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586 Research products

  • Rural Digital Europe
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Article
  • 14. Life underwater

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lefebvre, A.; Poisson Caillault, Emilie;

    International audience; As we move towards shipboard-underway and automated systems for monitoring water quality and assessing ecological status, there is a need to evaluate how effective the existing monitoring systems are, and how we could improve them. Considering the existing limitations for processing numerous and complex data series generated from automated systems, and because of processes involved in phytoplankton blooms, this paper proposes a data-driven evaluation of an unsupervised classifier to optimize the way we track phytoplankton, including harmful algal blooms (HABs), and to identify the main associated hydrological conditions. We used in situ data from a portable flow-through automatic measuring system coupled with a multi-fixed-wavelength fluorometer implemented in the eastern English Channel during a bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (high biomass, non-toxic HAB species). This combination of technologies allowed high resolution online hydrographical and biological measurements, including spectral fluorescence as a means of quantifying phytoplankton biomass and simplifying the phytoplankton community structure inference. An unsupervised spectral clustering method was applied to this multi-parameter high-resolution time series, which allowed discrimination under near real-time of 6 to 33 contrasting water masses based on their abiotic and biotic characteristics. In addition, areas subject to extreme events such as HABs could be precisely identified, so controlling factors or their direct and indirect effects could be hierarchized. Considering the benefits and limitations of such a strategy, future applications of such methods will be important in the context of implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nguyen Thanh Duc; Samuel Silverstein; Martin Wik; Patrick M. Crill; +2 Authors

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks of natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter all in one. In addition to automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device also utilized a low-cost carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and methane (CH4) sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. Each of the devices was equipped with an XBee module to enable local radio communication (DigiMesh network) for time synchronization and data readout at a server controller station on the lakeshore. The software of this server controller was operated on a lowcost computer (Raspberry Pi), which has a 3G connection for remote control and monitor functions from anywhere in the world. This study shows the potential of a low-cost automatic sensor network system for studying GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations. Funding Agencies|US National Science Foundation (NSF) (MacroSystems Biology, EF)National Science Foundation (NSF) [1241937]; US National Science Foundation (NSF) (Northern Ecosystems Research for Undergraduates program, NSF REU site EAR) [1063037]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [2012-00048, 2016-04829]; European Research Council (ERC)European Research Council (ERC) [725546]; VINNOVAVinnova [2015-03529]

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hydrology and Earth ...arrow_drop_down
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hydrology and Earth ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nima Pahlevan; Sandeep K. Chittimalli; Sundarabalan V. Balasubramanian; Vincenzo Vellucci;

    International audience; Sentinel-2 and Landsat data products when combined open opportunities for capturing the dynamics of nearshore coastal and inland waters at rates that have never been possible before. Recognizing the differences in their spectral and spatial sampling, to generate a seamless data record for global water quality monitoring, it is critical to quantify how well the derived data products agree under various atmospheric and aquatic conditions. This study provides an extensive quantitative assessment of how Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A/B equivalent data products compare and discusses implications on differences in downstream products generated via the SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS). These products include the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance (ρ t), the remote-sensing reflectance (R rs), as well as biogeochemical properties, such as the total suspended solids (TSS). The analyses are conducted a) for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A/B near-simultaneous nadir overpasses (n-SNO) and b) over several highly turbid/eutrophic inland/nearshore waters. Following the implementation of vicarious gains for Sentinel-2A, the n-SNO analyses indicated that Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A agree within ± 1% in ρ t and ± 5% in R rs products across the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Similar evaluations with preliminary vicarious gains for Sentinel-2B showed ± 2% in ρ t and ± 7% in R rs products. Considering Landsat-8-derived R rs products as a reference, we found < 5% difference in Sentinel-2A and-2B R rs products. Analyses of combined TSS and R rs time-series products over several aquatic systems further corroborated these results and demonstrated the remarkable value of combined products. Occasional negative retrievals of R rs products over hypereutrophic and highly turbid waters suggest the need for improvements in the atmospheric correction procedure to empower science/application community to fully explore Landsat-Sentinel-2 products. With very similar absolute radiometric observations and products, the science community should consider developments of suitable biogeochemical algorithms to maximize the utility of merged Landsat-Sentinel-2 products.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Remote Sensing of En...arrow_drop_down
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Cristina Schultz; Scott C. Doney; Judith Hauck; Maria T. Kavanaugh; +1 Authors

