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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Esmaeilzadeh Salestani, Keyvan;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks põllumajanduse erialal. Crop production needs to be more sustainable. Farmers are confronted with the challenge to use less nutrients while maintaining food security and other ecosystem services. Therefore, it is essential to examine the agricultural strategies that address sustainability. This dissertation compared the effects of conventional and organic cropping systems on soil biodiversity and gene expression patterns of barley in a five-field crop rotation. Soil DNA analysis showed that all treatments in organic cropping system as well as conventional treatments with low to medium rates of mineral fertilizers increased the diversity and changed the relative abundance of the soil microbiome. Conventional treatment with no added nutrients decreased bacterial and fungal diversity. Yield is important for food security, and thus it is important to understand the processes in the barley plant. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in conventional treatments, particularly in N2 that received 80 kg of mineral nitrogen per hectare and provided the highest yield, compared to organic treatments. Amide and peptide metabolism and response to acid chemical and inorganic substances were enriched biological processes in studied conventional treatments whereas polysaccharide and glucan metabolic processes were among the dominant biological processes under organic treatments. Expression of ammonium transporters was analysed more precicely over the early stages of crop growth. Up-regulation of HvAMT1;1 started at the anthesis growth stage in the conventional system and its activity had a strong correlation with the nitrogen content of leaves and 1000-kernel weight. Knowledge about the mechanisms being impacted by different nitrogen rates and cropping systems are valuable for agronomists and crop breeders in increasing the sustainability in crop production. Taimekasvatus peab muutuma jätkusuutlikumaks. Taimekasvatajate ees on väljakutse vähema toitainete kogusega säilitada toiduga varustatus ja ökosüsteemi teenuste kättesaadavus. Sellest tulenevalt on võtmetähtsusega uurida kestlikkusele suunatud põllumajanduslikke strateegiaid. Käesolevas doktoritöös uuriti tava- ja mahetaimekasvatuslike süsteemide mõju mulla mikroorganismide mitmekesisusele ja suviodra geeniekspressiooni mustritele viieväljalises külvikorrakatses. Mulla DNA uurimisest tulenes, et maheviljelussüsteem ning madala kuni keskmise mineraalväetise normiga tavaviljeluse variandid parandasid oluliselt mulla mikrobioloogilist mitmekesisust ja mullabakterite ja –seente suhtelist arvukust. Stabiilse saagikuse jaoks on oluline mõista protsesse odrataime sees. Tavaviljeluse variantides oli rohkem erinevalt ekspresseeritud geene võrreldes mahevariantidega. Kõige rohkem aktiivseid geene oli variandis N2 (väetusnorm 80 kg /ha), mis andis ka kõrgeima saagi ja tuhande tera massi. Tavaviljelussüsteemis olid peamised aktiveeritud bioloogilised protsessid amiidide ja peptiidide metabolism ning reaktsioon happe- ja anorgaanilistele ühenditele, samas kui maheviljelussüsteemi variantides olid peamisteks protsessideks polüsahhariidide and glükaani metabolism. Täpsemalt mõõdeti lämmastiku omastamise eest vastutavate geenide nagu ammoonium-transporterite aktiivsust kasvuperioodi esimeses pooles. Geeni HvAMT1;1 ekspressioon kasvas ajas ning oli kõrgeim tavaviljeluse katsevariantides õitsemisfaasis. Selle geeni aktiivsus oli tugevas korrelatsioonis lehtede lämmastikusisalduse ja 1000 tera massiga. Teadmised protsesside ja geenide kohta, mis on mõjutatud mineraallämmastiku erinevast normist ning viljelusviisist on olulised agronoomidele ja sordiaretajatele tegemaks jätkusuutlikumaid valikuid. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2023
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      Doctoral thesis . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lajunen, Antti; Pietarinen, Julius Into;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: June 16th, 2023 ; Published: July 6th, 2023 ; Correspondence: antti.lajunen@helsinki.fi The objective of this research is to assess positioning accuracy of a custom-built RTK (Real Time Kinematic) base station. Setting up a RTK base station with open-source tools is rather straightforward process requiring only few components and basic programming skills. The base station and receiver unit were developed by using a SparkFun GPS-RTK2 Board with U-Blox ZED-F9P module. The board was paired with U-blox Multi band GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The board can use GNSS satellite signals from Galileo, BeiDou, Glonass and GPS systems. The positioning accuracy was evaluated in a fixed position and during operations in agricultural fields. The RTK correction signal was used in connection with soil scanning measurements in different crop fields of the Viikki Research Farm of the University of Helsinki. For accuracy assessment, comparative measurements were carried out with a commercial network RTK (NRTK) correction signal. The vertical and horizontal accuracy of the positioning signal were evaluated based on the accuracy variables calculated by the receiver. The vertical accuracy was also evaluated by mapping the scanned trajectories on the height map which was obtained from NSL (National Land Survey of Finland) open map data service. The custom-built RTK positioning system accuracy was considered generally precise enough for autonomous field work, but the reliability of the observed accuracy should be confirmed with more extensive measurements. The commercial NRTK signal accuracy was considered very good and reliable also for the vertical direction.

