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45 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
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  • NEANIAS Atmospheric Research Community

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jeremy Irvin; Sharon Zhou; Gavin McNicol; Fred Lu; +89 Authors

    Time series of wetland methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance require gap-filling to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual emissions. Gap-filling methane fluxes is challenging because of high variability and complex responses to multiple drivers. To date, there is no widely established gap-filling standard for wetland methane fluxes, with regards both to the best model algorithms and predictors. This study synthesizes results of different gap-filling methods systematically applied at 17 wetland sites spanning boreal to tropical regions and including all major wetland classes and two rice paddies. Procedures are proposed for: 1) creating realistic artificial gap scenarios, 2) training and evaluating gap-filling models without overstating performance, and 3) predicting half-hourly methane fluxes and annual emissions with realistic uncertainty estimates. Performance is compared between a conventional method (marginal distribution sampling) and four machine learning algorithms. The conventional method achieved similar median performance as the machine learning models but was worse than the best machine learning models and relatively insensitive to predictor choices. Of the machine learning models, decision tree algorithms performed the best in cross-validation experiments, even with a baseline predictor set, and artificial neural networks showed comparable performance when using all predictors. Soil temperature was frequently the most important predictor whilst water table depth was important at sites with substantial water table fluctuations, highlighting the value of data on wetland soil conditions. Raw gap-filling uncertainties from the machine learning models were underestimated and we propose a method to calibrate uncertainties to observations. The python code for model development, evaluation, and uncertainty estimation is publicly available. This study outlines a modular and robust machine learning workflow and makes recommendations for, and evaluates an improved baseline of, methane gap-filling models that can be implemented in multi-site syntheses or standardized products from regional and global flux networks (e.g., FLUXNET). ISSN:0168-1923 ISSN:1873-2240

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daniel Schaffer Ferreira Jorge; Hubert Loisel; Cédric Jamet; David Dessailly; +12 Authors

    International audience; We present a three-step inverse model (3SAA) for estimating the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of surface waters from the remote sensing reflectance spectra, Rrs(λ). The derived IOPs include the total (a(λ)), phytoplankton (aphy(λ)), and colored detrital matter (acdm(λ)), absorption coefficients, and the total (bb(λ)) and particulate (bbp(λ)) backscattering coefficients. The first step uses an improved neural network approach to estimate the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance from Rrs. a(λ) and bbp(λ) are then estimated using the LS2 model (Loisel et al., 2018), which does not require spectral assumptions on IOPs and hence can assess a(λ) and bb(λ) at any wavelength at which Rrs(λ) is measured. Then, an inverse optimization algorithm is combined with an optical water class (OWC) approach to assess aphy(λ) and acdm(λ) from anw(λ).The proposed model is evaluated using an in situ dataset collected in open oceanic, coastal, and inland waters. Comparisons with other standard semi-analytical algorithms (QAA and GSM), as well as match-up exercises, have also been performed. The applicability of the algorithm on OLCI observations was assessed through the analysis of global IOPs spatial patterns derived from 3SAA and GSM. The good performance of 3SAA is manifested by median absolute percentage differences (MAPD) of 13%, 23%, 34% and 34% for bbp(443), anw(443), aphy(443) and acdm(443), respectively for oceanic waters. Due to the absence of spectral constraints on IOPs in the inversion of total IOPs, and the adoption of an OWC-based approach, the performance of 3SAA is only slightly degraded in bio-optical complex inland waters.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Thomas Schindler; Katerina Machacova; Ülo Mander; Jordi Escuer-Gatius; +1 Authors

    however, N2O emission from stems was negligible. The soil mainly emitted N2O into the atmosphere and was both a source and sink of CH4, depending on environmental conditions. Neither the tree stems nor the riparian forest soil showed significant differences in their CH4 and N2O fluxes between the daytime and nighttime, independently of the exchange rates. In contrast to several previous studies revealing a diurnal variability of greenhouse gas fluxes from tree stems, our investigation did not show any clear daytime–nighttime differences. On the other hand, we found quite clear seasonal dynamics initiated by changing environmental conditions, such as temperature and soil water conditions and tree physiological activity. Our results imply a transport role of tree stems for soil-produced CH4 and N2O rather than the production of these gases in tree tissues, even though this cannot be excluded. Tree stems play an important role in forest methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux dynamics. Our paper aimed to determine the unknown diurnal variability of CH4 and N2O exchange in grey alder tree stems. The gas fluxes in tree stems and adjacent soil were measured using manual static and dynamic chamber systems with gas chromatographic and laser-spectroscopic analysis, respectively. The alder trees were predominant emitters of CH4 and N2O

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forests
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forests
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Forests
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forestsarrow_drop_down