    AbstractThe ocean coastal‐shelf‐slope ecosystem west of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a biologically productive region that could potentially act as a large sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The duration of the sea‐ice season in the WAP shows large interannual variability. However, quantifying the mechanisms by which sea ice impacts biological productivity and surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) remains a challenge due to the lack of data early in the phytoplankton growth season. In this study, we implemented a circulation, sea‐ice, and biogeochemistry model (MITgcm‐REcoM2) to study the effect of sea ice on phytoplankton blooms and surface DIC. Results were compared with satellite sea‐ice and ocean color, and research ship surveys from the Palmer Long‐Term Ecological Research (LTER) program. The simulations suggest that the annual sea‐ice cycle has an important role in the seasonal DIC drawdown. In years of early sea‐ice retreat, there is a longer growth season leading to larger seasonally integrated net primary production (NPP). Part of the biological uptake of DIC by phytoplankton, however, is counteracted by increased oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. Despite lower seasonal NPP, years of late sea‐ice retreat show larger DIC drawdown, attributed to lower air‐sea CO2 fluxes and increased dilution by sea‐ice melt. The role of dissolved iron and iron limitation on WAP phytoplankton also remains a challenge due to the lack of data. The model results suggest sediments and glacial meltwater are the main sources in the coastal and shelf regions, with sediments being more influential in the northern coast.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar...
    Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar...
      Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article
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    Authors: Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/

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    PLoS ONE
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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      PLoS ONE
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    Authors: Alexandre Supply; Jacqueline Boutin; Jean-Luc Vergely; Nicolas Kolodziejczyk; +3 Authors

    &lt;p&gt;Since 2010, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission monitors the earth emission at L-Band, providing the longest time series of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) from space over the global ocean. However, retrieving SSS at high latitudes with a reasonable accuracy remains challenging, in particular due to the low sensitivity of L-Band radiometric measurements to SSS in cold waters and to the contamination of SMOS measurements by the vicinity of continents and sea ice as well as the presence of Radio Frequency Interferences.&amp;#160;In this paper, we assess the quality of weekly SSS fields derived from swath-ordered instantaneous SMOS SSS (so called Level 2) distributed by the European Space Agency. These products are filtered according to new criteria. We use&amp;#160;the pseudo-dielectric constant retrieved from SMOS brightness temperatures to filter SSS pixels polluted by sea ice. We identify that the dielectric constant model and the sea surface temperature auxiliary parameter&amp;#160;used as prior information in the SMOS SSS retrieval&amp;#160;are significant sources of uncertainty. We develop a novel correction methodology accordingly.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;SSS Standard deviation of differences (STDD) between weekly SMOS SSS and in-situ near surface salinity significantly decrease after applying the SSS correction, from 1.46 pss to 1.26 pss. The correlation between new SMOS SSS and in-situ near surface salinity reaches 0.94. SMOS estimates better capture SSS variability in the Arctic Ocean in comparison to TOPAZ reanalysis (STDD = 1.86&amp;#160;pss), particularly in river plumes fresher by about 10&amp;#160;pss than surrounding waters. Furthermore, comparisons with in-situ measurements ranging from 1 to 11 m depths identify huge vertical stratification in fresh regions. This emphasizes the need to consider in-situ salinity as close as possible to the sea surface when validating L-band radiometric SSS which are representative of the first top centimeter.&lt;/p&gt;

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    OceanRep
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      OceanRep
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
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    Authors: Mehrdad, Moshtaghi; Els, Knaeps; Sindy, Sterckx; Shungudzemwoyo, Garaba; +1 Authors

    AbstractWhile at least 8 million tons of plastic litter are ending up in our oceans every year and research on marine litter detection is increasing, the spectral properties of wet as well as submerged plastics in natural marine environments are still largely unknown. Scientific evidence-based knowledge about these spectral characteristics has relevance especially to the research and development of future remote sensing technologies for plastic litter detection. In an effort to bridge this gap, we present one of the first studies about the hyperspectral reflectances of virgin and naturally weathered plastics submerged in water at varying suspended sediment concentrations and depth. We also conducted further analyses on the different polymer types such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polypropylene (PP), Polyester (PEST) and Low-density polyethylene (PE-LD) to better understand the effect of water absorption on their spectral reflectance. Results show the importance of using spectral wavebands in both the visible and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrum for litter detection, especially when plastics are wet or slightly submerged which is often the case in natural aquatic environments. Finally, we demonstrate in an example how to use the open access data set driven from this research as a reference for the development of marine litter detection algorithms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
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    Authors: Sarah Cryer; Filipa Carvalho; Terry Wood; James Asa Strong; +5 Authors

    The interface between land and sea is a key environment for biogeochemical carbon cycling, yet these dynamic environments are traditionally under sampled. Logistical limitations have historically precluded a comprehensive understanding of coastal zone processes, including ocean acidification. Using sensors on autonomous platforms is a promising approach to enhance data collection in these environments. Here, we evaluate the use of an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), the C-Worker 4 (CW4), equipped with pH and pCO2 sensors and with the capacity to mount additional sensors for up to 10 other parameters, for the collection of high-resolution data in shallow coastal environments. We deployed the CW4 on two occasions in Belizean coastal waters for 2.5 and 4 days, demonstrating its capability for high-resolution spatial mapping of surface coastal biogeochemistry. This enabled the characterisation of small-scale variability and the identification of sources of low pH/high pCO2 waters as well as identifying potential controls on coastal pH. We demonstrated the capabilities of the CW4 in both pre-planned &ldquo operated mode. After documenting platform behaviour, we provide recommendations for further usage, such as the ideal mode of operation for better quality pH data, e.g., using constant speed. The CW4 has a high power supply capacity, which permits the deployment of multiple sensors sampling concurrently, a shallow draught, and is highly controllable and manoeuvrable. This makes it a highly suitable tool for observing and characterising the carbonate system alongside identifying potential drivers and controls in shallow coastal regions. mission mode and remote &ldquo autonomous&rdquo manually&rdquo

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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muñoz-Rojas, Jose; Pinto-Correia, Teresa; Napoleone, Claude;

    Abstract The Mediterranean (macro-)region is characterized by its unique bio-physical, socio-political, and cultural conditions when considered at the global scale. Nonetheless, at the same time this is an extremely heterogeneous and diverse region, as is reflected in the heterogeneous and dynamic mosaic of farm and land systems developed along a long history throughout which they have tightly adapted to the frequent scarcity and irregularity of natural resources. Such long-scale trajectory of adaptation has resulted in a wide range of traditional rural and peri-urban landscapes hosting a rich biodiversity and bearing multiple social and cultural values. Throughout recent history, and especially over the past two decades, Mediterranean farm and land use systems have been undergoing multiple transition processes, resulting in many current landscapes gradually becoming more homogeneous and intensified, whilst others are being abandoned. It has now become self-evident that both trajectories of change are evolving at unequal rates and scales across the region. This process too frequently leads to the degradation of the valuable cultural, social, territorial and natural capital of the region. This demands urgent and innovative initiatives, either private, public or mixed, that are effective to reverse current trends of degradation, and move towards higher degrees of sustainability and resilience. The aim of this Special Issue is to synthesize and critically review key elements current research on farm and land system dynamics in the Mediterranean region, and to discuss land use management and governance frameworks in place at multiple spatial-temporal scales and institutional levels to foster increased sustainability and resilience. Papers in this SI address historic and envisaged future changes in the region, focusing on the complexity of interactions at the farm and landscape levels. Furthermore, papers in the SI also address the role and interactions with non-farming-related land uses (i.e. urban and/or conservation). The SI covers key contexts, conceptual frameworks, challenges, approaches, methods and alternatives in place to provide with a picture of the current situation and, more importantly, of likely potential pathways for the future improvements. The need for further integration across scales, methods and approaches is finally acknowledged.