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    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Bumbiere, K.; Sereda, S.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D.;

    Received: January 30th, 2023 ; Accepted: April 8th, 2023 ; Published: May 3rd , 2023 ; Correspondence: ketija.bumbiere@rtu.lv Agriculture is one of the most energy-consuming sectors in the EU’s economy. Implementing sustainable agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency through energy management is a crucial strategy to tackle climate change. In this paper, the role of energy management in the agricultural sector is studied, and experiences from Europe and the world have been considered. Literature analysis regarding the chosen topic has been conducted, including the methodology of energy management plan development and its implementation in the case study of Latvia. Data from Latvia’s agricultural and other sectors have been analysed and compared. Latvia’s Inventory Report regarding GHG emissions in the agricultural sector was reviewed, and all emission sources in the agricultural sector were highlighted. The primary purpose of the study is to find out if energy management were introduced in an agricultural company, what would be the potential GHG emission, energy savings and additional advantages. Two companies working in Latvia were surveyed, and potential emission and energy consumption reduction measures in agriculture that would be applied to companies were developed. The research showed that by implementing the basic principles of energy management, it would be possible to reduce the average energy consumption by 17%. If measures are applied to reduce GHG emissions from agricultural companies, the average emissions would be reduced by 43%.

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    Article . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Other literature type . 2023
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      EMU DSpace
      Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
      Other literature type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Merit Sutri; Merrit Shanskiy; Mari Ivask; Endla Reintam;

    Soil quality indicates the soil’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Reducing the tillage intensity has been suggested as an alternative to conventional tillage for sustaining soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil tillage systems on individual soil quality indicators in comparison to those on grassland with Stagnic Luvisol soil in Estonia. Four soil management systems were compared: no-tillage (NT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and grassland (G) as a reference. Soil quality indicators included physical (bulk density, water-stable aggregates, porosity, air-filled pores, moisture content, water-holding capacity, penetration resistance and water permeability), chemical (total N, total soil organic C, permanganate oxidisable C, pH, P, K, Ca and Mg) and biological (earthworm abundance) parameters. CT soils had a significantly lower aggregate stability compared to MT and G soils. The higher penetration resistance of CT under an arable layer suggested the presence of a plough pan. NT improved the soil’s physical quality at 5–10 cm, which was indicated by higher moisture content, water-holding capacity and porosity and a lower bulk density, whereas penetration resistance exceeded 2 MPa in the lower part of the topsoil. NT also had significantly lower total soil organic C and total N compared to MT and G. The absence of tillage in the NT and G systems may have improved the soil’s resistance to moisture loss under dry conditions, which, in turn, improved the soil habitability for earthworms a despite higher density. In general, NT or MT stabilised or increased the soil quality compared to CT.

