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4,137 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Article
  • 15. Life on land

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka; Aileen Carter; Donal O'Brien; Maeve Henchion; +2 Authors

    Abstract Milk and beef derived from pasture-based systems have been characterized by higher nutritional values and a lower environmental footprint than their equivalents obtained via indoor systems. However, intensification of pasture-based production can have adverse impacts on biodiversity and the environment. To date, studies on pro-environmental diversification options leading to improvement of environmental performance of pasture-based dairy and beef production have rarely been synthesized. The present study sought to review current on-farm pro-environmental measures with the potential for enhancing biodiversity status and/or reducing the environmental impacts of pasture-based agriculture. Literature on farmer attitudes toward these measures was also reviewed to identify potential obstacles and opportunities for transitioning to pro-environmental agriculture. A systematic search of published research from high-income island countries characterized by oceanic temperate climate with a high dependence on pasture-based agriculture—the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, was conducted. Thirty studies that assessed the impact of pro-environmental measures, eight ‘attitudinal’ studies of dairy and beef farmers and one study covering both aspects were identified. Inductive thematical analysis was subsequently undertaken. Environmentally sensitive management practices such as hedgerows and field margins management, mixed grazing (where two or more herbivorous animals graze the same land), rare livestock breeds, multispecies swards, organic farming and agroforestry were identified as primary themes studied under the auspices of pro-environmental diversification, while forestry, bioenergy crops and organic farming were the main themes identified within attitudinal research studies. Findings suggest that environmentally sensitive practices have varied effects on biodiversity. Mixed grazing was found to improve livestock production, while studies of organic farming reported multiple positive impacts on biodiversity and animal welfare. Effect of multispecies swards on methane emissions and urinary nitrogen extraction were found to be inconsistent. Attitudinal research suggests that the main barrier to implementing afforestation is its lack of attractiveness compared to ‘traditional’ farming and that organic farmer decisions regarding agricultural management practices might be less profit-oriented and influenced by ecological beliefs to a greater extent than decisions of conventional farmers. The results of this study confirm that pro-environmental diversification inherently encompasses multiple scientific disciplines; however, previous study designs and outcomes were found to be fragmented and narrowly focused. Considering the urgency and importance of climate and biodiversity crises, pro-environmental diversification of pasture-based dairy and beef production has rarely been holistically approached and remains understudied. The development of practical, sustainable solutions for farming based on circular economy and respect to nature and additional strategies to increase farmer and consumer environmental awareness should be prioritized by policymakers, advisory and scientific bodies.

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    Arrow@TU Dublin
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Arrow@TU Dublin
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    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Arrow@TU Dublin
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY SA
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      Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pablo Homet; Mario González; Luis Matías; Oscar Godoy; +3 Authors

    Climate change and exotic pests and pathogens are causing alarming forest declines worldwide. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how damage caused by exotic pests and pathogens might vary under the different scenarios of water availability imposed by a changing climate, particularly in water-limited forests as those that occupy Mediterranean areas. In this paper we aimed to experimentally analyse the interactive effects of the aggressive exotic pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and climate change-related reductions in soil moisture on seedling performance of the Mediterranean host Quercus suber. We conducted a full-factorial greenhouse experiment where the physiology and growth of Q. suber seedlings was measured in soils with different combinations of P. cinnamomi inoculum density (0, 30, 60 and 120 colony forming units per gram of dry soil) and soil moisture (15%, 40%, 50% and 100% soil water holding capacity) simulating different invasion and climate change scenarios. We found additive effects of P. cinnamomi and drought on Q. suber performance aboveground, although these effects were not always negative. In fact, seedlings showed a compensatory physiological response to P. cinnamomi infection by increasing their net photosynthetic rates. Our results also supported important interactive effects of pathogens and soil moisture on belowground performance. Thus, the inoculum density in the soil required to cause significant root damage in experimental seedlings decreased as soil moisture increased. From a climate change perspective, these results suggest that an average drier climate might imply sub-optimal conditions for P. cinnamomi infections allowing for a slower advance of the disease in invaded areas. However, this effect will be modulated by the also predicted more frequent extreme climatic events. A higher frequency of extreme rain events that saturate the soil might be particularly beneficial for P. cinnamomi, boosting its soil density beyond any possible response capacity of susceptible hosts. © 2019 This study was funded by the MICINN project INTERCAPA ( CGL2014-56739-R ). P.H. was supported by a FPI-MICINN grant, L.M. by an “Acción 6 UJA” fellowship (EI_RNM4_2017), O.G. by a Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement ( No 661118-BioFUNC ), and I.M.P.R by a “Ramón & Cajal” contract ( RYC-2013-13937 ). 8 páginas.- 5 figuras.- 2 tablas.- 60 referencias Peer reviewed

