cycles and perpetual management cycles. The results of different types of shelterwood systems are compared with the results of clear-cutting scenarios. The calculations indicate that in the short term, the net present value of the different types of shelterwood harvesting and clear-cutting are quite similar. The results of the first cycle of regeneration felling are most affected by the costs of cultivation and tending of a plantation and young forest. In the long run, clear-cutting will have an advantage over shelterwood harvesting, as the stand regeneration period is shorter.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Thouverai, Elisa; Marcantonio, Matteo; Lenoir, Jonathan; Galfré, Mariasole; +20 Authors

    Spatio-ecological heterogeneity is strongly linked to many ecological processes and functions such as plant species diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, and gene flow. Remote sensing is particularly useful for measuring spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems over wide regions with repeated measurements in space and time. Besides, developing free and open source algorithms for ecological modelling from space is vital to allow to prove workflows of analysis reproducible. From this point of view, NASA developed programs like the Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) to support the development of algorithms for exploiting spaceborne remotely sensed data to provide a relatively fast but accurate estimate of ecological properties in vast areas over time. Most of the indices to measure heterogeneity from space are point descriptors : they catch only part of the whole heterogeneity spectrum. Under the SBG umbrella, in this paper we provide a new R function part of the rasterdiv R package which allows to calculate spatio-ecological heterogeneity and its variation over time by considering all its possible facets. The new function was tested on two different case studies, on multi- and hyperspectral images, proving to be an effective tool to measure heterogeneity and detect its changes over time.

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    Ecological Complexity
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      ZENODO
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      Ecological Complexity
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Henn Korjus; Andres Kiviste; Maris Hordo;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Metsanduslikud Uurim...arrow_drop_down
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stéphane C. K. Tékouabou; Jérôme Chenal; Rida Azmi; Hamza Toulni; +2 Authors

    With the increase in the amount and variety of data that are constantly produced, collected, and exchanged between systems, the efficiency and accuracy of solutions/services that use data as input may suffer if an inappropriate or inaccurate technique, method, or tool is chosen to deal with them. This paper presents a global overview of urban data sources and structures used to train machine learning (ML) algorithms integrated into urban planning decision support systems (DSS). It contributes to a common understanding of choosing the right urban data for a given urban planning issue, i.e., their type, source and structure, for more efficient use in training ML models. For the purpose of this study, we conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) of all relevant peer-reviewed studies available in the Scopus database. More precisely, 248 papers were found to be relevant with their further analysis using a text-mining approach to determine (a) the main urban data sources used for ML modeling, (b) the most popular approaches used in relevant urban planning and urban problem-solving studies and their relationship to the type of data source used, and (c) the problems commonly encountered in their use. After classifying them, we identified the strengths and weaknesses of data sources depending on several predefined factors. We found that the data mainly come from two main categories of sources, namely (1) sensors and (2) statistical surveys, including social network data. They can be classified as (a) opportunistic or (b) non-opportunistic depending on the process of data acquisition, collection, and storage. Data sources are closely correlated with their structure and potential urban planning issues to be addressed. Almost all urban data have an indexed structure and, in particular, either attribute tables for statistical survey data and data from simple sensors (e.g., climate and pollution sensors) or vectors, mostly obtained from satellite images after large-scale spatio-temporal analysis. The paper also provides a discussion of the potential opportunities, emerging issues, and challenges that urban data sources face and should overcome to better catalyze intelligent/smart planning. This should contribute to the general understanding of the data, their sources and the challenges to be faced and overcome by those seeking data and integrating them into smart applications and urban-planning processes.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Greaves, C; Crivellaro, A; Piermattei, A; Krusic, PJ; +7 Authors