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    Agriculture
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Agriculture
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Azadeh Rezapour; Mohammadreza Labbafi; Tõnu Oja;

    Abstract We compiled data from 149 paired observations from 43 publications and performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the variability of trees’ fine root trait responses under various global soil warming experiments. The impacts of warming magnitude, soil depth, and different tree species (deciduous vs. coniferous), on the responses of fine root biomass (FRB), and fine root morphology were assessed in this study. Our results confirmed that soil warming increased FRB while having no significant effect on fine root morphological traits, such as specific root length (SRL), specific root area (SRA), and diameter (D). The effect of warming on FRB decreased significantly at higher warming magnitude. The effect of tree species was also evident in the response of FRB to soil warming magnitude. Furthermore, warming effects on SRA and D increased in deeper soil horizons. The present meta-analysis provides an improved understanding of trees’ fine roots and the tree species-specific adaptive strategy under future soil warming episodes. Our results suggest that trees will resist the altering soil warming conditions by modifications more in fine root biomass allocation rather than morphological adjustments.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Eneli Põldveer; Diana Laarmann; Henn Korjus;

    Abstract As the focus in forestry is moving from timber production to prioritized economic benefits and better integration of ecological-social functions, practical forest management is shifting towards promoting diverse stand structures. Promoting stand structural heterogeneity requires accurate and profound evaluations of spatial stand structure that are generally not provided during conventional forest inventories. In this paper, different indices describing the heterogeneity of the stand and the spatial arrangement of trees, including their size, condition and species were assessed. Indices were applied to the inventory data collected from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots. The results show that the studied structural indices are useful in assessment of Estonian forest stands. The practical importance of structural indices will increase in future as there will be a need for methods for characterizing forest stand structural diversity at a large scale, for example, derived from high-resolution remote sensing data.

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    Metsanduslikud Uurimused
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Metsanduslikud Uurimused
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mait Lang; Jaan Praks;

    Abstract The view angle range of Sentinel-1 SAR in the Interferometric Wide swath (IW) measurement mode is 29.1° – 46.0°. The dependence of backscatter on the arbitrary local incidence angle is usually corrected using a linear regression model where the incidence angle is a predictor variable. We analysed the whole time series of Sentinel-1 SAR VV-polarised backscatter over the flat 15×15 km test site in Laeva, Estonia (26° 26′ 43″ E; 58° 31′ 56″ N). Time series containing measurements from three different orbits were constructed for 3,159 stands from nighttime data and for 1,105 stands from daytime data. We can confirm that daytime backscatter is systematically greater than nighttime backscatter. We found a significant deviation from linearity in the backscatter dependence on local incidence angle. The empirical finding may be caused by the microwave scattering dependence on local incidence angle or by the influence of Sentinel-1 SAR sub-swath configuration in the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans SAR (TOPSAR) method that is used for the measurements.

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    Authors: Andres Kiviste; Allar Padari; Sandra Metslaid;

    Abstract Knowledge about the seasonal dynamics of tree growth and its relationship with environmental factors is necessary to eliminate the uncertainty due to ongoing climate change and for more precise growth modelling when re-measurements are done periodically. Despite the increasing number of studies monitoring seasonal wood formation, a considerable part of European forests, including Estonia, lacks such information. In this article, we present a date-dependent model for determining the share of seasonal radial growth for the three most common tree species in the region (Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch) for Estonian conditions. Since seasonal tree growth monitoring data were unavailable for Estonia, we used published seasonal radial growth data from Lithuania by Dr Adomas Vitas (2011). We tested four functions (Kumaraswamy, Weibull, Gompertz and logistic) on obtained data to approximate the seasonal development of radial growth. Kumaraswamy’s function could track the course of seasonal radial growth gains the best; thus, this function was chosen for further use. We obtained data on intra-annual radial growth from published research studies from neighbouring countries and determined the dates of growth initiation and cessation for Estonian conditions. Finally, we combined Kumaraswamy’s function and the predicted radial growth onset and cessation dates into the model that could predict the seasonal growth course and thus were able to estimate the share of newly formed increment from the dates.