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    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Olli Niskanen; Antti Iho; Leena Kalliovirta;

    Livestock production in developed countries has undergone profound changes in recent decades and this development seems to continue apace. One consequence is that manure is being - and will be - produced on fewer but larger farms. Data on the bulk of manure nutrients from each country are published by Eurostat, but it is not known how manure is distributed across farms of different sizes. This study 1) puts forward an estimate of the distribution of main manure nutrients between farms of different sizes, 2) estimates how this distribution will change in the near future and 3) discusses the land use effects of this development. Results suggest that by the year 2030 farms housing > 500 livestock units will produce more than two-thirds of all manure phosphorus, whereas the proportion in 2010 was one-third. With the Nitrates Directive limiting the use of organic nitrate of manure, growing farms need to acquire, or conclude contracts for the use of, 4.9 million hectares from exiting farms or the open market in order to comply with manure spreading requirements. This shift will involve 64% of the total spreading area of 2010 and 15% of the total utilized agricultural area of the regions studied. In light of these predictions, international nutrient policies should consider the evolution of farm structure in general and manure phosphorus agglomeration in particular. Also salient is improved co-operation beyond the single farm level to ensure the functionality of crop-livestock systems. Peer reviewed

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    Agricultural Systems
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Agricultural Systems
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Leon T. Hauser; Jean-Baptiste Féret; Nguyen An Binh; Niels van der Windt; +4 Authors

    Large-scale high-resolution satellite observations of plant functional diversity patterns will greatly benefit our ability to study ecosystem functioning. Here, we demonstrate a potentially scalable approach that uses aggregate plant traits estimated from radiative transfer model (RTM) inversion of Sentinel-2 satellite images to calculate community patterns of plant functional diversity. Trait retrieval relied on simulations and Look-up Tables (LUTs) generated by a RTM rather than heavily depending on a priori field data and data-driven statistical learning. This independence from in-situ training data benefits its scalability as relevant field data remains scarce and difficult to acquire. We ran a total of three different inversion algorithms that are representative of commonly applied approaches and we used two different metrics to calculate functional diversity. In tandem with Sentinel-2 image-based estimation of plant traits, we measured Leaf Area Index (LAI), leaf Chlorophyll content (CAB), and Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) in-situ in a (semi-)natural heterogeneous landscape (Montesinho region) located in northern Portugal. Sampling plots were scaled and georeferenced to match the satellite observed pixels and thereby allowed for a direct one-to-one posterior ground truth validation of individual traits and functional diversity. Across approaches, we observe a reasonable correspondence between the satellite-based retrievals and the insitu observations in terms of the relative distribution of individual trait means and plant functional diversity across locations despite the heterogeneity of the landscape and canopies. The functional diversity estimates, based on a combination of canopy and leaf traits, were robust against estimation biases in trait means. Particularly, the convex hull volume estimate of functional diversity showed strong concordance with in-situ observations across all three inversion methods (Spearman's rho: 0.67-0.80). The remotely sensed estimates of functional diversity also related to in-situ taxonomic diversity (Spearman's rho: 0.55-0.63). Our work highlights the potential and challenges of RTM-based functional diversity metrics to study spatial community-level ecological patterns using currently operational and publicly available Sentinel-2 imagery. While further validation and assessment across different ecosystems and larger datasets are needed, the study contributes towards a further maturation of scalable, spatially, and temporally explicit methods for functional diversity assessments from space. The authors would like to acknowledge Christian Rossi, Prof. Geof-frey M. Henebry, and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. This work was supported financially by the Ecology Fund of the RoyalNetherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (‘KNAW Fonds Ecologie’; KNAWWF/807/19011). We thank Altino Geraldes, Joao Carlos Aze-vedo, and the local farmers and foresters in the Montesinho-Nogueira Natura 2000 site for their help and collaboration. We thank Emilie Didaskalou for her lab assistance. J.-B. F ́eret acknowledges financial support from Agence Nationale de la Recherche (BioCop project—ANR- 17-32CE-0001).