    Abstract Key message An exceptionally high number of blue rings were formed within and between Scots pine trees from Estonia in 1976: a year that is well known for its outstanding summer heatwave over Western Europe, but its extreme autumnal cooling over Eastern Europe has so far been neglected in scientific literature. Abstract ‘Blue rings’ (BRs) are visual indicators of less lignified cell walls typically formed towards the end of a tree’s growing season. Though BRs have been associated with ephemeral surface cooling, often following large volcanic eruptions, the intensity of cold spells necessary to produce BRs, as well as the consistency of their formation within and between trees still remains uncertain. Here, we report an exceptionally high BR occurrence within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees at two sites in Estonia, including the first published whole-stem analysis for BRs. Daily meteorological measurements from a nearby station allowed us to investigate the role temperature has played in BR formation since the beginning of the twentieth century. The single year in which BRs were consistently formed within and amongst most trees was 1976. While the summer of 1976 is well known for an exceptional heatwave in Northwest Europe, mean September and October temperatures were remarkably low over Eastern Europe, and 3.8 °C below the 1961–1990 mean at our sites. Our findings contribute to a better eco-physiological interpretation of BRs, and further demonstrate their ability to reveal ephemeral cooling not captured by dendrochronological ring width and latewood density measurements. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (project SF0170014s08), Estonian Science Foundation (Grant 8890), Järvseja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Estonian Environmental Investment Centre, Estonian University of Life Sciences ASTRA project “Value-chain based bio-economy” (supported by the European Union, European Regional Development Fund). CG received funding from Natural Environment Research Council—United Kingdom Research and Innovation. UB received funding from the SustES project—Adaptation strategies for sustainable ecosystem services and food security under adverse environmental conditions (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000797), and the ERC Advanced project Monostar (AdG 882727). S.M received funding from the Estonian University of Life Sciences project P200189MIMP. Funder: Natural Environment Research Council; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000270 Funder: European Regional Development Fund Funder: European Union

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    Trees
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: Apollo
    Apollo
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Treesarrow_drop_down
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      Trees
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: Apollo
      Apollo
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: K. Aun; M. Kukumägi; M. Varik; M. Uri; +7 Authors

    Clear-cutting is an extensively used silvicultural method in the Nordic and Baltic countries, which strongly influences the site’s carbon (C) budget. In the current study, C budgets for a young silver birch stand chronosequence (2–8-year-old) were compiled using the C budgeting method. High variability of annual NEP between stands of similar ages occurred, as the C accumulation ability of young stands was site specific. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), the main C efflux from the ecosystem, varied between (3.7 and 6.3 t C ha−1 yr−1) across all stands. Modelling of the annual NEP dynamics across the chronosequence revealed the C compensation point at a stand age of 6 years. The estimated cumulative C loss for the period when NEP was negative was almost 5 t C ha−1 and the amount of lost C could have been recaptured already in a 10-year-old stand. The C sink capacity of the studied sites depended mostly on the production of herbaceous plants until the production of the new tree generation became the main driver of ecosystem’s net primary production. Hence, site’s C accumulation capacity largely depends on the density and quality of the new forest regeneration.

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    Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
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    Authors: Agustin Zuniga; Naser Hossein Motlagh; Huber Flores; Petteri Nurmi;

    Humans tend to spend most of their life indoors, making the quality of indoor environments essential for human health and wellbeing. While several solutions for monitoring the indoor environment have been proposed, ranging from infrastructure-based monitoring solutions to cameras, these tend to require separate installation, making the sensors difficult to maintain and upgrade. In this article, we introduce the idea of using smart plants as an easy-to-deploy and affordable solution for monitoring the indoor environment. Plants are typically deployed close to humans and they increasingly are placed in containers that integrate sensors, such as soil moisture, temperature, humidity, and CO2 sensors. We demonstrate how these sensors can be used as an alternative technology for monitoring-and enriching-indoor spaces without needing to install proprietary sensors or other technology. Specifically, we show how smart plants can be used to estimate overall CO2 accumulation, occupancy information, and whether people use protective face masks or not. We also establish a research roadmap for the use of smart plants to monitor indoor environments. Peer reviewed

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2...
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2...
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    Authors: Mass, Jakob;