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      Forests
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Forests
      Article . 2021
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      Forests
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    Authors: Pahlevan, Nima; Mangin, Antoine; Balasubramanian, Sundarabalan V.; Smith, Brandon; +32 Authors

    International audience; Atmospheric correction over inland and coastal waters is one of the major remaining challenges in aquatic remote sensing, often hindering the quantitative retrieval of biogeochemical variables and analysis of their spatial and temporal variability within aquatic environments. The Atmospheric Correction Intercomparison Exercise (ACIX-Aqua), a joint NASA – ESA activity, was initiated to enable a thorough evaluation of eight state-of-the-art atmospheric correction (AC) processors available for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data processing. Over 1000 radiometric matchups from both freshwaters (rivers, lakes, reservoirs) and coastal waters were utilized to examine the quality of derived aquatic reflectances (̂ρ w ). This dataset originated from two sources: Data gathered from the international scientific community (henceforth called Community Validation Database, CVD), which captured predominantly inland water observations, and the Ocean Color component of AERONET measurements (AERONET-OC), representing primarily coastal ocean environments. This volume of data permitted the evaluation of the AC processors individually (using all the matchups) and comparatively (across seven different Optical Water Types, OWTs) using common matchups. We found that the performance of the AC processors differed for CVD and AERONET-OC matchups, likely reflecting inherent variability in aquatic and atmospheric properties between the two datasets. For the former, the median errors in ̂ρ w (560) and ̂ρ w (664) were found to range from 20 to 30% for best-performing processors. Using the AERONET-OC matchups, our performance assessments showed that median errors within the 15–30% range in these spectral bands may be achieved. The largest uncertainties were associated with the blue bands (25 to 60%) for best-performing processors considering both CVD and AERONET-OC assessments. We further assessed uncertainty propagation to the downstream products such as near-surface concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chla) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Using satellite matchups from the CVD along with in situ Chla and TSS, we found that 20–30% uncertainties in ̂ρ w (490 ≤ λ ≤ 743 nm) yielded 25–70% uncertainties in derived Chla and TSS products for top-performing AC processors. We summarize our results using performance matrices guiding the satellite user community through the OWT-specific relative perfor­mance of AC processors. Our analysis stresses the need for better representation of aerosols, particularly absorbing ones, and improvements in corrections for sky- (or sun-) glint and adjacency effects, in order to achieve higher quality downstream products in freshwater and coastal ecosystems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Authors: Gerly Annok; Valdar Tammin; Natalja Liba;

    Mobile laser scanning is being used more often in Estonia and abroad to obtain geospatial information. As the system is still new and being upgraded, different methods are being used to find out how accurately the mobile laser scanner can measure in different conditions. In this article the mobile laser scanner accuracy is being examined depending on surrounding environment and the importance of postprocessing. Mobile laser scanning elevation data accuracy obtained in difficult conditions is being assessed. Difficult conditions are considered locations where there are tall objects that interrupt the satellite signals’ trajectory to the receiver. To determine the elevation accuracy of mobile laser scanner data, coordinates with the raw broadcast and final ephemerides with the combination of the GNSS receivers’ data that were installed in ideal and not ideal environmental conditions were computed. As a result of the study, the error of the elevation data in the first polygon, situated in difficult conditions was 7 mm when the Kunda reference station data was used with raw broadcast and final ephemerides. Error in the second polygon was accordingly 17 mm and 19 mm. When calculations were conducted using raw broadcast ephemerides in a base station in an imperfect environment, the error in the first polygon was 103 mm and in the second 75 mm. When the precise ephemerides were added to base station data, the error in the first polygon was 6 mm and in the second 21 mm. From the study results, it could be concluded that the mobile laser scanning system measures within 2 cm accuracy even in a complicated environment.

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    Geodesy and Cartography
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    Geodesy and Cartography
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    Geodesy and Cartography
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geodesy and Cartogra...arrow_drop_down
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      Geodesy and Cartography
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    Authors: Winkler, Manuela; Plichta, Roman; Buysse, Pauline; Lohila, Annalea; +361 Authors