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    Authors: Kaupo Kokamägi; Rauno Künnapuu; Natalja Liba;

    Abstract This paper provides an overview of a small research project. The object of the research was a 16 km2 forested area located in the territory of Järvselja Study and Experimental Forest, Estonia, which was damaged by storms in June 2021. The aim of the study was to investigate whether it is possible and reasonable to estimate the area of storm damage using orthophotos created from photographs collected from unmanned aircraft. The surveying was carried out on July 13–15, 2021. The data was collected via unmanned aerial vehicles with RGB-cameras on board. A multi-rotor drone DJI Phantom 3 Professional and a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft eBee X were used. In total, the eBee drone was flown 11 times to obtain 11,989 photos and the DJI drone 18 times to obtain 2,471 photos. During the project, it became clear that if there are open fields available, it is more efficient to use a fixed-wing type drone for this kind of research. However, in more difficult conditions where there are no clearances suitable for take-off and landing, a multi-rotor drone, such as the DJI, can be used instead. It can be concluded from the results of the work that although it is possible to use an unmanned aircraft for aerial photography of large forested areas, it takes a considerable amount of time for both photography and post-processing. It took 96 man-hours to collect the data and four working weeks to process the data.

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    Authors: Valdek Tamme; Alar Jänes; Tavo Romann; Hannes Tamme; +2 Authors

    Abstract Wood moisture content (MC) has a significant impact on all electrical properties of wood. Regarding the development of the (so-called polarization-type) wood moisture meter with the electrical charging effect for monitoring and controlling the wood drying process, it is of interest to expand the theoretical background of this type of novel wood moisture meter by means of modelling. Two mediums were selected for modelling – raw birch wood and, as a reference medium, birch liquid sap – into which two symmetrical carbon fibre measuring electrodes were inserted. In both mediums, direct current and alternating current were passed between electrodes at different electrode potentials. The electrical field and electrical response of the current-affected mediums were then measured and modelled in the time domain and frequency domain. The numerical results of modelling are comparable both in the time domain and frequency domain (i.e. if E = 1.8V, then Cs = 0.5 mF and C1,int = 0.7 mF). The concept of energetic chargeability (CHA(W)) of wood was defined and compared to conventional chargeability as defined by C. Schlumberger in 1913. Empirical dependencies of CHA(W) on electrode potential and primary energy W1 transmitted through the wood (sap) medium were found. In the frequency domain, frequency dependencies were found to distinguish between adsorption processes and mixed kinetics ranges in birch sap and in raw birch wood.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Esmaeilzadeh Salestani, Keyvan;

