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  • Rural Digital Europe
  • Publications
  • Bachelor thesis

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  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Novak, Aljaž;
    Publisher: A. Novak
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    PUC, ANDRAŽ;
    Country: Slovenia

    V sklopu pričujočega diplomskega dela predstavimo predstavimo aktualno tehnološko paradigmo IoT in obširneje opišemo eno glavnih podskupin paradigme in sicer povezljive gospodinjske aparate. Ta je verjetno povprečnemu človeku najbolj poznana izmed vseh podskupin IoT še posebej pod imenom pametni dom. V množico povezljivih gospodinjskih aparatov sodi mnogo naprav, ki omogočajo funkcionalnosti kot so oddaljeni nadzor razsvetljave, gospodinjskih aparatov in ambientalne temperature, razvedrilne funkcionalnosti, varnost, nadzor nad oskrbovanimi osebami itd. Cilj pričujoče diplomske naloge je razvoj programske opreme za gospodinjske aparate podjetja Gorenje d.o.o. Natančneje gre za razvoj programske opreme razhroščevanja mikrokrmilnika ESP32-C3-MINI preko Wi-FI omrežja. Omenjeni mikrokrmilnik opravlja vlogo Wi-Fi modula v Gorenjevih povezljivih gospodinjskih aparatih. V okviru dela tako razvijemo razhroščevalni strežnik in konzolski aplikaciji v dveh različnih UI ogrodjih (WPF in GTK#) ter vse navedeno dodamo funkcionalnostim že obstoječe vgrajene programske opreme, ki teče na Wi-Fi modulu. In the scope of this diploma thesis, we present the topical IoT technology paradigm and describe in-depth one of the main subgroups of the paradigm, that is, connected home appliances. Aforementioned subgroup is probably the most familiar of all IoT subgroups to the average person, especially under the name smart home. Connected home appliances include a variety of devices that enable functionalities such as lighting, appliance and ambient temperature control, entertainment, security and assisted living. The aim of this thesis is to develop software for home appliances of Gorenje d.o.o. More concretely, it is the development of software that would allow the ESP32-C3-MINI microcontroller, which will act as a Wi-Fi module in Gorenje's connected home appliances, to be debugged over a Wi-Fi network. This includes the development of a debug server, console applications in two different UI frameworks (WPF and GTK#) and the addition of functionalities to the existing firmware which runs on the Wi-Fi module.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2023
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Šuštar, Jaka;
    Publisher: J. Šuštar
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Habjan, Katarina;
    Publisher: K. Habjan
    Country: Slovenia
  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2023
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Mušić, Aldina;
    Publisher: A. Mušić
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Löfgren, Kalle;
    Publisher: Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik
    Country: Sweden

    The use of micro aerial vehicles (MAV) for civilian use such as exploration and inspection of varying structures, equipment and areas have garnered some interest as of late. MAVs have the mobility and agility to traverse three dimensional space quickly and access hard to reach areas where other alternatives would struggle, but a flying platform such as a MAV comes with it’s own set of distinct problems. Almost any collision with the environment results in a complete failure of the platform. Any exploratory framework would need to perform obstacle avoidance and online path planning in a fully unknown environment with low computation times to ensure that the limited battery resources on the MAV is used in the most efficient way. In this thesis the exploratory rapidly-exploring random tree (ERRT) framework will be further optimized and an efficient strategy for finding valid exploration paths which are not in the immediate vicinity of the MAV will be developed and integrated. The method is demonstrated and proven through results from simulations and real life experiments.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Roglič, Lucija;
    Country: Slovenia