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    Land Use Policy
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hongyan Xi; Svetlana N. Losa; Antoine Mangin; Mariana Altenburg Soppa; +5 Authors

    This study presents an algorithm for globally retrieving chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) from multi-sensor merged ocean color (OC) products or Sentinel-3A (S3) Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) data from the GlobColour archive in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The retrieved PFTs include diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, green algae and prokaryotic phytoplankton. A previously proposed method to retrieve various phytoplankton pigments, based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF), is investigated and adapted to retrieve Chl-a concentrations of multiple PFTs using extensive global data sets of in situ pigment measurements and matchups with satellite OC products. The performance of the EOF-based approach is assessed and cross-validated statistically. The retrieved PFTs are compared with those derived from diagnostic pigment analysis (DPA) based on in situ pigment measurements. Results show that the approach predicts well Chl-a concentrations of most of the mentioned PFTs. The performance of the approach is, however, less accurate for prokaryotes, possibly due to their general low variability and small concentration range resulting in a weak signal which is extracted from the reflectance data and corresponding EOF modes. As a demonstration of the approach utilization, the EOF-based fitted models based on satellite reflectance products at nine bands are applied to the monthly GlobColour merged products. Climatological characteristics of the PFTs are also evaluated based on ten years of merged products (2002−2012) through inter-comparisons with other existing satellite derived products on phytoplankton composition including phytoplankton size class (PSC), SynSenPFT, OC-PFT and PHYSAT. Inter-comparisons indicate that most PFTs retrieved by our study agree well with previous corresponding PFT/PSC products, except that prokaryotes show higher Chl-a concentration in low latitudes. PFT dominance derived from our products is in general well consistent with the PHYSAT product. A preliminary experiment of the retrieval algorithm using eleven OLCI bands is applied to monthly OLCI products, showing comparable PFT distributions with those from the merged products, though the matchup data for OLCI are limited both in number and coverage. This study is to ultimately deliver satellite global PFT products for long-term continuous observation, which will be updated timely with upcoming OC data, for a comprehensive understanding of the variability of phytoplankton composition structure at a global or regional scale.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Remote Sensing of Environment
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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586 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lefebvre, A.; Poisson Caillault, Emilie;

    International audience; As we move towards shipboard-underway and automated systems for monitoring water quality and assessing ecological status, there is a need to evaluate how effective the existing monitoring systems are, and how we could improve them. Considering the existing limitations for processing numerous and complex data series generated from automated systems, and because of processes involved in phytoplankton blooms, this paper proposes a data-driven evaluation of an unsupervised classifier to optimize the way we track phytoplankton, including harmful algal blooms (HABs), and to identify the main associated hydrological conditions. We used in situ data from a portable flow-through automatic measuring system coupled with a multi-fixed-wavelength fluorometer implemented in the eastern English Channel during a bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (high biomass, non-toxic HAB species). This combination of technologies allowed high resolution online hydrographical and biological measurements, including spectral fluorescence as a means of quantifying phytoplankton biomass and simplifying the phytoplankton community structure inference. An unsupervised spectral clustering method was applied to this multi-parameter high-resolution time series, which allowed discrimination under near real-time of 6 to 33 contrasting water masses based on their abiotic and biotic characteristics. In addition, areas subject to extreme events such as HABs could be precisely identified, so controlling factors or their direct and indirect effects could be hierarchized. Considering the benefits and limitations of such a strategy, future applications of such methods will be important in the context of implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nguyen Thanh Duc; Samuel Silverstein; Martin Wik; Patrick M. Crill; +2 Authors

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks of natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter all in one. In addition to automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device also utilized a low-cost carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and methane (CH4) sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. Each of the devices was equipped with an XBee module to enable local radio communication (DigiMesh network) for time synchronization and data readout at a server controller station on the lakeshore. The software of this server controller was operated on a lowcost computer (Raspberry Pi), which has a 3G connection for remote control and monitor functions from anywhere in the world. This study shows the potential of a low-cost automatic sensor network system for studying GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations. Funding Agencies|US National Science Foundation (NSF) (MacroSystems Biology, EF)National Science Foundation (NSF) [1241937]; US National Science Foundation (NSF) (Northern Ecosystems Research for Undergraduates program, NSF REU site EAR) [1063037]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [2012-00048, 2016-04829]; European Research Council (ERC)European Research Council (ERC) [725546]; VINNOVAVinnova [2015-03529]

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