    JJL received funding from the Research Foundation Flanders (grant nr. 12P1819N). The project received funding from the Research Foundation Flanders (grants nrs, G018919N, W001919N). JVDH and TWC received funding from DOB Ecology. JA received funding from the University of Helsinki, Faculty of Science (MICROCLIM, grant nr. 7510145) and Academy of Finland Flagship (grant no. 337552). PDF, CM and PV received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Starting Grant FORMICA 757833). JK received funding from the Arctic Interactions at the University of Oulu and Academy of Finland (318930, Profi 4), Maaja vesitekniikan tuki ry., Tiina and Antti Herlin Foundation, Nordenskiold Samfundet and Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. MK received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). TWC received funding from National Geographic Society grant no. 9480-14 and WW-240R-17. MA received funding from CISSC (program ICRP (grant nr:2397) and INSF (grant nr: 96005914). The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is supported by the Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. JMA received funding from the Funding Org. Qatar Petroleum (grant nr. QUEX-CAS-QP-RD-18/19). JMA received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant no. 678841) and from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 31003A_176044). JA was supported by research grants LTAUSA19137 (program INTER-EXCELLENCE, subprogram INTER-ACTION) provided by Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and 20-05840Y of the Czech Science Foundation. AA was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (grant FSRZ-2020-0014). SN, UAT, JJA, and JvO received funding from the Independent Research Fund Denmark (7027-00133B). LvdB, KT, MYB and RC acknowledge funding from the German Research Foundation within the Priority Program SPP-1803 'EarthShape: Earth Surface Shaping by Biota' (grant TI 338/14-1&2 and BA 3843/6-1). PB was supported by grant project VEGA of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences No. 2/0132/18. Forest Research received funding from the Forestry Commission (climate change research programme). JCB acknowledges the support of Universidad Javeriana. JLBA received funding from the Direccion General de Cambio Climatico del Gobierno de Aragon; JLBA acknowledges fieldwork assistance by Ana Acin, the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park, and the Servicio de Medio Ambiente de Soria de la Junta de Castilla y Leon. RGB and MPB received funding from BECC - Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate. MPB received funding from The European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 657627 and The Swedish Research Council FORMAS - future research leaders No. 2016-01187. JB received funding from the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). NB received funding from the SNF (grant numbers 40FA40_154245, 20FI21_148992, 20FI20_173691, 407340_172433) and from the EU (contract no. 774124). ICOS EU research infrastructure. EU FP7 NitroEurope. EU FP7 ECLAIRE. The authors from Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, PDBFF, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil were supported by the MCTI/CNPq/FNDCT - AcAo Transversal no68/2013 - Programa de Grande Escala da Biosfera-Atmosfera na Amazonia - LBA; Project 'Como as florestas da Amazonia Central respondem as variacoes climaticas? Efeitos sobre dinamica florestal e sinergia com a fragmentacAo florestal'. This is the study 829 of the BDFFP Technical Series. to The EUCFLUX Cooperative Research Program and Forest Science and Research Institute-IPEF. NC acknowledges funding by Stelvio National Park. JC was funded by the Spanish government grant CGL2016-78093-R. ANID-FONDECYT 1181745 AND INSTITUTO ANTARTICO CHILENO (INACH FR-0418). SC received funding from the German Research Foundation (grant no. DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). The National Science Foundation, Poland (grant no. UMO-2017/27/B/ST10/02228), within the framework of the 'Carbon dioxide uptake potential of sphagnum peatlands in the context of atmospheric optical parameters and climate changes' (KUSCO2) project. SLC received funding from the South African National Research Foundation and the Australian Research Council. FM, M, KU and MU received funding from Slovak Research and Development Agency (no. APVV-19-0319). Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH_RT-48_16), Iniciativa Cientifica Milenio Nucleo Milenio de Salmonidos Invasores INVASAL, Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), CONICYT PIA APOYO CCTE AFB170008. PC is supported by NERC core funding to the BAS 'Biodiversity, Evolution and Adaptation Team. EJC received funding from the Norwegian Research Council (grant number 230970). GND was supported by NERC E3 doctoral training partnership grant (NE/L002558/1) at the University of Edinburgh and the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Monitoring stations on Livingston Island, Antarctica, were funded by different research projects of the Gobern of Spain (PERMAPLANET CTM2009-10165-E; ANTARPERMA CTM2011-15565-E; PERMASNOW CTM2014-52021-R), and the PERMATHERMAL arrangement between the University of Alcala and the Spanish Polar Committee. GN received funding from the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (ITA). The infrastructure, part of the UK Environmental Change Network, was funded historically in part by ScotNature and NERC National Capability LTS-S: UK-SCAPE; NE/R016429/1). JD was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA17-19376S) and MSMT (LTAUSA18007). ED received funding from the Kempe Foundation (JCK-1112 and JCK-1822). The infrastructure was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the National Sustainability Programme I (NPU I), grant number LO1415 and by the project for national infrastructure support CzeCOS/ICOS Reg. No. LM2015061. NE received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). BE received funding from the GLORIA-EU project no EVK2-CT2000-00056, the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (ITA), from the Tiroler Wissenschaftsfonds and from the University of Innsbruck. RME was supported by funding to the SAFE Project from the Sime Darby Foundation. OF received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). EFP was supported by the Jardin Botanico Atlantico (SV-20-GIJON-JBA). MF was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the context of The Future Okavango (Grant No. 01LL0912) and SASSCAL (01LG1201M; 01LG1201N) projects. EFL received funding from ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006. RAG received funding from Fondecyt 11170516, CONICYT PIA AFB170008 and ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006. MBG received funding from National Parks (DYNBIO, #1656/2015) and The Spanish Research Agency (VULBIMON, #CGL2017-90040-R). MG received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (ICOS-CH Phase 2 20FI20_173691). FG received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). KG and TS received funding from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Research Council (grant = 206/D16053). SG was supported by the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) (project G0H1517N). KJ and PH received funding from the EU Horizon2020 INFRAIA project eLTER-PLUS (871128), the project LTER-CWN (FFG, F&E Infrastrukturforderung, project number 858024) and the Austrian Climate Research Program (ACRP7 - CentForCSink - KR14AC7K11960). SH and ARB received funding through iDiv funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). LH received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). MH received funding from the Baden-Wurttemberg Ministry of Science, Research and Arts via the project DRIeR (Drought impacts, processes and resilience: making the in-visible visible). LH received funding from International Polar Year, Weston Foundation, and ArcticNet. DH received funding from Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (Canada) (RGPIN-06691). TTH received funding from Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant no. 8021-00423B) and Villum Foundation (grant no. 17523). Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (projects LM2015078, VAN2020/01 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001708). KH, CG and CJD received funding from Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University and from the Swedish research council Formas [grant n:o 2014-00530 to KH]. JJ received funding from the Funding Org. Swedish Forest Society Foundation (grant nr. 2018-485-Steg 2 2017) and Swedish Research Council FORMAS (grant nr. 2018-00792). AJ received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF (Grant Nr. FKZ 031B0516C SUSALPS) and the Oberfrankenstiftung (Grant Nr. OFS FP00237). ISJ received funding from the Energy Research Fund (NYR-11 - 2019, NYR-18 - 2020). TJ was supported by a UK NERC Independent Research Fellowship (grant number: NE/S01537X/1). RJ received funding from National Science Centre of Poland (grant number: 2016/21/B/ST10/02271) and Polish National Centre for Research and Development (grant number: Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013). VK received funding from the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). AAK received funding from MoEFCC, Govt of India (AICOPTAX project F. No. 22018/12/2015/RE/Tax). NK received funding from FORMAS (grants nr. 2018-01781, 2018-02700, 2019-00836), VR, support from the research infrastructure ICOS-SE. BK received funding from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary (grant nr. K128441). Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (projects LM2015078 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001708). Project B1-RNM-163-UGR-18-Programa Operativo FEDER 2018, partially funded data collection. Norwegian Research Council (NORKLIMA grants #184912 and #244525) awarded to Vigdis Vandvik. MM received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). Project CONICYT-PAI 79170119 and ANID-MPG 190029 awarded to Roy Mackenzie. This work was partly funded by project MIUR PON Cluster OT4CLIMA. RM received funding from the SNF project number 407340_172433. FM received funding from the Stelvio National Park. PM received funding from AIAS-COFUND fellowship programme supported by the Marie Skodowska- Curie actions under the European Union's Seventh Framework Pro-gramme for Research, Technological development and Demonstration (grant agreement no 609033) and the Aarhus University Research Foundation, Denmark. RM received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (project LTT17033). SM and VM received funding from EU FP6 NitroEurope (grant nr. 17841), EU FP7 ECLAIRE (grant nr. 282910), the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (projects nr. 505, 550, 574, 602), GEF-UNEP funded "Toward INMS" project (grant nr. NEC05348) and ENI CBC BSB PONTOS (grant nr. BSB 889). The authors from Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, PDBFF, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil were supported by the MCTI/CNPq/FNDCT - AcAo Transversal no68/2013 - Programa de Grande Escala da Biosfera-Atmosfera na Amazonia - LBA; Project 'Como as florestas da Amazonia Central respondem as variacoes climaticas? Efeitos sobre dinamica florestal e sinergia com a fragmentacAo florestal'. FJRM was financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (VICI grant 016.VICI.170.072) and Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-SBO grant S000619N). STM received funding from New Frontiers in Research Fund-Exploration (grant nr. NFRF-2018-02043) and NSERC Discovery. MMR received funding from the Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Award (grant nr. DE180100570). JAM received funding from the National Science Foundation (DEB 1557094), International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability (I-CARES) at Washington University in St. Louis, ForestGEO, and Tyson Research Center. IM-S was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council through the ShrubTundra Project (NE/M016323/1). MBN received funding from FORMAS, VR, Kempe Foundations support from the research infrastructures ICOS and SITES. MDN received funding from CONICET (grant nr. PIP 112-201501-00609). Spanish Ministry of Science grant PID2019-110521GB-I00 and Catalan government grant 2017-1005. French National Research Agency (ANR) in the frame of the Cluster of Excellence COTE (project HydroBeech, ANR-10-LABX-45). VLIR-OUS, under the Institutional University Coorperation programme (IUC) with Mountains of the Moon University. Project LAS III 77/2017/B entitled: \"Estimation of net carbon dioxide fluxes exchanged between the forest ecosystem on post-agricultural land and between the tornado-damaged forest area and the atmosphere using spectroscopic and numerical methods\", source of funding: General Directorate of State Forests, Warsaw, Poland. Max Planck Society (Germany), RFBR, Krasnoyarsk Territory and Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Science, project number 20-45-242908. Estonian Research Council (PRG609), and the European Regional Development Fund (Centre of Excellence EcolChange). Canada-Denmark Arctic Research Station Early Career Scientist Exchange Program, from Polar knowledge Canada (POLAR) and the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education. AP received funding from Fondecyt 1180205, CONICYT PIA AFB170008 and ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006. MP received funding from the Funding Org. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant nr. 2015.0047), and acknowledges funding from the Swedish Research Council (VR) with contributing research institutes to both the SITES and ICOS Sweden infrastructures. JP and RO were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science grant PID2019-110521GB-I00, the fundacion Ramon Areces grant ELEMENTAL-CLIMATE, and the Catalan government grant 2017-1005. MPB received funding from the Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund (grant project number 15/128) and the Research Council of Norway (Arctic Field Grant, project number 269957). RP received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant INTER-TRANSFER nr. LTT20017). LTSER Zone Atelier Alpes; Federation FREE-Alpes. RP received funding from a Humboldt Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. Prokushkin AS and Zyryanov VI contribution has been supported by the RFBR grant #18-05-60203-Arktika. RPu received founding from the Polish National Science Centre (grant project number 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316). ODYSSEE project (ANR-13-ISV7-0004, PN-II-ID-JRP-RO-FR-2012). KR was supported through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. Fieldwork was supported by the Global Challenges program at the University of Wollongong, the ARC the Australian Antarctic Division and INACH. DR was funded by the project SUBANTECO IPEV 136 (French Polar Institute Paul-Emile Victor), Zone Atelier CNRS Antarctique et Terres Australes, SAD Region Bretagne (Project INFLICT), BiodivERsa 2019-2020 BioDivClim call 'ASICS' (ANR-20-EBI5-0004). SAR received funding from the Australian Research Council. NSF grant #1556772 to the University of Notre Dame. Pavia University (Italy). OR received funding from EU-LEAP-Agri (RAMSES II), EU-DESIRA (CASSECS), EU-H2020 (SustainSahel), AGROPOLIS and TOTAL Foundations (DSCATT), CGIAR (GLDC). AR was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant 18-74-10048). Parc national des Ecrins. JS received funding from Vetenskapsradet grant nr (No: 2014-04270), ALTER-net multi-site grant, River LIFE project (LIFE08 NAT/S/000266), Flexpeil. Helmholtz Association long-term research program TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). PS received funding from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grant nr. N N305 304840). AS acknowledges funding by ETH Zurich project FEVER ETH-27 19-1. LSC received funding from NSERC Canada Graduate Scholarship (Doctoral) Program; LSC was also supported by ArcticNet-NCE (insert grant #). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (141513/2017-9); FundacAo Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (E26/200.84/2019). ZS received funding from the SRDA (grants nos. APVV-16-0325 and APVV-20-0365) and from the ERDF (grant no. ITMS 313011S735, CE LignoSilva). JS, MB and CA received funding from core budget of ETH Zurich. State excellence Program M-V \"WETSCAPES\". AfricanBioServices project funded by the EU Horizon 2020 grant number 641918. The authors from KIT/IMK-IFU acknowledge the funding received within the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) research program of the Helmholtz Association and from the Bavarian Ministry of the Environment and Public Health (UGV06080204000). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), project number 192626868, in the framework of the collaborative German-Indonesian research project CRC 990 (SFB): 'EFForTS, Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems (Sumatra, Indonesia)'. MS received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant nr. INTER-TRANSFER LTT19018). TT received funding from the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB Dnr 95/16) and the CASSECS project supported by the European Union. HJDT received funding from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC doctoral training partnership grant NE/L002558/1). German Science Foundation (DFG) GraKo 2010 \"Response\". PDT received funding from the MEMOIRE project (PN-III-P1-1.1-PD2016-0925). Arctic Challenge for Sustainability II (ArCS II; JPMXD1420318865). JU received funding from Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 21-11487S). TU received funding from the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (CCCDI - UEFISCDI -project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2019-4924 and PN2019-2022/19270201-Ctr. 25N BIODIVERS 3-BIOSERV). AV acknowledge funding from RSF, project 21-14-00209. GFV received funding from the Dutch Research Council NWO (Veni grant, no. 863.14.013). Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Award DE140101611. FGAV received funding from the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) under CEECIND/02509/2018, CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020), FCT/MCTES through national funds, and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park. MVI received funding from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through a doctoral grant (FPU17/05869). JW received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). CR and SW received funding from the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) and the de Giacomi foundation. YY received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41861134039 and 41941015). ZY received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nr. 41877458). FZ received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant nr. 172198 and 193645). PZ received funding from the Funding Org. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant no. 2015.0047). JL received funding from (i) the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), under the framework of the young investigators (JCJC) funding instrument (ANR JCJC Grant project NoANR-19-CE32-0005-01: IMPRINT) (ii) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Defi INFINITI 2018: MORFO); and the Structure Federative de Recherche (SFR) Condorcet (FR CNRS 3417: CREUSE). Fieldwork in the Arctic got facilitated by funding from the EU INTERACT program. SN, UAT, JJA and JvO would like to thank the field team of the Vegetation Dynamics group for their efforts and hard work. We acknowledge Dominique Tristan for letting access to the field. For the logistic support the crew of INACH and Gabriel de Castilla Station team on Deception Island. We thank the Inuvialuit and Kluane First Nations for the opportunity to work on their land. MAdP acknowledges fieldwork assistance and logistics support to Unidad de Tecnologia Marina CSIC, and the crew of Juan Carlos I and Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Stations, as well as to the different colleagues from UAH that helped on the instrument maintenance. ERF acknowledges fieldwork assistance by Martin Heggli. MBG acknowledges fieldwork and technical assistance by P Abadia, C Benede, P Bravo, J Gomez, M Grasa, R Jimenez, H Miranda, B Ponz, J Revilla and P Tejero and the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park staff. LH acknowledges field assistance by John Jacobs, Andrew Trant, Robert Way, Darroch Whitaker; we acknowledge the Inuit of Nunatsiavut, and the Co-management Board of Torngat Mountains National Park for their support of this project and acknowledge that the field research was conducted on their traditional lands. We thank our many bear guides, especially Boonie, Eli, Herman, John and Maria Merkuratsuk. AAK acknowledges field support of Akhtar Malik, Rameez Ahmad. Part of microclimatic records from Saxony was funded by the Saxon Switzerland National Park Administration. Tyson Research Center. JP acknowledges field support of Emmanuel Malet (Edytem) and Rangers of Reserves Naturelles de Haute-Savoie (ASTERS). Practical help: Roel H. Janssen, N. Huig, E. Bakker, Schools in the tepaseforsoket, Forskar fredag, Erik Herberg. The support by the Bavarian Forest National Park administration is highly appreciated. LvdB acknowledges CONAF and onsite support from the park rangers from PN Pan de Azucar, PN La Campana, PN Nahuelbuta and from communidad agricola Quebrada de Talca. JL and FS acknowledge Manuel Nicolas and all forest officers from the Office National des Forets (ONF) who are in charge of the RENECOFOR network and who provided help and local support for the installation and maintenance of temperature loggers in the field. Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 p ixels ( summarized f rom 8 519 u nique t emperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications. AIAS-COFUND fellowship programme - Marie Skodowska- Curie actions under the European Union's Seventh Framework Pro-gramme for Research, Technological development and Demonstration 609033 European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skodowska-Curie Grant 657627 SNF 407340_172433 40FA40_154245 20FI21_148992 20FI20_173691 Unitatea Executiva pentru Finantarea Invatamantului Superior, a Cercetarii, Dezvoltarii si Inovarii (UEFISCDI) PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2019-4924 PN2019-2022/19270201 Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic LM2015078 VAN2020/01 CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001708 LTT17033 LTT20017 INTER-TRANSFER LTT19018 Project 'Como as florestas da Amazonia Central respondem as variacoes climaticas? Efeitos sobre dinamica florestal e sinergia com a fragmentacAo florestal' Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the National Sustainability Programme I (NPU I) LO1415 International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability (I-CARES) at Washington University in St. Louis Bavarian Ministry of the Environment and Public Health UGV06080204000 German Research Foundation (DFG) 192626868 French National Research Agency (ANR) ANR-19-CE32-0005-01 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) PIA APOYO CCTE AFB170008 PIA AFB170008 grant project VEGA of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic Slovak Academy of Sciences 2/0132/18 Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology CEECIND/02509/2018 CESAM UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020 Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) CONICYT FONDECYT 11170516 1180205 Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio De Janeiro (FAPERJ) E26/200.84/2019 German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) research program of the Helmholtz Association Kempe Foundations - research infrastructure ICOS Kempe Foundations - research infrastructure SITES Gobern of Spain PERMAPLANET CTM2009-10165-E ANTARPERMA CTM2011-15565-E PERMASNOW CTM2014-52021-R German Research Foundation (DFG) DFG- FZT 118 202548816 TI 338/14-1 TI 338/14-2 BA 3843/6-1 project for national infrastructure support CzeCOS/ICOS LM2015061 GLORIA-EU EVK2-CT2000-00056 Swedish Research Council Swedish Research Council Formas 2014-00530 2018-00792 2016-01187 Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) PIP 112-201501-00609 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 206/D16053 FWO G0H1517N NERC E3 doctoral training partnership grant at the University of Edinburgh NE/L002558/1 UK Natural Environment Research Council through the ShrubTundra Project NE/M016323/1 Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) 41861134039 41941015 41877458 Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPQ) 141513/2017-9 Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation FSRZ-2020-0014 Grant Agency of the Czech Republic 20-28119S 20-05840Y GA17-19376S 