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    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Jaime Martínez-Valderrama; Emilio Guirado; Fernando T. Maestre;

    From its origins, the concept of desertification has been controversial. The prevailing confusion between two desertification visions, one that considers it as the expansion of deserts and another that emphasizes its anthropogenic component, has been transferred to society. Here we illustrate misunderstandings about desertification using a very illustrative case from the Tabernas-Sorbas Basin (Almeria, Spain), where striking badlands that are often used as an image of desertification coexist with an intensive olive agriculture that is irreversibly deteriorating the only oasis in continental Europe (Los Molinos spring). The olive tree is a traditional Mediterranean dryland crop and until the 1950s only about 200 ha were irrigated in this area. However, the profitability of the crop has caused irrigation to expand to 4400 ha in the last two decades. The process of intensification has been reinforced giving way to super-intensive irrigation, which involves going from 210 to 1550 trees/ha, which in a few years already occupies more than 1500 ha. The effects on the water balance of the aquifer feeding these crops have been severe, and the flow of the Los Molinos spring has gone from more than 40 L/s for the period 1970–2000 to the current 7.28 L/s. Unraveling the mechanisms of land degradation and its main drivers are the first step to propose management actions to achieve a more sustainable use of resources and to combat desertification. This research was funded by the European Research Council grant agreement nº 647038 (BIODESERT). FTM acknowledges support from Generalitat Valenciana (CIDEGENT/2018/041).

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    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Anna Smetanova; Stéphane Follain; Mélodie David; Rossano Ciampalini; +3 Authors

    International audience; Soil erosion is the primary process driving land degradation. Using multiple scales of management to minimize soil erosion is crucial to achieve land degradation neutrality targets within the Sustainable Development Goals agenda. Land management (LM) influences both on-site and off-site erosion on the event-scale and over the long-term. However, each LM differs in effectiveness depending on the temporal scale considered. In order to understand how LM effects internal and external catchment dynamics, we apply LandSoil, a physically based landscape evolution model, to evaluate 7 LM scenarios over long- (30 years) and short-terms (event scale). LM scenarios included changes in land use and/or landscape structure. Under current LM, mean surface soil erosion was similar to 0.69 +/- 39.10(-3) m over 30 years. In contrast, a single extreme event (435 mm/24 h) in January resulted in similar to 0.62 +/- 3.10(-3) In loss and similar to 0.04 +/- 2.10(-3) m if it occurred in October. Heterogeneous patterns of erosion and deposition developed after 30 years, whereas extreme events dominantly showed soil loss and high catchment connectivity. Effectiveness of LM in erosion mitigation and sediment trapping differed according to temporal and spatial scales for each scenario. We concluded that multiple temporal and spatial scales must be incorporated in order to adaptively manage land degradation and meet neutrality targets.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Journal of Environmental Management
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    Journal of Environmental Management
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2019
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      Journal of Environmental Management
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      Journal of Environmental Management
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    Authors: Arnould, Maxence; Morel, Laure; Fournier, Meriem;