    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture. Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks põllumajanduse erialal. Crop production needs to be more sustainable. Farmers are confronted with the challenge to use less nutrients while maintaining food security and other ecosystem services. Therefore, it is essential to examine the agricultural strategies that address sustainability. This dissertation compared the effects of conventional and organic cropping systems on soil biodiversity and gene expression patterns of barley in a five-field crop rotation. Soil DNA analysis showed that all treatments in organic cropping system as well as conventional treatments with low to medium rates of mineral fertilizers increased the diversity and changed the relative abundance of the soil microbiome. Conventional treatment with no added nutrients decreased bacterial and fungal diversity. Yield is important for food security, and thus it is important to understand the processes in the barley plant. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in conventional treatments, particularly in N2 that received 80 kg of mineral nitrogen per hectare and provided the highest yield, compared to organic treatments. Amide and peptide metabolism and response to acid chemical and inorganic substances were enriched biological processes in studied conventional treatments whereas polysaccharide and glucan metabolic processes were among the dominant biological processes under organic treatments. Expression of ammonium transporters was analysed more precicely over the early stages of crop growth. Up-regulation of HvAMT1;1 started at the anthesis growth stage in the conventional system and its activity had a strong correlation with the nitrogen content of leaves and 1000-kernel weight. Knowledge about the mechanisms being impacted by different nitrogen rates and cropping systems are valuable for agronomists and crop breeders in increasing the sustainability in crop production. Taimekasvatus peab muutuma jätkusuutlikumaks. Taimekasvatajate ees on väljakutse vähema toitainete kogusega säilitada toiduga varustatus ja ökosüsteemi teenuste kättesaadavus. Sellest tulenevalt on võtmetähtsusega uurida kestlikkusele suunatud põllumajanduslikke strateegiaid. Käesolevas doktoritöös uuriti tava- ja mahetaimekasvatuslike süsteemide mõju mulla mikroorganismide mitmekesisusele ja suviodra geeniekspressiooni mustritele viieväljalises külvikorrakatses. Mulla DNA uurimisest tulenes, et maheviljelussüsteem ning madala kuni keskmise mineraalväetise normiga tavaviljeluse variandid parandasid oluliselt mulla mikrobioloogilist mitmekesisust ja mullabakterite ja –seente suhtelist arvukust. Stabiilse saagikuse jaoks on oluline mõista protsesse odrataime sees. Tavaviljeluse variantides oli rohkem erinevalt ekspresseeritud geene võrreldes mahevariantidega. Kõige rohkem aktiivseid geene oli variandis N2 (väetusnorm 80 kg /ha), mis andis ka kõrgeima saagi ja tuhande tera massi. Tavaviljelussüsteemis olid peamised aktiveeritud bioloogilised protsessid amiidide ja peptiidide metabolism ning reaktsioon happe- ja anorgaanilistele ühenditele, samas kui maheviljelussüsteemi variantides olid peamisteks protsessideks polüsahhariidide and glükaani metabolism. Täpsemalt mõõdeti lämmastiku omastamise eest vastutavate geenide nagu ammoonium-transporterite aktiivsust kasvuperioodi esimeses pooles. Geeni HvAMT1;1 ekspressioon kasvas ajas ning oli kõrgeim tavaviljeluse katsevariantides õitsemisfaasis. Selle geeni aktiivsus oli tugevas korrelatsioonis lehtede lämmastikusisalduse ja 1000 tera massiga. Teadmised protsesside ja geenide kohta, mis on mõjutatud mineraallämmastiku erinevast normist ning viljelusviisist on olulised agronoomidele ja sordiaretajatele tegemaks jätkusuutlikumaid valikuid. Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

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    Authors: Lajunen, Antti; Pietarinen, Julius Into;

    Received: February 1st, 2023 ; Accepted: June 16th, 2023 ; Published: July 6th, 2023 ; Correspondence: antti.lajunen@helsinki.fi The objective of this research is to assess positioning accuracy of a custom-built RTK (Real Time Kinematic) base station. Setting up a RTK base station with open-source tools is rather straightforward process requiring only few components and basic programming skills. The base station and receiver unit were developed by using a SparkFun GPS-RTK2 Board with U-Blox ZED-F9P module. The board was paired with U-blox Multi band GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The board can use GNSS satellite signals from Galileo, BeiDou, Glonass and GPS systems. The positioning accuracy was evaluated in a fixed position and during operations in agricultural fields. The RTK correction signal was used in connection with soil scanning measurements in different crop fields of the Viikki Research Farm of the University of Helsinki. For accuracy assessment, comparative measurements were carried out with a commercial network RTK (NRTK) correction signal. The vertical and horizontal accuracy of the positioning signal were evaluated based on the accuracy variables calculated by the receiver. The vertical accuracy was also evaluated by mapping the scanned trajectories on the height map which was obtained from NSL (National Land Survey of Finland) open map data service. The custom-built RTK positioning system accuracy was considered generally precise enough for autonomous field work, but the reliability of the observed accuracy should be confirmed with more extensive measurements. The commercial NRTK signal accuracy was considered very good and reliable also for the vertical direction.