21-11487S Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) RGPIN-06691 Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) 01LL0912 01LG1201M 01LG1201N Polish National Centre for Research and Development Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013 Structure Federative de Recherche (SFR) Condorcet (FR CNRS 3417: CREUSE) Krasnoyarsk Territory Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Science 20-45-242908 Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) 016.VICI.170.072 EU-LEAP-Agri (RAMSES II) EU-DESIRA (CASSECS) EU-H2020 (SustainSahel) Austrian Climate Research Program ACRP7 - CentForCSink - KR14AC7K11960 National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary K128441 Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) FKZ 031B0516C SUSALPS project SUBANTECO IPEV 136 (French Polar Institute Paul-Emile Victor) Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology European Commission European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program 678841 Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic LTAUSA18007 Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic LTAUSA19137 ALTER-net multi-site grant, River LIFE project LIFE08 NAT/S/000266 Swedish Research Council Formas 2018-01781 2018-02700 2019-00836 Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) 863.14.013 Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) 18-05-60203-Arktika Arctic Challenge for Sustainability II (ArCS II) JPMXD1420318865 BECC - Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine 505 550 574 602 Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland N N305 304840 iDiv by the German Research Foundation DFG- FZT 118 202548816 University of Helsinki, Faculty of Science (MICROCLIM) 7510145 BiodivERsa 2019-2020 BioDivClim call 'ASICS' ANR-20-EBI5-0004 MoEFCC, Govt of India (AICOPTAX project) 22018/12/2015/RE/Tax Direccion General de Cambio Climatico del Gobierno de Aragon National Science Foundation, Poland UMO-2017/27/B/ST10/02228 Norwegian Research Council (NORKLIMA grants) 184912 244525 Independent Research Fund Denmark 8021-00423B 7027-00133B New Frontiers in Research Fund-Exploration NFRF-2018-02043 ODYSSEE project (PN-II-ID-JRP-RO-FR-2012) ANR-13-ISV7-0004 Global Challenges program at the University of Wollongong Instituto Antartico Chileno INACH_RT-48_16 INACH FR-0418 project LTER-CWN (FFG, F&E Infrastrukturforderung) 858024 Swedish Research Council Formas Swedish Research Council Baden-Wurttemberg Ministry of Science, Research and Arts Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) NE/L002558/1 Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University Swedish Forest Society Foundation 2018-485-Steg 2 2017 Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) 20FI20_173691 Co-management Board of Torngat Mountains National Park NERC National Capability LTS-S: UK-SCAPE NE/R016429/1 UK NERC Independent Research Fellowship NE/S01537X/1 General Directorate of State Forests, Warsaw, Poland French National Research Agency (ANR) ANR-10-LABX-45 National Science Centre, Poland 2016/21/B/ST10/02271 NSERC Canada Graduate Scholarship (Doctoral) Program Consiliul National al Cercetarii Stiintifice (CNCS) Slovak Research and Development Agency APVV-19-0319 Spanish Research Agency (VULBIMON) CGL2017-90040-R Polish National Science Centre 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316 Zone Atelier CNRS Antarctique et Terres Australes Energy Research Fund NYR-11 - 2019 NYR-18 - 2020 European Commission 172198 193645 31003A_176044 EU Horizon2020 INFRAIA project eLTER-PLUS 871128 Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) 96005914 Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland Programa Operativo FEDER 2018 B1-RNM-163-UGR-18 National Geographic Society 9480-14 WW-240R-17 Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-SBO) S000619N Humboldt Fellowship for Experienced Researchers Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) European Research Council (ERC) FORMICA 757833 Department of Industry, Innovation and Science fundacion Ramon Areces grant ELEMENTAL-CLIMATE FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement Aarhus University Research Foundation, Denmark Saxon Switzerland National Park Administration National Science Foundation (NSF) DEB 1557094 Arctic Interactions at the University of Oulu Russian Science Foundation (RSF) 21-14-00209. Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund 15/128 Russian Science Foundation (RSF) 18-74-10048 Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation 2015.0047 Bavarian Forest National Park administration Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) National Research Foundation - South Africa Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) National Science Foundation (NSF) 1556772 MEMOIRE project PN-III-P1-1.1-PD2016-0925 Jardin Botanico Atlantico SV-20-GIJON-JBA Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) 95/16 Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Spanish Government PID2019-110521GB-I00 Australian Research Council DE180100570 Australian Research Council DE140101611 Czech Academy of Sciences RVO 67985939 SAD Region Bretagne (Project INFLICT) CASSECS project by the European Union ARC the Australian Antarctic Division Autonomous Province of Bolzano (ITA) Qatar Petroleum QUEX-CAS-QP-RD-18/19 ERDF (CE LignoSilva) ITMS 313011S735 Kempe Foundation JCK-1112 JCK-1822 European Commission CGL2016-78093-R Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Swedish Research Council 2014-04270 project MIUR PON Cluster OT4CLIMA Research Council of Norway 269957 Academy of Finland 318930 337552 European Commission 17841 774124 Tiina and Antti Herlin Foundation National Parks (DYNBIO) 1656/2015 Estonian Research Council PRG609 FWO G018919N W001919N 12P1819N research infrastructure ICOS-SE SRDA APVV-16-0325 APVV-20-0365 UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Oberfrankenstiftung OFS FP00237 Spanish Government FPU17/05869 Maaja vesitekniikan tuki ry. Catalan government 2017-1005 ETH Zurich FEVER ETH-27 19-1 Australian Research Council Tiroler Wissenschaftsfonds Research Council of Norway ENI CBC BSB PONTOS BSB 889 European Commission 230970 CISSC (program ICRP) 2397 ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006 EU FP6 NitroEurope 17841 Swedish Research Council University of Innsbruck Villum Foundation 17523 MCTI/CNPq/FNDCT 68/2013 25N BIODIVERS 3-BIOSERV Spanish Polar Committee Nordenskiold Samfundet EU Horizon 2020 641918 EU FP7 ECLAIRE 282910 Tyson Research Center Stelvio National Park Universidad Javeriana Australian Government ANID-FONDECYT 1181745 Sime Darby Foundation Inuit of Nunatsiavut CONICYT-PAI 79170119 University of Alcala EU INTERACT program Forestry Commission Spanish Government Giacomi foundation Max Planck Society GEF-UNEP NEC05348 Weston Foundation ANID-MPG 190029 ArcticNet-NCE Compete 2020 DOB Ecology ScotNature ETH Zurich ArcticNet AGROPOLIS Flexpeil Total SA CGIAR INACH