    Värkvõrk, ehk Asjade Internet (Internet of Things, lüh IoT) edendab lahendusi nagu nn tark linn, kus meid igapäevaselt ümbritsevad objektid on ühendatud infosüsteemidega ja ka üksteisega. Selliseks näiteks võib olla teekatete seisukorra monitoorimissüsteem. Võrku ühendatud sõidukitelt (nt bussidelt) kogutakse videomaterjali, mida seejärel töödeldakse, et tuvastada löökauke või lume kogunemist. Tavaliselt hõlmab selline lahendus keeruka tsentraalse süsteemi ehitamist. Otsuste langetamiseks (nt milliseid sõidukeid parasjagu protsessi kaasata) vajab keskne süsteem pidevat ühendust kõigi IoT seadmetega. Seadmete hulga kasvades võib keskne lahendus aga muutuda pudelikaelaks. Selliste protsesside disaini, haldust, automatiseerimist ja seiret hõlbustavad märkimisväärselt äriprotsesside halduse (Business Process Management, lüh BPM) valdkonna standardid ja tööriistad. Paraku ei ole BPM tehnoloogiad koheselt kasutatavad uute paradigmadega nagu Udu- ja Servaarvutus, mis tuleviku värkvõrgu jaoks vajalikud on. Nende puhul liigub suur osa otsustustest ja arvutustest üksikutest andmekeskustest servavõrgu seadmetele, mis asuvad lõppkasutajatele ja IoT seadmetele lähemal. Videotöötlust võiks teostada mini-andmekeskustes, mis on paigaldatud üle linna, näiteks bussipeatustesse. Arvestades IoT seadmete üha suurenevat hulka, vähendab selline koormuse jaotamine vähendab riski, et tsentraalne andmekeskust ülekoormamist. Doktoritöö uurib, kuidas mobiilsusega seonduvaid IoT protsesse taoliselt ümber korraldada, kohanedes pidevalt muutlikule, liikuvate seadmetega täidetud servavõrgule. Nimelt on ühendused katkendlikud, mistõttu otsuste langetus ja planeerimine peavad arvestama muuhulgas mobiilseadmete liikumistrajektoore. Töö raames valminud prototüüpe testiti Android seadmetel ja simulatsioonides. Lisaks valmis tööriistakomplekt STEP-ONE, mis võimaldab teadlastel hõlpsalt simuleerida ja analüüsida taolisi probleeme erinevais realistlikes stsenaariumites nagu seda on tark linn. The Internet of Things (IoT) promotes solutions such as a smart city, where everyday objects connect with info systems and each other. One example is a road condition monitoring system, where connected vehicles, such as buses, capture video, which is then processed to detect potholes and snow build-up. Building such a solution typically involves establishing a complex centralised system. The centralised approach may become a bottleneck as the number of IoT devices keeps growing. It relies on constant connectivity to all involved devices to make decisions, such as which vehicles to involve in the process. Designing, automating, managing, and monitoring such processes can greatly be supported using the standards and software systems provided by the field of Business Process Management (BPM). However, BPM techniques are not directly applicable to new computing paradigms, such as Fog Computing and Edge Computing, on which the future of IoT relies. Here, a lot of decision-making and processing is moved from central data-centers to devices in the network edge, near the end-users and IoT sensors. For example, video could be processed in mini-datacenters deployed throughout the city, e.g., at bus stops. This load distribution reduces the risk of the ever-growing number of IoT devices overloading the data center. This thesis studies how to reorganise the process execution in this decentralised fashion, where processes must dynamically adapt to the volatile edge environment filled with moving devices. Namely, connectivity is intermittent, so decision-making and planning need to involve factors such as the movement trajectories of mobile devices. We examined this issue in simulations and with a prototype for Android smartphones. We also showcase the STEP-ONE toolset, allowing researchers to conveniently simulate and analyse these issues in different realistic scenarios, such as those in a smart city. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5525514

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    Authors: Guillaume Debaene; Aleksandra Ukalska-Jaruga; Bożena Smreczak; Ewa Papierowska;

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS) is a fast and simple method increasingly used in soil science. This study aimed to investigate VIS-NIRS applicability to predict soil black carbon (BC) content and the method’s suitability for rapid BC-level screening. Forty-three soil samples were collected in an agricultural area remaining under strong industrial impact. Soil texture, pH, total nitrogen (Ntot) and total carbon (Ctot), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM), and BC were analyzed. Samples were divided into three classes according to BC content (low, medium, and high BC content) and scanned in the 350–2500 nm range. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to develop prediction models of soil properties. Partial least-square with SVM (PLS-SVM) was used to classify samples for screening purposes. Prediction models of soil properties were at best satisfactory (Ntot: R2 = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.59 g kg−1, RPIQ = 0.65), due to large kurtosis and data skewness. The RMSECV were large (16.86 g kg−1 for SOC), presumably due to the limited number of samples available and the wide data spread. Given our results, the VIS-NIRS method seems efficient for classifying soil samples from an industrialized area according to BC content level (training accuracy of 77% and validation accuracy of 81%).

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    Molecules
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Molecules
    Article . 2022
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      Molecules
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Molecules
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Anton Vlaschenko; Kseniia Kravchenko; Yehor Yatsiuk; Vitalii Hukov; +2 Authors

    Eastern European broadleaved forests north of the 50th degree of latitude serve as a core breeding area for most migratory bat species wintering in Eastern and Central Europe. The southern border of this region has faced an increase in clear-cutting intensity in recent decades. We conducted a standardized mist-netting survey on eleven heterogeneous oak forest plots in order to assess how land cover types and forest age affect abundance, diversity and the breeding of bats. We found that abundance indices and species richness increased from upland plots surrounded by agricultural lands to riverine or waterside plots with high forest cover. Particularly large mature forests older than 90 years positively affected the breeding activity of bats, their abundance indices and overall species richness. Regarding species associations with specific habitats, we found that Myotis brandtii, Nyctalus leisleri and Pipistrellus pygmaeus were mainly found in mature deciduous forest stands, while Plecotus auritus appeared to be the only species tolerating clearcuts and young stands. Forest-dwelling species such as Nyctalus noctula and Pipistrellus nathusii were additionally associated with water habitats. Thus, the combination of mature forests and water sources is essential in shaping Eastern European assemblages of forest bat species.

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    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.14279/depos...
    Article . 2022
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.14279/depos...
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    Authors: Paavo Kaimre; Vivika Kängsepp;

    Abstract The article provides an overview of the experience of using shelterwood systems in Estonia and the methodological aspects of their economic assessment. The methodology is tested with calculations made on the management alternatives of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Rhodococcum site type. Based on the Estonian forest management rules and the results of previous silvicultural studies, the management models were elaborated for different types of shelterwood harvesting. The difference model was used when predicting stand development, the actual prices of different wood assortments and the actual cost of management activities were used in calculations. The net present value of cash flows is used as a criterion, which allows comparing management periods of different lengths. Calculations were performed for three different periods: one regeneration felling cycle, two regeneration felling cycles and perpetual management cycles. The results of different types of shelterwood systems are compared with the results of clear-cutting scenarios. The calculations indicate that in the short term, the net present value of the different types of shelterwood harvesting and clear-cutting are quite similar. The results of the first cycle of regeneration felling are most affected by the costs of cultivation and tending of a plantation and young forest. In the long run, clear-cutting will have an advantage over shelterwood harvesting, as the stand regeneration period is shorter.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Thouverai, Elisa; Marcantonio, Matteo; Lenoir, Jonathan; Galfré, Mariasole; +20 Authors

    Spatio-ecological heterogeneity is strongly linked to many ecological processes and functions such as plant species diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, and gene flow. Remote sensing is particularly useful for measuring spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems over wide regions with repeated measurements in space and time. Besides, developing free and open source algorithms for ecological modelling from space is vital to allow to prove workflows of analysis reproducible. From this point of view, NASA developed programs like the Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) to support the development of algorithms for exploiting spaceborne remotely sensed data to provide a relatively fast but accurate estimate of ecological properties in vast areas over time. Most of the indices to measure heterogeneity from space are point descriptors : they catch only part of the whole heterogeneity spectrum. Under the SBG umbrella, in this paper we provide a new R function part of the rasterdiv R package which allows to calculate spatio-ecological heterogeneity and its variation over time by considering all its possible facets. The new function was tested on two different case studies, on multi- and hyperspectral images, proving to be an effective tool to measure heterogeneity and detect its changes over time.

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    Ecological Complexity
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ecological Complexity
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    Authors: Henn Korjus; Andres Kiviste; Maris Hordo;
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