    V Zasavju je na širšem območju najvišjega vrha regije Kuma (1200 m n.m.v.) istoimenski krajinski park, ki je zaščiteno območje. Spada pod zaščito evropskega programa za varstvo narave – Naturo 2000, ki z direktivama o habitatih in pticah ohranja populacije prostoživečih živalskih in rastlinskih vrst. Krajinski park Kum se razprostira nad dolinami Zasavja, ki so bile v preteklosti izrazito industrijske. V dolini neposredno pod njim sta (danes nedelujoči) termoelektrarna in tovarna cementa – Lafarge, ki sta v preteklosti celotno območje onesnaževali z žveplovim dioksidom. Kmetijska zemljišča zajemajo predvsem gozd in trajni travniki. Podnebje je zmerno celinsko, z viškom padavin poleti. Teren je zelo razgiban, intenzivno kmetijsko pridelavo otežujeta površinska skalovitost in plitva tla. Zaradi večjih naklonov (>20 %) je uporaba strojev omejena. Površine, ki jih obdelujejo, so manjše od slovenskega povprečja. Kmetje z izvajanjem ukrepov programa upravljanja območij Natura 2000 močno pripomorejo k ohranjanju habitatov. Izmed najpomembnejših na tem območju je habitat polnaravnih suhih travišč in grmiščnih faz na karbonatnih tleh, ki so pomembna rastišča kukavičevk. Večinoma se tu pojavlja živinoreja ter v manjši meri ekstenzivno poljedelstvo. In the wider area of the region's highest peak, Kum (1200 meters above sea level), in Zasavje region there is an area that the municipality has protected as a landscape park. It is also under the protection of the European program for nature protection – Natura 2000, which preserves populations of wild animal and plant species with the directives on habitats and birds. The landscape stretches over the valleys of Zasavje, which were distinctly industrial in the past. In the Sava valley directly below, there is a thermal power plant and a cement factory, Lafarge (both are now defunct). In the past they both polluted the area with sulfur dioxide and other emissions. Agricultural land is mainly covered by forest and permanent meadows. The use of the machines is limited due to the steep inclines (>20 %). The climate is moderately continental with excess precipitation in summer. The terrain is very rugged. Intensive agricultural production is also made difficult by the rocky surface and shallow soil. The use of machines is limited due to steep inclines. The areas they cultivate are smaller than the Slovenian average. By implementing measures, farmers greatly contribute to the preservation of habitats. One of the most important in this area is the habitat of semi-natural dry grasslands and scrub phases on carbonate soils, which are important wild orchid habitats. Livestock production and, to a lesser extent, extensive agriculture occur here.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Castañeda Cano, Jhonathan Stiven;
    Publisher: Universidad Autónoma de Occidente
    Country: Colombia

    En este proyecto se diseñó e implementó un sistema de percepción robótica para monitorear los puntos ciegos de camiones rígidos de dos ejes, utilizando como plataforma experimental un automóvil instrumentado con diferentes sensores. El sistema se desarrolló de tal manera que puede ser implementado en un camión de una manera intuitiva por un conductor y cuenta con módulos de apoyo para la calibración de los sensores utilizados. Se implementaron módulos de visión computacional y detección de objetos usando redes neuronales artificiales, además, se implementó un sistema de detección redundante con el apoyo de sensores LiDAR; Con estos se genera una serie de alertas para el conductor que le permiten conocer cuando existen determinados objetos en los puntos ciegos del vehículo y cuándo alguno de estos se encuentra demasiado cerca del vehículo. Para la visualización de las alertas generadas por el sistema y para darle al conductor una herramienta de retroalimentación visual integra se implementó una interfaz de usuario que despliega una imagen virtual de vista de pájaro generada con los fotogramas de múltiples cámaras instaladas en el vehículo instrumentado, en la que además es posible visualizar la posición estimada de los objetos detectados alrededor del vehículo con respecto a su marco de referencia local. Proyecto de grado (Ingeniero Mecatrónico)-- Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, 2022 Pregrado Ingeniero(a) Mecatrónico(a)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Recasens Bosch, Joan;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Countries: Sweden, Spain

    The high penetration of renewable energies (RE) in power systems is increasing the volatile production on the generation side and the presence of distributed energy resources (DER) over the territory. On the other hand, Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) are an aggregation of DER managed as a single entity to promote flexibility services to power systems. Therefore, VPPs are a valid approach to cope with the arising challenges in the power system related to RE penetration. This report defines the concept of a utility-scale VPP, as a tool to stabilize the grid and increase the flexibility capacity in power systems. For this purpose, the report places special emphasis in the use cases that can be developed with a utility-scale VPP. Nevertheless, implementing a utility-scale VPP is a complex procedure, as VPP solutions are highly customizable depending on the scope and the conditions of each project. For this reason, this report analyses the main factors that must be taken into account when implementing a VPP solution. The report concludes that the two most critical factors that define the viability of a VPP project are, first, the energy market design and regulatory framework and second, the technical requirements. These two must always align with the scope of the project and the use cases intended to be developed. Further, other minor factors, including a cost estimate for a VPP solution, are also considered in the report Den höga penetrationen av förnybara energier i kraftsystem ökar den flyktiga produktionen på produktionssidan och närvaron av distribuerade energiresurser över territoriet. Å andra sidan är virtuella kraftverk en sammanställning av distribuerade energiresurser som hanteras som en enda enhet för att främja flexibilitetstjänster till kraftsystem. Därför är virtuella kraftverk: er en giltig strategi för att hantera de uppkomna utmaningarna i kraftsystemet relaterat till förnybara energier genomslag. I denna rapport definieras konceptet med en virtuella kraftverk verktygsskala som ett verktyg för att stabilisera nätet och öka flexibilitetskapaciteten i kraftsystem. För detta ändamål lägger rapporten särskild tonvikt på användningsfall som kan utvecklas med en virtuella kraftverk-nytta. Trots det är implementering av en virtuella kraftverknyckelskala en komplex procedur, eftersom virtuella kraftverk-lösningar är mycket anpassningsbara beroende på omfattning och villkor för varje projekt. Av denna anledning analyserar denna rapport de viktigaste faktorerna som måste beaktas vid implementering av en VPP-lösning. Rapporten drar slutsatsen att de två mest kritiska faktorerna som definierar ett virtuella kraftverk projekts livskraft är, dels energimarknadens utformning och regelverk och för det andra de tekniska kraven. Dessa två måste alltid anpassa sig till projektets omfattning och användningsfall som är avsedda att utvecklas. Vidare beaktas även andra mindre faktorer, inklusive en kostnadsuppskattning för en virtuella kraftverk lösning, i rapporten Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::7 - Energia Assequible i No Contaminant::7.b - Per a 2030, ampliar la infraestructura i millorar la tecnologia per tal d’oferir serveis d’energia moderns i sos­tenibles per a tots els països en desenvolupament, en particular els països menys avançats, els petits estats insulars en desenvolupament i els països en desenvolupament sense litoral, d’acord amb els programes de suport respectius

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Jenko, Tjaša;
    Country: Slovenia

    Na območju Celja smo izbrali 8 njiv, kjer je od zadnje obdelave pretekel najmanj 1 mesec. Vse vzorce tal smo odvzeli isti dan (20. 3. 2020), po krajšem obdobju suhega vremena. Vzorčili smo na njivah s poljedelskim kolobarjem, kjer je bila v jeseni 2019 posajena koruza. Glede na velikost njive smo odvzeli od 3 do 21 površinskih vzorcev tal na posamezni njivi, skupaj 93 vzorcev. Predvidevali smo, da je variabilnost meritev odvisna od heterogenosti tal na površini njiv in od izvedbe vzorčenja. Ugotovili smo, da je bila najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega fosforja 2,3 mg/100 g, največja pa 15,1 mg/100 g. Najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega kalija je bila 8,2 mg/100 g, največja pa 46,3 mg/100 g. Povprečne vrednosti so se torej precej razlikovale. Pri pH so se povprečne vrednosti za različne njive gibale od 4,6 do 6,9. Vrednosti deleža organske snovi pa so se gibale od 3,2 % do 4,8 %. Koeficient variacije (KV) je bil za pH vrednost od 3,2 do 12 %, pri deležu organske snovi pa je bil 6,5 – 34,7 %. Precej večja je bila variabilnost v meritvah rastlinam dostopnega fosforja in kalija. Koeficient variacije za kalij je bil od 11,5 do 73 % pri fosforju pa od 6,3 do 87,9 %. Vrednosti za rastlinam dostopen fosfor in kalij sta bila bolj variabilna kot za pH in organsko snov. We selected 8 fields in the Celje area, where at least 1 month had passed since the last cultivation. All samples were taken on the same day (March 20, 2020) after a short dry period. Samples were collected from fields with crop rotation where corn had been grown in the fall of 2019. Depending on the size of the field, between 3 and 21 soil samples were collected per field, resulting in a total of 93 soil samples. We assumed that the variability of the measurements depended on the heterogeneity of the soil on the field surface and sampling. We found that the lowest average value of plant-available phosphorus was 2.3 mg/100 g and the highest was 15.1 mg/100 g. The lowest average value of plant-available potassium is 8.2 mg/100 g and the highest was 46.3 mg/100 g. Thus, the average values vary considerably. For pH, the average values for different fields ranged from 4.6 to 6.9, and the percentage of organic matter varied from 3.2% to 4.8%. The coefficient of variation (KV) for pH ranged from 3.2 to 12%, and for the percentage of organic matter from 6.5 to 34.7%. The variability in the measurement of phosphorus and potassium available to plants was much greater. The coefficient of variation for potassium ranged from 11.5 to 73%, and that for phosphorus ranged from 6.3 to 87.9%. The data for plant available phosphorus and potassium were more variable than for pH and organic matter.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to Rural Digital Europe. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4,346 Research products, page 1 of 435
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Novak, Aljaž;
    Publisher: A. Novak
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    PUC, ANDRAŽ;
    Country: Slovenia

    V sklopu pričujočega diplomskega dela predstavimo predstavimo aktualno tehnološko paradigmo IoT in obširneje opišemo eno glavnih podskupin paradigme in sicer povezljive gospodinjske aparate. Ta je verjetno povprečnemu človeku najbolj poznana izmed vseh podskupin IoT še posebej pod imenom pametni dom. V množico povezljivih gospodinjskih aparatov sodi mnogo naprav, ki omogočajo funkcionalnosti kot so oddaljeni nadzor razsvetljave, gospodinjskih aparatov in ambientalne temperature, razvedrilne funkcionalnosti, varnost, nadzor nad oskrbovanimi osebami itd. Cilj pričujoče diplomske naloge je razvoj programske opreme za gospodinjske aparate podjetja Gorenje d.o.o. Natančneje gre za razvoj programske opreme razhroščevanja mikrokrmilnika ESP32-C3-MINI preko Wi-FI omrežja. Omenjeni mikrokrmilnik opravlja vlogo Wi-Fi modula v Gorenjevih povezljivih gospodinjskih aparatih. V okviru dela tako razvijemo razhroščevalni strežnik in konzolski aplikaciji v dveh različnih UI ogrodjih (WPF in GTK#) ter vse navedeno dodamo funkcionalnostim že obstoječe vgrajene programske opreme, ki teče na Wi-Fi modulu. In the scope of this diploma thesis, we present the topical IoT technology paradigm and describe in-depth one of the main subgroups of the paradigm, that is, connected home appliances. Aforementioned subgroup is probably the most familiar of all IoT subgroups to the average person, especially under the name smart home. Connected home appliances include a variety of devices that enable functionalities such as lighting, appliance and ambient temperature control, entertainment, security and assisted living. The aim of this thesis is to develop software for home appliances of Gorenje d.o.o. More concretely, it is the development of software that would allow the ESP32-C3-MINI microcontroller, which will act as a Wi-Fi module in Gorenje's connected home appliances, to be debugged over a Wi-Fi network. This includes the development of a debug server, console applications in two different UI frameworks (WPF and GTK#) and the addition of functionalities to the existing firmware which runs on the Wi-Fi module.

  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2023
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Šuštar, Jaka;
    Publisher: J. Šuštar
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Habjan, Katarina;
    Publisher: K. Habjan
    Country: Slovenia
  • Publication . Bachelor thesis . 2023
    Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Mušić, Aldina;
    Publisher: A. Mušić
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Löfgren, Kalle;
    Publisher: Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik
    Country: Sweden

    The use of micro aerial vehicles (MAV) for civilian use such as exploration and inspection of varying structures, equipment and areas have garnered some interest as of late. MAVs have the mobility and agility to traverse three dimensional space quickly and access hard to reach areas where other alternatives would struggle, but a flying platform such as a MAV comes with it’s own set of distinct problems. Almost any collision with the environment results in a complete failure of the platform. Any exploratory framework would need to perform obstacle avoidance and online path planning in a fully unknown environment with low computation times to ensure that the limited battery resources on the MAV is used in the most efficient way. In this thesis the exploratory rapidly-exploring random tree (ERRT) framework will be further optimized and an efficient strategy for finding valid exploration paths which are not in the immediate vicinity of the MAV will be developed and integrated. The method is demonstrated and proven through results from simulations and real life experiments.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Roglič, Lucija;
    Country: Slovenia

    V Zasavju je na širšem območju najvišjega vrha regije Kuma (1200 m n.m.v.) istoimenski krajinski park, ki je zaščiteno območje. Spada pod zaščito evropskega programa za varstvo narave – Naturo 2000, ki z direktivama o habitatih in pticah ohranja populacije prostoživečih živalskih in rastlinskih vrst. Krajinski park Kum se razprostira nad dolinami Zasavja, ki so bile v preteklosti izrazito industrijske. V dolini neposredno pod njim sta (danes nedelujoči) termoelektrarna in tovarna cementa – Lafarge, ki sta v preteklosti celotno območje onesnaževali z žveplovim dioksidom. Kmetijska zemljišča zajemajo predvsem gozd in trajni travniki. Podnebje je zmerno celinsko, z viškom padavin poleti. Teren je zelo razgiban, intenzivno kmetijsko pridelavo otežujeta površinska skalovitost in plitva tla. Zaradi večjih naklonov (>20 %) je uporaba strojev omejena. Površine, ki jih obdelujejo, so manjše od slovenskega povprečja. Kmetje z izvajanjem ukrepov programa upravljanja območij Natura 2000 močno pripomorejo k ohranjanju habitatov. Izmed najpomembnejših na tem območju je habitat polnaravnih suhih travišč in grmiščnih faz na karbonatnih tleh, ki so pomembna rastišča kukavičevk. Večinoma se tu pojavlja živinoreja ter v manjši meri ekstenzivno poljedelstvo. In the wider area of the region's highest peak, Kum (1200 meters above sea level), in Zasavje region there is an area that the municipality has protected as a landscape park. It is also under the protection of the European program for nature protection – Natura 2000, which preserves populations of wild animal and plant species with the directives on habitats and birds. The landscape stretches over the valleys of Zasavje, which were distinctly industrial in the past. In the Sava valley directly below, there is a thermal power plant and a cement factory, Lafarge (both are now defunct). In the past they both polluted the area with sulfur dioxide and other emissions. Agricultural land is mainly covered by forest and permanent meadows. The use of the machines is limited due to the steep inclines (>20 %). The climate is moderately continental with excess precipitation in summer. The terrain is very rugged. Intensive agricultural production is also made difficult by the rocky surface and shallow soil. The use of machines is limited due to steep inclines. The areas they cultivate are smaller than the Slovenian average. By implementing measures, farmers greatly contribute to the preservation of habitats. One of the most important in this area is the habitat of semi-natural dry grasslands and scrub phases on carbonate soils, which are important wild orchid habitats. Livestock production and, to a lesser extent, extensive agriculture occur here.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Castañeda Cano, Jhonathan Stiven;
    Publisher: Universidad Autónoma de Occidente
    Country: Colombia

    En este proyecto se diseñó e implementó un sistema de percepción robótica para monitorear los puntos ciegos de camiones rígidos de dos ejes, utilizando como plataforma experimental un automóvil instrumentado con diferentes sensores. El sistema se desarrolló de tal manera que puede ser implementado en un camión de una manera intuitiva por un conductor y cuenta con módulos de apoyo para la calibración de los sensores utilizados. Se implementaron módulos de visión computacional y detección de objetos usando redes neuronales artificiales, además, se implementó un sistema de detección redundante con el apoyo de sensores LiDAR; Con estos se genera una serie de alertas para el conductor que le permiten conocer cuando existen determinados objetos en los puntos ciegos del vehículo y cuándo alguno de estos se encuentra demasiado cerca del vehículo. Para la visualización de las alertas generadas por el sistema y para darle al conductor una herramienta de retroalimentación visual integra se implementó una interfaz de usuario que despliega una imagen virtual de vista de pájaro generada con los fotogramas de múltiples cámaras instaladas en el vehículo instrumentado, en la que además es posible visualizar la posición estimada de los objetos detectados alrededor del vehículo con respecto a su marco de referencia local. Proyecto de grado (Ingeniero Mecatrónico)-- Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, 2022 Pregrado Ingeniero(a) Mecatrónico(a)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Recasens Bosch, Joan;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Countries: Sweden, Spain

    The high penetration of renewable energies (RE) in power systems is increasing the volatile production on the generation side and the presence of distributed energy resources (DER) over the territory. On the other hand, Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) are an aggregation of DER managed as a single entity to promote flexibility services to power systems. Therefore, VPPs are a valid approach to cope with the arising challenges in the power system related to RE penetration. This report defines the concept of a utility-scale VPP, as a tool to stabilize the grid and increase the flexibility capacity in power systems. For this purpose, the report places special emphasis in the use cases that can be developed with a utility-scale VPP. Nevertheless, implementing a utility-scale VPP is a complex procedure, as VPP solutions are highly customizable depending on the scope and the conditions of each project. For this reason, this report analyses the main factors that must be taken into account when implementing a VPP solution. The report concludes that the two most critical factors that define the viability of a VPP project are, first, the energy market design and regulatory framework and second, the technical requirements. These two must always align with the scope of the project and the use cases intended to be developed. Further, other minor factors, including a cost estimate for a VPP solution, are also considered in the report Den höga penetrationen av förnybara energier i kraftsystem ökar den flyktiga produktionen på produktionssidan och närvaron av distribuerade energiresurser över territoriet. Å andra sidan är virtuella kraftverk en sammanställning av distribuerade energiresurser som hanteras som en enda enhet för att främja flexibilitetstjänster till kraftsystem. Därför är virtuella kraftverk: er en giltig strategi för att hantera de uppkomna utmaningarna i kraftsystemet relaterat till förnybara energier genomslag. I denna rapport definieras konceptet med en virtuella kraftverk verktygsskala som ett verktyg för att stabilisera nätet och öka flexibilitetskapaciteten i kraftsystem. För detta ändamål lägger rapporten särskild tonvikt på användningsfall som kan utvecklas med en virtuella kraftverk-nytta. Trots det är implementering av en virtuella kraftverknyckelskala en komplex procedur, eftersom virtuella kraftverk-lösningar är mycket anpassningsbara beroende på omfattning och villkor för varje projekt. Av denna anledning analyserar denna rapport de viktigaste faktorerna som måste beaktas vid implementering av en VPP-lösning. Rapporten drar slutsatsen att de två mest kritiska faktorerna som definierar ett virtuella kraftverk projekts livskraft är, dels energimarknadens utformning och regelverk och för det andra de tekniska kraven. Dessa två måste alltid anpassa sig till projektets omfattning och användningsfall som är avsedda att utvecklas. Vidare beaktas även andra mindre faktorer, inklusive en kostnadsuppskattning för en virtuella kraftverk lösning, i rapporten Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::7 - Energia Assequible i No Contaminant::7.b - Per a 2030, ampliar la infraestructura i millorar la tecnologia per tal d’oferir serveis d’energia moderns i sos­tenibles per a tots els països en desenvolupament, en particular els països menys avançats, els petits estats insulars en desenvolupament i els països en desenvolupament sense litoral, d’acord amb els programes de suport respectius

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Authors: 
    Jenko, Tjaša;
    Country: Slovenia

    Na območju Celja smo izbrali 8 njiv, kjer je od zadnje obdelave pretekel najmanj 1 mesec. Vse vzorce tal smo odvzeli isti dan (20. 3. 2020), po krajšem obdobju suhega vremena. Vzorčili smo na njivah s poljedelskim kolobarjem, kjer je bila v jeseni 2019 posajena koruza. Glede na velikost njive smo odvzeli od 3 do 21 površinskih vzorcev tal na posamezni njivi, skupaj 93 vzorcev. Predvidevali smo, da je variabilnost meritev odvisna od heterogenosti tal na površini njiv in od izvedbe vzorčenja. Ugotovili smo, da je bila najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega fosforja 2,3 mg/100 g, največja pa 15,1 mg/100 g. Najmanjša povprečna vrednost rastlinam dostopnega kalija je bila 8,2 mg/100 g, največja pa 46,3 mg/100 g. Povprečne vrednosti so se torej precej razlikovale. Pri pH so se povprečne vrednosti za različne njive gibale od 4,6 do 6,9. Vrednosti deleža organske snovi pa so se gibale od 3,2 % do 4,8 %. Koeficient variacije (KV) je bil za pH vrednost od 3,2 do 12 %, pri deležu organske snovi pa je bil 6,5 – 34,7 %. Precej večja je bila variabilnost v meritvah rastlinam dostopnega fosforja in kalija. Koeficient variacije za kalij je bil od 11,5 do 73 % pri fosforju pa od 6,3 do 87,9 %. Vrednosti za rastlinam dostopen fosfor in kalij sta bila bolj variabilna kot za pH in organsko snov. We selected 8 fields in the Celje area, where at least 1 month had passed since the last cultivation. All samples were taken on the same day (March 20, 2020) after a short dry period. Samples were collected from fields with crop rotation where corn had been grown in the fall of 2019. Depending on the size of the field, between 3 and 21 soil samples were collected per field, resulting in a total of 93 soil samples. We assumed that the variability of the measurements depended on the heterogeneity of the soil on the field surface and sampling. We found that the lowest average value of plant-available phosphorus was 2.3 mg/100 g and the highest was 15.1 mg/100 g. The lowest average value of plant-available potassium is 8.2 mg/100 g and the highest was 46.3 mg/100 g. Thus, the average values vary considerably. For pH, the average values for different fields ranged from 4.6 to 6.9, and the percentage of organic matter varied from 3.2% to 4.8%. The coefficient of variation (KV) for pH ranged from 3.2 to 12%, and for the percentage of organic matter from 6.5 to 34.7%. The variability in the measurement of phosphorus and potassium available to plants was much greater. The coefficient of variation for potassium ranged from 11.5 to 73%, and that for phosphorus ranged from 6.3 to 87.9%. The data for plant available phosphorus and potassium were more variable than for pH and organic matter.