    International audience; In Europe, 60% of the forest area is privately owned, with a significant proportion of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) being highly fragmented with, in particular, low intensity forest management. Numerous typologies have therefore been developed to provide detailed guidance to policy makers for the design of policy instruments to involve these owners in forest management approaches. However, these policy instruments fail to involve all categories of owners and there is no method made by and with people locally in charge of policy implementation to increase the commitment of NIPF owners. The main objective of this study is to adapt the persona method, which is a central user-centered design tool, to design typologies of NIPF owners as future users of policy instruments. We have designed our personas in the Vosges territory (France), in the context of the main French forest policy objective of increasing timber harvesting and NIPF sustainable management. Our results designed eight types of personas as well as a six-part composition of the persona sheet. The main interest is to provide a general methodology to forest policy and forest managers based on rigorous concepts of usercentered design processes and co-creation, to implement operational tools for NIFP management. Finally, both future developments and methodological limitations are discussed in a global research perspective.

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    Forest Policy and Economics
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Forest Policy and Economics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Forest Policy and Ec...arrow_drop_down
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      Forest Policy and Economics
      Article
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Forest Policy and Economics
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claudia Arndt; Tom Misselbrook; Andres Vega; Ricardo González-Quintero; +3 Authors

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. As NH3 is an indirect greenhouse gas, NH3 measurements are crucial to improving greenhouse gas emission inventory estimates. Moreover, NH3 emissions have wider implications for environmental and human health. Only a few studies have measured NH3 emissions from pastures in the tropics and subtropics and none has compared emissions to inventory estimates. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure NH3 emissions from dairy pastures in tropical and subtropical regions; (2) calculate NH3 emissions factors (EF) for each campaign; and (3) compare measured EF with those based on the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1, 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Tier 1, and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/European Environmental Agency (EMPE/EEA) Tier 2 inventory estimates. Pasture NH3 emissions were measured on 3 dairy farms in Costa Rica. On each dairy, NH3 emissions were measured twice during the wet season and once during the dry season using a micrometeorological integrated horizontal-flux mass-balance method. Emissions were measured from excreta (dung and urine) deposited by grazing cattle and the subsequent application of organic (slurry) or synthetic fertilizer (ammonium nitrate or urea). Measured EF for all campaigns [from grazing cattle excreta and any subsequent slurry or fertilizer application; 4.9 ± 0.9% of applied nitrogen (mean ± SE)] were similar to those of the EMEP/EEA Tier 2 approach (6.1 ± 0.9%; mean ± SE) and 4 times lower than 2006 IPCC and 2019 Refinement to 2006 IPCC Tier 1 default estimates (17.7 ± 1.4 and 18.2 ± 0.9%, respectively; mean ± SE). Measured EF for excreta deposited on pasture and excreta both deposited on pasture and slurry application [3.9 ± 2.1 and 4.2 ± 2.1% (mean ± 95% CI), respectively] were 5 times lower than default EF assumed by 2006 IPCC and 2019 Refinement to 2006 IPCC methodology (both 20 and 21%, respectively), whereas EMEP/EAA estimates were similar [6.0 and 4.6 ± 0.3% (mean ± 95% CI), respectively]. This suggests an overestimation of EF from excreta deposited on pasture and slurry applications in tropical and subtropical regions by IPCC methodologies. Furthermore, rainfall, which is not included as a parameter in the current EMEP/EEA Tier 2 methodology, appeared to reduce NH3 emissions, suggesting that accounting for this in the inventory methodologies could improve inventory estimates.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Dairy Sci...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Dairy Science; Rothamsted Repository
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Dairy Science
    Article
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Dairy Sci...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Dairy Science; Rothamsted Repository
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Dairy Science
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4,137 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja Szymczak; Achim Bräuning; Martin Häusser; Emilie Garel; +2 Authors

    Intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns of tree-ring cellulose from Pinus nigra subsp. laricio and Pinus pinaster along an elevation gradient can be divided into four distinct patterns ((1) high values in the beginning of the tree ring, declining trend afterwards; (2) low values in the beginning, increasing trend afterwards; (3) high values in the middle of the tree ring; (4) declining trend over the whole tree ring). These patterns reflect the dependency on local site conditions and different water sources. Intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose can serve as a proxy for past climate conditions at inter- or even intra-seasonal resolution. We explore the potential of these chronologies from pine trees (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire var Corsicana Hyl. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) growing on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, France, along an elevation gradient ranging from sea level to 1600 m asl. We developed high-resolution intra-annual oxygen isotope chronologies from tree-ring cellulose of eight trees from five sites along the elevation gradient. The analysis period covers the decade 2007–2016 for seven trees and the period 1987–2016 for one tree, respectively. The chronologies show a high variability between trees, sites, and years. We identified four different intra-annual oxygen isotope patterns which reflect the dependency of tree growth on different water sources (precipitation during the growing season vs. deeper soil water reservoirs) and climate conditions during the growth season. Trees at coastal sites have access to groundwater, while trees growing in high elevations mostly depend on precipitation during the growth season as water source. The different patterns can be attributed to the use of different water sources. The intra-annual chronology covering 30 years indicates an increasing frequency of dry-warm summers after 2007.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OPUS FAU - Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka; Aileen Carter; Donal O'Brien; Maeve Henchion; +2 Authors

    Abstract Milk and beef derived from pasture-based systems have been characterized by higher nutritional values and a lower environmental footprint than their equivalents obtained via indoor systems. However, intensification of pasture-based production can have adverse impacts on biodiversity and the environment. To date, studies on pro-environmental diversification options leading to improvement of environmental performance of pasture-based dairy and beef production have rarely been synthesized. The present study sought to review current on-farm pro-environmental measures with the potential for enhancing biodiversity status and/or reducing the environmental impacts of pasture-based agriculture. Literature on farmer attitudes toward these measures was also reviewed to identify potential obstacles and opportunities for transitioning to pro-environmental agriculture. A systematic search of published research from high-income island countries characterized by oceanic temperate climate with a high dependence on pasture-based agriculture—the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, was conducted. Thirty studies that assessed the impact of pro-environmental measures, eight ‘attitudinal’ studies of dairy and beef farmers and one study covering both aspects were identified. Inductive thematical analysis was subsequently undertaken. Environmentally sensitive management practices such as hedgerows and field margins management, mixed grazing (where two or more herbivorous animals graze the same land), rare livestock breeds, multispecies swards, organic farming and agroforestry were identified as primary themes studied under the auspices of pro-environmental diversification, while forestry, bioenergy crops and organic farming were the main themes identified within attitudinal research studies. Findings suggest that environmentally sensitive practices have varied effects on biodiversity. Mixed grazing was found to improve livestock production, while studies of organic farming reported multiple positive impacts on biodiversity and animal welfare. Effect of multispecies swards on methane emissions and urinary nitrogen extraction were found to be inconsistent. Attitudinal research suggests that the main barrier to implementing afforestation is its lack of attractiveness compared to ‘traditional’ farming and that organic farmer decisions regarding agricultural management practices might be less profit-oriented and influenced by ecological beliefs to a greater extent than decisions of conventional farmers. The results of this study confirm that pro-environmental diversification inherently encompasses multiple scientific disciplines; however, previous study designs and outcomes were found to be fragmented and narrowly focused. Considering the urgency and importance of climate and biodiversity crises, pro-environmental diversification of pasture-based dairy and beef production has rarely been holistically approached and remains understudied. The development of practical, sustainable solutions for farming based on circular economy and respect to nature and additional strategies to increase farmer and consumer environmental awareness should be prioritized by policymakers, advisory and scientific bodies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Arrow@TU Dublinarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Arrow@TU Dublin
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Arrow@TU Dublin
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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