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    https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.15159/ar.23...
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    Authors: Bumbiere, K.; Sereda, S.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D.;

    Received: January 30th, 2023 ; Accepted: April 8th, 2023 ; Published: May 3rd , 2023 ; Correspondence: ketija.bumbiere@rtu.lv Agriculture is one of the most energy-consuming sectors in the EU’s economy. Implementing sustainable agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency through energy management is a crucial strategy to tackle climate change. In this paper, the role of energy management in the agricultural sector is studied, and experiences from Europe and the world have been considered. Literature analysis regarding the chosen topic has been conducted, including the methodology of energy management plan development and its implementation in the case study of Latvia. Data from Latvia’s agricultural and other sectors have been analysed and compared. Latvia’s Inventory Report regarding GHG emissions in the agricultural sector was reviewed, and all emission sources in the agricultural sector were highlighted. The primary purpose of the study is to find out if energy management were introduced in an agricultural company, what would be the potential GHG emission, energy savings and additional advantages. Two companies working in Latvia were surveyed, and potential emission and energy consumption reduction measures in agriculture that would be applied to companies were developed. The research showed that by implementing the basic principles of energy management, it would be possible to reduce the average energy consumption by 17%. If measures are applied to reduce GHG emissions from agricultural companies, the average emissions would be reduced by 43%.

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    Article . 2023
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    Authors: Merit Sutri; Merrit Shanskiy; Mari Ivask; Endla Reintam;

    Soil quality indicates the soil’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Reducing the tillage intensity has been suggested as an alternative to conventional tillage for sustaining soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil tillage systems on individual soil quality indicators in comparison to those on grassland with Stagnic Luvisol soil in Estonia. Four soil management systems were compared: no-tillage (NT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and grassland (G) as a reference. Soil quality indicators included physical (bulk density, water-stable aggregates, porosity, air-filled pores, moisture content, water-holding capacity, penetration resistance and water permeability), chemical (total N, total soil organic C, permanganate oxidisable C, pH, P, K, Ca and Mg) and biological (earthworm abundance) parameters. CT soils had a significantly lower aggregate stability compared to MT and G soils. The higher penetration resistance of CT under an arable layer suggested the presence of a plough pan. NT improved the soil’s physical quality at 5–10 cm, which was indicated by higher moisture content, water-holding capacity and porosity and a lower bulk density, whereas penetration resistance exceeded 2 MPa in the lower part of the topsoil. NT also had significantly lower total soil organic C and total N compared to MT and G. The absence of tillage in the NT and G systems may have improved the soil’s resistance to moisture loss under dry conditions, which, in turn, improved the soil habitability for earthworms a despite higher density. In general, NT or MT stabilised or increased the soil quality compared to CT.

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    Agriculture
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Agriculture
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Azadeh Rezapour; Mohammadreza Labbafi; Tõnu Oja;

    Abstract We compiled data from 149 paired observations from 43 publications and performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the variability of trees’ fine root trait responses under various global soil warming experiments. The impacts of warming magnitude, soil depth, and different tree species (deciduous vs. coniferous), on the responses of fine root biomass (FRB), and fine root morphology were assessed in this study. Our results confirmed that soil warming increased FRB while having no significant effect on fine root morphological traits, such as specific root length (SRL), specific root area (SRA), and diameter (D). The effect of warming on FRB decreased significantly at higher warming magnitude. The effect of tree species was also evident in the response of FRB to soil warming magnitude. Furthermore, warming effects on SRA and D increased in deeper soil horizons. The present meta-analysis provides an improved understanding of trees’ fine roots and the tree species-specific adaptive strategy under future soil warming episodes. Our results suggest that trees will resist the altering soil warming conditions by modifications more in fine root biomass allocation rather than morphological adjustments.

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