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    NERC Open Research Archive
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    MPG.PuRe
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://doi.org/10.21256/zhaw-...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Datacite
      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Datacite
      Apollo
      Article . 2022
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Evelyn Uuemaa; Sander Ahi; Bruno Montibeller; Merle Muru; +1 Authors

    Freely available global digital elevation models (DEMs) are important inputs for many research fields and applications. During the last decade, several global DEMs have been released based on satellite data. ASTER and SRTM are the most widely used DEMs, but the more recently released, AW3D30, TanDEM-X and MERIT, are being increasingly used. Many researchers have studied the quality of these DEM products in recent years. However, there has been no comprehensive and systematic evaluation of their quality over areas with variable topography and land cover conditions. To provide this comparison, we examined the accuracy of six freely available global DEMs (ASTER, AW3D30, MERIT, TanDEM-X, SRTM, and NASADEM) in four geographic regions with different topographic and land use conditions. We used local high-precision elevation models (Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Pleiades-1A) as reference models and all global models were resampled to reference model resolution (1m). In total, 608 million 1x1 m pixels were analyzed. To estimate the accuracy, we generated error rasters by subtracting each reference model from the corresponding global DEM and calculated descriptive statistics for this difference (e.g., median, mean, root-mean-square error (RMSE)). We also assessed the vertical accuracy as a function of the slope, slope aspect, and land cover. We found that slope had the strongest effect on DEM accuracy, with no relationship for slope aspect. The AW3D30 was the most robust and had the most stable performance in most of the tests and is therefore the best choice for an analysis of multiple geographic regions. SRTM and NASADEM also performed well where available, whereas NASADEM, as a successor of SRTM, showed only slight improvement in comparison to SRTM. MERIT and TanDEM-X also performed well despite their lower spatial resolution.

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    Remote Sensing
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Remote Sensing
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Remote Sensing
    Article
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Remote Sensing
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Remote Sensing
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Remote Sensing
      Article
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sundarabalan V. Balasubramanian; Nima Pahlevan; Brandon I Smith; Caren Binding; +16 Authors

    International audience; One of the challenging tasks in modern aquatic remote sensing is the retrieval of near-surface concentrations of Total Suspended Solids (TSS). This study aims to present a Statistical, inherent Optical property (IOP) -based, and muLti-conditional Inversion proceDure (SOLID) for enhanced retrievals of satellite-derived TSS under a wide range of in-water bio-optical conditions in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. In this study, using a large in situ database (N > 3500), the SOLID model is devised using a three-step procedure: (a) water-type classification of the input remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), (b) retrieval of particulate backscattering (bbp) in the red or near-infrared (NIR) regions using semi-analytical, machine-learning, and empirical models, and (c) estimation of TSS from bbp via water-type-specific empirical models. Using an independent subset of our in situ data (N = 2729) with TSS ranging from 0.1 to 2626.8 [g/m3], the SOLID model is thoroughly examined and compared against several state-of-the-art algorithms (Miller and McKee, 2004; Nechad et al., 2010; Novoa et al., 2017; Ondrusek et al., 2012; Petus et al., 2010). We show that SOLID outperforms all the other models to varying degrees, i.e.,from 10 to >100%, depending on the statistical attributes (e.g., global versus water-type-specific metrics). For demonstration purposes, the model is implemented for images acquired by the MultiSpectral Imager aboard Sentinel-2A/B over the Chesapeake Bay, San-Francisco-Bay-Delta Estuary, Lake Okeechobee, and Lake Taihu. To enable generating consistent, multimission TSS products, its performance is further extended to, and evaluated for, other missions, such as the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and Operational Land Imager (OLI). Sensitivity analyses on uncertainties induced by the atmospheric correction indicate that 10% uncertainty in Rrs leads to <20% uncertainty in TSS retrievals from SOLID. While this study suggests that SOLID has a potential for producing TSS products in global coastal and inland waters, our statistical analysis certainly verifies that there is still a need for improving retrievals across a wide spectrum of particle loads.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed